Slender mongoose

The slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea), also known as the black-tipped mongoose or the black-tailed mongoose, is a very common species of mongoose of sub-Saharan Africa.[2]

Slender mongoose
2009-slender-mongoose
From Serengeti National Park
Scientific classification
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G. sanguinea
Binomial name
Galerella sanguinea
Rüppell, 1836
Slender Mongoose area
Slender mongoose range

Range and habitat

The slender mongoose, with up to fifty subspecies, are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with the black mongoose of Angola and Namibia sometimes considered a separate species. They are adaptable and can live nearly anywhere in this wide range, but are most common in the savannah and semiarid plains. They are much rarer in densely forested areas and deserts.

Description

Galerella sanguinea Zoo Praha 2011-2
Slender mongoose in the Prague Zoo, Czech Republic

As the name suggests, the slender mongoose has a lithe body of 27.5–40 cm (10.8–15.7 in) and a long tail of 23–33 cm (9–13 in). Males weigh 640–715 g (22.6–25.2 oz), while the smaller females weigh 460–575 g (16.2–20.3 oz).

The color of their fur varies widely between subspecies, from a dark reddish-brown to an orange red, grey, or even yellow, but these mongooses can be distinguished from other mongooses due to the prominent black or red tip on their tails. They also have silkier fur than the other African members of their family.

Behavior

The slender mongoose generally lives either alone or in pairs. It is primarily diurnal, although it is sometimes active on warm, moonlit nights. It doesn't seem to be territorial, but will nevertheless maintain stable home ranges that are often shared with members of related species. Indeed, the slender mongoose and these other species may even den together, as most of their relatives are nocturnal. Dens may be found anywhere sheltered from the elements: in crevices between rocks, in hollow logs, and the like.

Reproduction

A male's range will include the ranges of several females, and scent cues inform him when the female is in heat. The gestation period is believed to be 60 to 70 days, and most pregnancies result in one to three (usually two) young. The male does not help care for them. Unusually, for a solitary species, in the Kalahari the males are philopatric whereas the females disperse.[3] This is thought to be due to the benefits of kin cooperation by males in defence of females.

Feeding

The slender mongoose is primarily carnivorous, though it is an opportunistic omnivore. Insects make up the bulk of its diet, but lizards, rodents, snakes, birds, amphibians, and the occasional fruit are eaten when available. It will also eat carrion and eggs. As befits the popular image of mongooses, the slender mongoose is capable of killing and subsequently eating venomous snakes, but such snakes do not constitute a significant portion of its diet.

Slender mongooses are more adept at climbing trees than other mongooses, often hunting birds there.

Conservation

The slender mongoose has been targeted by extermination efforts in the past, due to its potential to be a rabies vector and the fact that it sometimes kills domestic poultry. These efforts have not been conspicuously successful, although some subspecies may be threatened.

Overall, the slender mongoose is in no immediate danger of extinction, and the IUCN Red List evaluated it as least concern.[4]

References

  1. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Herpestes sanguineus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 July 2014. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 565–566. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ Graw, B.; Lindholm, A.K.; Manser, M.B. (2016). "Female-biased dispersal in the solitarily foraging slender mongoose, Galerella sanguinea, in the Kalahari". Animal Behaviour. 111: 69–78. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.09.026.
  4. ^ "Herpestes sanguineus (Common Slender Mongoose, Slender Mongoose)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2017-09-17.

External links

Angolan slender mongoose

The Angolan slender mongoose (Galerella flavescens) is a mongoose that lives in southern Africa, specifically Angola and Namibia. It lives in the savannah and avoids desert and dense forests.

This animal has a long slim body and the males are around 15% bigger than the females. It has 38 teeth.

Males do not help in raising the young. The young open their eyes at 3 weeks and leave their mother at around 10 weeks and at 24 weeks get their adult teeth.

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Black mongoose

The black mongoose (Galerella nigrata) is a species of mongoose found in Namibia and Angola. Although originally described as a separate species by Thomas (1928), it was often been considered a subspecies of the slender mongoose. However, genetic analysis has confirmed its status as a separate species. Evidence suggests the two species diverged around four million years ago, likely due to some populations becoming separated as the habitat in southern Africa was changing. The black mongoose now occupies a distinct habitat in areas with large boulders and rocky outcrops known as inselbergs in the mountainous regions of northwest Namibia and southwest Angola. After remaining in these areas for millions of years, the black mongoose is highly specialized to survive in the harsh arid environment.

Catopuma

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the bay cat (C. badia) and the Asian golden cat (C. temminckii).

Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head. They inhabit forested environments in Southeast Asia. The bay cat is restricted to the island of Borneo. Originally thought to be two subspecies of the same animal, recent genetic analysis has confirmed they are, indeed, separate species.The two species diverged from one another 4.9-5.3 million years ago, long before Borneo separated from the neighboring islands. Their closest living relative is the marbled cat, from which the common ancestor of the genus Catopuma diverged around 9.4 million years ago.

Collared mongoose

The collared mongoose (Herpestes semitorquatus) is a species of mongoose in the family Herpestidae. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

Eupleres

Eupleres is a genus of two species of mongoose-like euplerid mammal native to Madagascar. They are primarily terrestrial and consume mainly invertebrates.

Ferret-badger

Ferret-badgers are the five species of the genus Melogale, which is the only genus of the monotypic mustelid subfamily Helictidinae.

Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)

Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)

Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)

Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)

Vietnam ferret-badger (Melogale cucphuongensis)

Galerella

Galerella is a genus of the mongoose family (Herpestidae) native to Africa and commonly called the slender mongooses.There are four or five species in this genus, with more than 30 subspecies.

Four of the species have long been established:

A recent addition is the black mongoose, Galerella nigrata, which now is considered a separate species by many scientists, following genetic analysis. It was previously seen as a variant of Galerella sanguinea.

Harold Johnson Nature Reserve

The Harold Johnson Nature Reserve is a small nature reserve (100 hectares (250 acres)) on the KwaZulu-Natal north coast. The reserve is administered by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and is on the southern bank of the Tugela River and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the river's mouth.Wildlife species include zebra, bushbuck, impala, blue, red duiker and grey duiker, vervet monkey, slender mongoose, white-tailed mongoose, banded mongoose and porcupine. Over 190 bird species have been observed in the reserve. One hundred and fourteen butterflies species have been recorded.

Two national monuments are located within the boundaries: Fort Pearson and the Ultimatum Tree. In 1879 the British presented an ultimatum to the Zulu nation at the Ultimatum Tree on the banks of the Tugela River; this ultimatum precipitated the Anglo Zulu War.

Indian brown mongoose

The Indian brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) looks similar to the short-tailed mongoose from Southeast Asia and is sometimes believed to be only a subspecies of this latter. The Indian brown mongoose is found in southwest India and Sri Lanka.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mongoose

Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species (all African) in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the species Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.

Six species in the family Eupleridae are endemic to the island of Madagascar. These are called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the family Herpestidae, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae since 2006.

Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, and Viverridae families.

Mustelinae

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).

Namaqua slender mongoose

The Namaqua slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea swalius), also known as the Namibian slender mongoose, is a subspecies of the slender mongoose. It is endemic to Namibia.

Narrow-striped mongoose

The narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata) is a member of the family Eupleridae, subfamily Galidiinae and endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the Madagascar dry deciduous forests of western and southwestern Madagascar, where it lives from sea level to about 125 m (410 ft) between the Tsiribihina and Mangoky rivers. In Malagasy it is called bokiboky (pronounced "Boo-ky Boo-ky").

Nyctereutes

Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Paradoxurus

Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Somalian slender mongoose

The Somalian slender mongoose (Galerella ochracea) is a small mammal found in Somalia and adjacent regions. It is a small to medium-sized carnivoran, averaging about 0.6 kg (1.3 lbs) in weight.

Zalophus

Zalophus is a genus of the family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) of order Carnivora. It includes these species, of which one became recently extinct:

Z. californianus: California sea lion

Z. japonicus: Japanese sea lion †

Z. wollebaeki: Galápagos sea lion

Extant Carnivora species

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