Slide projector

A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides.

35 mm slide projectors, direct descendants of the larger-format magic lantern, first came into widespread use during the 1950s as a form of occasional home entertainment; family members and friends would gather to view slide shows. Reversal film was much in use, and supplied slides snapped during vacations and at family events. Slide projectors were also widely used in educational and other institutional settings.

Photographic film slides and projectors have mostly been replaced by image files on digital storage media shown on a projection screen by using a video projector or simply displayed on a large-screen video monitor.

Magic Lantern
Christiaan Huygens's magic lantern was the earliest/oldest form of slide projector.
Projecteur de diapositives Prestinox début des années 1960
A 1960 slide projector
Diaprojektor beleuchtungssystem IMGP1044
Light path


Continuous-Slide Lantern
Continuous-Slide Lantern, ca. 1881

A continuous-slide lantern was patented in 1881.[1] It included a dissolving-view apparatus. [2]


A projector has four main elements:

  • electric incandescent light bulb or other light source (usually fan-cooled)
  • reflector and "condensing" lens to direct the light to the slide
  • slide holder
  • focusing lens

A flat piece of heat-absorbing glass is often placed in the light path between the condensing lens and the slide, to avoid damaging the latter. This glass transmits visible wavelengths but absorbs infrared. Light passes through the transparent slide and lens, and the resulting image is enlarged and projected onto a perpendicular flat screen so the audience can view its reflection. Alternatively, the image may be projected onto a translucent "rear projection" screen, often used for continuous automatic display for close viewing. This form of projection also avoids the audience interrupting the light stream by casting their shadows on the projection or by bumping into the projector.


  • Straight-tray slide projectors
  • Round-tray slide projectors
  • Stack-loader slide projectors
  • Slide cube projectors
  • Dual slide projectors
  • Single slide projectors (manual form)
  • Dissolve projectors
  • Viewer slide projectors
  • Stereo slide projectors project two slides simultaneously with different polarizations, making slides appear as three-dimensional to viewers wearing polarizing glasses
  • Medium-format slide projectors
  • Large-format slide projectors for use on stages, at large events, or for architectural and advertising installations where high light output is needed.
  • Overhead projectors


List of known manufacturers of slide projectors:

  • Agfa Gevaert, Germany (–1984) → Reflecta (1984–)
  • Bauer, Germany → Bosch; ceased production
  • Bausch & Lomb; ceased production
  • Bell & Howell / TDC, US: "Headliner"; ceased production
  • Braun AG, Germany: "D", "PA"; ceased production
  • Braun Foto Technik, Germany: "Paximat", "Multimag" → Reflecta
  • VEB DEFA, Germany: "Filius"→ VEB Gerätewerk Friedrichshagen: "Filius"; ceased production
  • Eastman Kodak (–2004): "Carousel-S", "Ektagraphic", "Ektapro" → Leica
  • Elmo, Japan
  • Enna, Germany; ceased production
  • Erno Photo, Germany; ceased production
  • VEB Feinmess, Germany; ceased production
  • Filmoli, Germany → Gebr. Martin, Germany; ceased production
  • Foto Quelle, Germany: "Revue"; ceased distribution
  • GAF, US; ceased distribution
  • Götschmann, Germany (1978–2009) → Gecko-Cam (2009–)
  • Hasselblad, Sweden; ceased production
  • HASPE, Germany; ceased production
  • Hähnel, Germany; ceased production
  • Inox, France: "Prestige" → Prestinox
  • Kindermann, Germany: "Diafocus" → Leica
  • Leitz, Germany (1958–): "Prado" → Leica Projektion GmbH Zett Gerätewerk, Germany (1990–2004): "Pradovit", "Pradovit RT" → Leica Camera, Germany (2004–2006): "Pradovit"; ceased production
  • Liesegang, Germany: "Fantax", "Diafant", "Fantimat"; ceased production
  • Malinski, Germany: "Prokyon", "Malicolor" → Pentacon
  • Minolta, Japan; ceased production
  • Minox, Germany: "Minomat"; ceased production
  • Navitar, US
  • Nikon, Japan; ceased production
  • Ernst Plank, Germany: "Noris", "Trumpf"; ceased production
  • Pentacon, Germany: "Aspectar", "Malicolor"; ceased production
  • Asahi Pentax, Japan; ceased production
  • Prestinox, France → Plawa Condor (1969–?); ceased production
  • Pouva, Germany; ceased production
  • RBT, Germany
  • Queen, Germany: "Automat"; ceased distribution
  • Reflecta, Germany: "Multimag"
  • Rollei, Germany (1960–2007): "Rolleiscop", "Rolleivision" → Franke & Heidecke, Germany (2007–2009): "Rolleivision" → DHW Fototechnik, Germany (2009–2015): "Rolleivision"; ceased production
  • Royal, Germany?; ceased distribution
  • Sankyo, Japan; ceased production
  • Sawyer's, US; company sold to GAF
  • Silma, Italy → Bauer and Rollei; ceased production
  • TAV Simda
  • Vicom
  • Vivitar, US
  • Voigtländer, Germany: "Perkeo" → Zett
  • Zeiss Ikon, Germany (1964/1969–): "Ikolux" → Zett
  • Zeiss Jena, Germany → Pentacon, Germany
  • Zett, Germany (1928–1989): "Fafix", "Zett", "Zettomat", "Perkeo" → Leica Projektion GmbH Zett Gerätewerk, Germany (1990–2004)
  • CBИTЯ3ъ, Russia: "ABTO"; ceased production

See also

In cinematography

  • The Slide Projector Web Series


  1. ^ The Canadian Patent Office Record and Mechanics' Magazine, Volume 9. 1881.
  2. ^ Sloane, T. O'Conor. Facts Worth Knowing Selected Mainly from the Scientific American for Household, Workshop, and Farm Embracing Practical and Useful Information for Every Branch of Industry. Hartford: S. S. Scranton & Co. 1895.

An addressograph is an address labeler and labeling system.

In 1896, the first U.S. patent for an addressing machine, the Addressograph was issued to Joseph Smith Duncan of Sioux City, Iowa. It was a development of the invention he had made in 1892. His earlier model consisted of a hexagonal wood block onto which he glued rubber type which had been torn from rubber stamps. While revolving, the block simultaneously inked the next name and address ready for the next impression. The "Baby O" model was put into production on the July 26, 1893, in a small back room of the old Caxton Building in Chicago, Illinois.The original company which manufactured the Addressograph, Addressograph International, merged in 1932 with American Multigraph of Cleveland, Ohio, to form the Addressograph-Multigraph Corporation manufacturing highly efficient addressograph and duplicating machines. In 1978 the corporate headquarters moved from Cleveland to Los Angeles, California, and the corporation name changed in 1979 to AM International. In 1982, the firm filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11.An Addressograph system of the 1960s was essentially a Graphotype debossing machine for preparing address plates, a cassette-style plate feeder, a heavy-duty, rapidly moving inked ribbon, a platten for hand-feeding the mail piece, and a foot pedal for stamping the address. The individual steel address plates were inserted into card-sized frames which had a series of slots along the top where colored metal flags could also be inserted for sorting purposes. The plate assemblies were placed in steel cassettes resembling library card catalogue drawers, which were manually inserted into the machine. At the press of the foot pedal the plate assemblies were swapped in sequence in a similar fashion to a slide projector, placing an impression of the raised type onto the mail piece.

Addressograph was one of the comparator companies in the book Good to Great.

An Addressograph was used by the artist Jean Tinguely in his famous Homage to New York (1960) machine performance.

Braun (disambiguation)

Braun (German for "brown") may refer to:

Braun, surname of German origin

Braun (company), a German electronics and appliance company

B. Braun Melsungen, a German medical supplies and drugs company

Braun's Fashions, the former name of clothing retailer Christopher & Banks

Carl Braun Camera-Werk (new name Braun Photo Technik GmbH), German electronics, slide projector and camera maker

Braun Racing, a NASCAR team

C. F. Braun, an American engineering company, designed petroleum and chemical processing facilities; acquired by KBR

Carousel slide projector

A carousel slide projector is a slide projector that uses a rotary tray to store slides, used to project slide photographs and to create slideshows. It was first patented on May 11, 1965, by David E. Hansen of Fairport, NY. Hansen was an engineer at the Eastman Kodak Company. A patent for the rotary tray was granted in 1966 after a 1962 application by the Eastman Kodak Company.The original concept for the carousel slide projector is credited to Italian-American Louis Misuraca, who brought his design to the Kodak company, and sold it for a lump sum. Kodak released their first Carousel projector, the Model 550, in 1961 and sold it until 1966. The 1963 Carousel Model S (Carousel-S), a professional model sold only in Germany, was designed by Hans Gugelot and Reinhold Häcker for Kodak AG in Stuttgart and is in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art.

Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight

Ellipsoidal reflector light (abbreviated to ERS, or colloquially ellipsoidal or ellipse) is the name for a type of stage lighting instrument, named for the ellipsoidal reflector used to collect and direct the light through a barrel that contains a lens or lens train. The optics of an ERS instrument are roughly similar to those of a 35 mm slide projector. There are many types of ERS that are designed for the myriad applications found in the entertainment industry. ERS instruments come in all shapes and sizes. Each particular model of ERS has its own set of characteristics. Generally, ERS instruments are the most varied and utilized type of stage lighting instrument. ERS may also be referred to as Profile Spotlights (especially in Europe) because the beam can be shaped to the profile of an object. Ellipsoidal reflectors are used for their strong, well-defined light and their versatility. Leko and Source Four are brand names which are often, but inaccurately, used to refer to any sort of ellipsoidal.

Characteristics of a typical ellipsoidal lighting unit include:

An ellipsoidal reflector

An adjustable lens tube containing the lens or lens train. Adjusting the tube by pushing it further in or pulling it further out of the unit allows changes to the focus (softness or hardness) of the beam of light projected by the unit. This results from changing the distance between the reflector and the lens train. "Zoom" ERS instruments can vary the size of beam as well as the focus

One or two Plano-Convex (PC for short) lenses within the lens tube to create the lens train. The Plano-Convex lenses, named for having one flat side and one convex (bowed out) side, have their convex sides facing each other within the tube. The distance between these lenses and the distance between them and the reflector determines how wide the output beam of light is

A set of brackets on the end of the lens tube for the insertion of gel frames, a color changing unit or any variety of accessories. Most modern units include two slots that allow for combining different accessories

A series of four shutters mounted at the internal focal point (the place where the varying angles of light coming off the reflector meet) of the unit. These allow for precise shaping and sizing of the unit's beam as lines. Additionally, an iris may be present to size the beam circularly.

A slot in the body of the unit for the insertion of metal gobos to change the pattern of the light in most cases is present, this slot can also hold a glass gobo, dichroic colour roundel or an effects unit such as a gobo rotator or irisThe lamps are loaded from the rear (in most cases), and either mounted axially, or radially with the base either up or down (the orientation is important when mounting the instrument as using the light upside down will shorten lamp life) at a 45-degree angle or some times at a 90 degree angle. The filament of the lamp is at one focal point of the ellipsoidal reflector and the gate with the shutters and gobo are at the other focal point.

Film projector (disambiguation)

A film projector or movie projector is a device used for projection of moving images from film.

Film projector may also refer to:

Slide projector for projection of still images from film

LCD projector

An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead projector. To display images, LCD (liquid-crystal display) projectors typically send light from a metal-halide lamp through a prism or series of dichroic filters that separates light to three polysilicon panels – one each for the red, green and blue components of the video signal. As polarized light passes through the panels (combination of polarizer, LCD panel and analyzer), individual pixels can be opened to allow light to pass or closed to block the light. The combination of open and closed pixels can produce a wide range of colors and shades in the projected image.

Metal-halide lamps are used because they output an ideal color temperature and a broad spectrum of color. These lamps also have the ability to produce an extremely large amount of light within a small area; current projectors average about 2,000 to 15,000 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) lumens. Other technologies, such as Digital Light Processing (DLP) and liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) are also becoming more popular in modestly priced video projection.

Large-format slide projector

A large-format slide projector (also often called large-format projector or large-image projector) is a kind of slide projector for large image projection which has a very powerful light source (up to 12 thousand watts using arc lamps). Therefore, it is necessary to use a large slide format to protect the slide material from overheating during the projection process (even when the light is filtered to only visible light and the slide is cooled with strong slide cooling fans). Slide formats include 18 × 18 cm (7.1 × 7.1") or 24 × 24 cm (9.4 × 9.4").


Multi-image is the now largely obsolete practice and business of using 35mm slides (diapositives) projected by single or multiple slide projectors onto one or more screens in synchronization with an audio voice-over or music track. Multi-image productions are also known as multi-image slide presentations, slide shows and diaporamas and are a specific form of multimedia or audio-visual production.

One of the hallmarks of multi-image was the use of the wide screen panorama. Precisely overlapping slides were placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks; when the resulting images were projected, the images would blend seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. By cutting and dissolving between images in the projectors, animation effects were created in the panorama format.

The term multi-image is sometimes used to describe digital photo image computer programs that combine or change images on-screen, for photo montages, and image stitching.

Negative (photography)

In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest. This reversed order occurs because the extremely light-sensitive chemicals a camera film must use to capture an image quickly enough for ordinary picture-taking are darkened, rather than bleached, by exposure to light and subsequent photographic processing.

In the case of color negatives, the colors are also reversed into their respective complementary colors. Typical color negatives have an overall dull orange tint due to an automatic color-masking feature that ultimately results in improved color reproduction.

Negatives are normally used to make positive prints on photographic paper by projecting the negative onto the paper with a photographic enlarger or making a contact print. The paper is also darkened in proportion to its exposure to light, so a second reversal results which restores light and dark to their normal order.

Negatives were once commonly made on a thin sheet of glass rather than a plastic film, and some of the earliest negatives were made on paper.

It is incorrect to call an image a negative solely because it is on a transparent material. Transparent prints can be made by printing a negative onto special positive film, as is done to make traditional motion picture film prints for use in theaters. Some films used in cameras are designed to be developed by reversal processing, which produces the final positive, instead of a negative, on the original film. Positives on film or glass are known as transparencies or diapositives, and if mounted in small frames designed for use in a slide projector or magnifying viewer they are commonly called slides.

Overhead projector

An overhead projector (OHP) is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience..

Presentation slide

A PowerPoint presentation is a group of various slides .A slide is nothing but an electronic page in a presentation.Slides can be printed or can be displayed on screen.It includes text, graphs,movies etc.Collectively, a group of slides may be known as a slide deck. A slide show is an exposition of a series of slides or images in an electronic device or in a projection screen.

Before the advent of the personal computer, a presentation slide could be a 35 mm slide viewed with a slide projector or a transparency viewed with an overhead projector.

In the digital age, a slide most commonly refers to a single page developed using a presentation program such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, Apache OpenOffice or LibreOffice. It is also possible to create them with a document markup language, for instance with the LaTeX class Beamer.

Lecture notes in slide format are referred to as lecture slides, frequently downloadable by students in .ppt or .pdf format.

Projective texture mapping

Projective texture mapping is a method of texture mapping that allows a textured image to be projected onto a scene as if by a slide projector. Projective texture mapping is useful in a variety of lighting techniques and it is the starting point for shadow mapping.

Projective texture mapping is essentially a special matrix transformation which is performed per-vertex and then linearly interpolated as standard texture mapping.

Reversal film

In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base. The film is processed to produce transparencies or diapositives (abbreviated as "diafilm" in many countries) instead of negatives and prints. Reversal film is produced in various sizes, from 35 mm roll film to 8×10 inch sheet film.

A slide is a specially mounted individual transparency intended for projection onto a screen using a slide projector. This allows the photograph to be viewed by a large audience at once. The most common form is the 35 mm slide, with the image framed in a 2×2 inch cardboard or plastic mount. Some specialized labs produce photographic slides from digital camera images in formats such as JPEG, from computer-generated presentation graphics, and from a wide variety of physical source material such as fingerprints, microscopic sections, paper documents, astronomical images, etc.

Reversal film is sometimes used as motion picture film, mostly in the 16 mm, Super 8 and 8 mm "cine" formats, to yield a positive image on the camera original. This avoids the expense of using negative film, which requires additional film and processing to create a positive film print for projection.

Slide show

A slide show is a presentation of a series of still images on a projection screen or electronic display device, typically in a prearranged sequence. The changes may be automatic and at regular intervals or they may be manually controlled by a presenter or the viewer. Slide shows originally consisted of a series of individual photographic slides projected onto a screen with a slide projector. When referring to the video or computer-based visual equivalent, in which the slides are not individual physical objects, the term is often written as one word, slideshow.A slide show may be a presentation of images purely for their own visual interest or artistic value, sometimes unaccompanied by description or text, or it may be used to clarify or reinforce information, ideas, comments, solutions or suggestions which are presented verbally. Slide shows are sometimes still conducted by a presenter using an apparatus such as a carousel slide projector or an overhead projector, but now the use of an electronic video display device and a computer running presentation software is typical.


A stepper is a device used in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) that is similar in operation to a slide projector or a photographic enlarger. The term "stepper" is short for step-and-repeat camera. Steppers are an essential part of the complex process, called photolithography, that creates millions of microscopic circuit elements on the surface of tiny chips of silicon. These chips form the heart of ICs such as computer processors, memory chips, and many other devices.


A stereopticon is a slide projector or "magic lantern", which has two lenses, usually one above the other.

These devices date back to the mid 19th century, and were a popular form of entertainment and education before the advent of moving pictures. Americans William and Frederick Langenheim introduced stereopticon slide technology—slide shows of projected images on glass—in 1850. For a usual fee of ten cents, people could view realistic images of nature, history, and science themes. The two lenses are used to dissolve between images when projected. At first, the shows used random images, but over time, lanternists began to place the slides in logical order, creating a narrative. This "visual storytelling" with technology directly preceded the development of the first moving pictures.The term stereopticon has been widely misused to name a stereoscope. A stereopticon will not project or display stereoscopic/three-dimensional images on cards. All stereopticons can be classified as magic lanterns, but not all magic lanterns are stereopticons.


A TELOP (TELevision OPtical Slide Projector) was the trademark name of a multifunction, four-channel "project-all" slide projector developed by the Gray Research & Development Company for Television usage, and was introduced in 1949. It was best remembered in the industry as an opaque slide projector for title cards.


Wintergatan (Swedish pronunciation: [²vɪntɛrˌɡɑːtan], Milky Way) is a Swedish folktronica band from Göteborg. Martin Molin and Marcus Sjöberg were previously part of the former band Detektivbyrån. The band uses a variety of unconventional instruments including the Theremin, the self-invented Modulin, a self-built punch-card music box, a slide projector, a Musical Saw, and a typewriter for use as percussion.

The band released their first track in late 2012 titled Sommarfågel, and released their debut album Wintergatan in 2013.The band's members all play various instruments but have various primary specializations. Martin Molin specializes in the vibraphone, Evelina Hägglund specializes in keyboard instruments, David Zandén specializes in bass, and Marcus Sjöberg specializes in drums.

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