Slender-billed gull

The slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei) is a mid-sized gull which breeds very locally around the Mediterranean and the north of the western Indian Ocean (e.g. Pakistan) on islands and coastal lagoons. Most of the population is somewhat migratory, wintering further south to north Africa and India, and a few birds have wandered to western Europe. A stray individual was reportedly seen on Antigua, April 24, 1976 (AOU, 2000).

The genus name Chroicocephalus is from Ancient Greek khroizo, "to colour", and kephale, "head". The specific genei commemorates Italian naturalist Giuseppe Gené.[1]

Slender-billed gull
Larus genei
Saloum Delta, Senegal
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Laridae
Genus: Chroicocephalus
Species:
C. genei
Binomial name
Chroicocephalus genei
(Breme, 1839)
Synonyms

Larus genei

Breeding plumage
in Breeding plumage at Kutch

Description

This species is 37 to 40 cm (14.6 to 15.7 in) long with a 90 to 102 cm (35.4 to 40.2 in) wingspan. It is therefore slightly larger than the black-headed gull, which it resembles, although it does not have a black hood in summer. It has a pale grey body, white head and breast and black tips to the primary wing feathers. The head and dark red bill have an elongated tapering appearance, and this bird also appears long-necked. The legs are dark red, and the iris is yellow. In summer, the breast has a faint pink colouration. This bird takes two years to reach maturity, as is usual in gulls. First year immature birds have a black terminal tail band, and dark areas on the wings.[2]

Distribution and habitat

The slender-billed gull breeds in lagoons and lakes around the Mediterranean Sea and in similar locations in countries bordering the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean. In 2010 a successful colony was found breeding on an island in a mountain lake in Algeria. The lack of predators and disturbance allowed over 98% of the eggs to hatch.[3] It overwinters on the coast in estuaries and bays. It feeds in deltas, marshes and grassland. It is one of a number of species of gull to feed on landfill sites.[2]

Behaviour

Larus genei MWNH 0339
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

About half of the slender-billed gull's food is fish. It flies a few metres above the surface of the water and dives into the water when it sees suitable prey. It also probes in the mud with its beak and feeds on marine invertebrates. It also catches insects in flight.[2]

This rather uncommon gull breeds in colonies, nesting on the ground and laying up to three brown-spotted white eggs in a scrape sparsely lined with feathers and bits of vegetation. Incubation takes about 25 days and the young fly after another 25 days. Like most gulls, it is gregarious in winter, both when feeding and in evening roosts. It is not a pelagic species, and is rarely seen far from land.[2]

Status

The slender-billed gull is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

References

  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 104, 171. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  2. ^ a b c d "Larus genei: Slender-billed Gull" (in French). Oiseaux.net. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
  3. ^ Cherief-Boutera, N.; Bensaci, E.; Cherief, A.; Moali, A. (2013). "First confirmed breeding of the Slender-billed Gull Chroicocephalus genei in Algeria". Alauda. 81 (2): 85–90.
Andean gull

The Andean gull (Chroicocephalus serranus) is a species of gull in the family Laridae. As is the case with many gulls, it has traditionally been placed in the genus Larus.

It is found in the Andes in mountainous regions of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It is unusual for a gull in that it breeds inland in mountain areas. It may be variously found around rivers, freshwater lakes, saline marshes, and pastureland.

Bonaparte's gull

Bonaparte's gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia) is a member of the gull family Laridae found mainly in northern North America. At 28 to 38 cm (11 to 15 in) in length, it is one of the smallest species of gull. Its plumage is mainly white with grey upperparts. During breeding season, Bonaparte's gull gains a slate-grey hood. The sexes are similar in appearance.

Brown-hooded gull

The brown-hooded gull (Chroicocephalus maculipennis) is a species of gull found in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Falkland Islands, and Uruguay. Its specific epithet, maculipennis, means 'spotted wings' (macula + penna). It is a white bird with a brown head and red beak and feet.

Chroicocephalus

Chroicocephalus is a genus of medium to relatively small gulls which were included in the genus Larus until recently. Some authorities also include the Saunders's gull in Chroicocephalus. The genus name Chroicocephalus is from Ancient Greek khroizo, "to colour", and kephale, "head".Representatives of this genus are found in regions/subregions all over the world, each species usually being confined to a region.

Franklin's gull

The Franklin's gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) is a small (length 12.6–14.2 in, 32–36 cm) gull. The genus name Leucophaeus is from Ancient Greek leukos, "white", and phaios, "dusky". The specific pipixcan is a Nahuatl name for a type of gull.

Gelochelidon

Gelochelidon is a genus of terns. It was recently considered a monotypic genus, but the Australian tern was split from the gull-billed tern.

Giuseppe Gené

Carlo Giuseppe Gené (7 December 1800 – 14 July 1847) was an Italian naturalist and author.

Gené was born at Turbigo in Lombardy and studied at the University of Pavia. He published a number of papers on natural history, particularly entomology. In 1828 he became an assistant lecturer in natural history at the university, and in the following year he traveled to Hungary, returning with a collection of insect specimens. Between 1833 and 1838 he made four trips to Sardinia collecting insects.

In 1830 Gené succeeded Franco Andrea Bonelli as professor of zoology and director of the Royal Zoological Museum at Turin. Most of his insect collection is in the Turin Museum of Natural History. Duplicates are in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano and in Museo di storia naturale dell'Università di Pisa.

The slender-billed gull (Larus genei) was named after him.

Huahine gull

The Huahine gull (Chroicocephalus utunui), also known as the Society Islands gull, is an extinct bird, a species of gull of which subfossil bones were found at the Fa'ahia archeological site on Huahine, in the Society Islands of French Polynesia.

The site is an early Polynesian occupation site dating to between 700 CE and 1200 CE, containing, as well as anthropogenic material, the remains of many species of birds now either globally or locally extinct, that were killed for their flesh, bones or feathers. The gull was described (as Larus utunui) from 12 bones from two individual birds. Osteological similarities suggest that the nearest living relative of the Huahine gull is the silver gull (C. novaehollandiae), the nearest extant populations of which are in New Zealand, 3,800 km south-west of Huahine.

Ichthyaetus

Ichthyaetus is a genus of gulls. The genus name is from Ancient Greek ikhthus, "fish", and aetos, "eagle". They were previously included in the genus Larus.

Lake Bolluk

Lake Bolluk is a lake in Turkey.

The lake is in Cihanbeyli ilçe (district) of Konya Province at 38°32′25″N 32°56′34″E. It is situated to the east of the highway D.715, which connects Ankara to Silifke and to the west of Lake Tuz. The area of the lake is 11.5 square kilometres (4.4 sq mi). Its elevation with respect to sea level is 940 metres (3,080 ft). The hard water of the lake contains sodium. Rrecently, there are two threats to lake; the underground water level falls as a result of excessive irrigation and the creeks, which feed the lake, are polluted. World Water Forum Turkey conducts a project to protect the lake.

Leucophaeus

Leucophaeus is a small genus of medium-sized New World gulls, most of which are dark in plumage, usually with white crescents above and below the eyes. They were placed in the genus Larus until recently. The genus name Leucophaeus is from Ancient Greek leukos, "white", and phaios, "dusky".

Mediterranean gull

The Mediterranean gull (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) is a small gull. The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus Ichthyaetus is from ikhthus, "fish", and aetos, "eagle", and the specific melanocephalus is from melas, "black", and -kephalos "-headed".This gull breeds almost entirely in the Western Palearctic, mainly in the south east, especially around the Black Sea, and in central Turkey. There are colonies elsewhere in southern Europe, and this species has undergone a dramatic range expansion in recent decades. As is the case with many gulls, it has traditionally been placed in the genus Larus.

Mudaliarkuppam Boat House

Mudaliarkuppam Boat House (Tamil: முதலியார்குப்பம் படகுக் குழாம்), also known as Raindrop Boat House, is a water sport facility located on the East Coast Road, 36 km to the south of Mamallapuram and 92 km from Chennai in India. It was developed by the Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation on the Odiyur lake back waters. It has rowing, cruising, speed boating, water scooting and kayaking facilities.In 2007, Mudhaliarkuppam Boat House became the first of the eight boat houses of Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation to offer water scooters. The boat house organises motor boat trips to the beach island located in the Odiyur lake.Mudaliarkuppam is located in the district of Kanchipuram, 92 km from Chennai and 36 km down Mamallapuram on ECR (East Coast Road).

Pacific gull

The Pacific gull (Larus pacificus) is a very large gull, native to the coasts of Australia. It is moderately common between Carnarvon in the west, and Sydney in the east, although it has become scarce in some parts of the south-east, as a result of competition from the kelp gull, which has "self-introduced" since the 1940s.

Much larger than the ubiquitous silver gull, and nowhere near as common, Pacific gulls are usually seen alone or in pairs, loafing around the shoreline, steadily patrolling high above the edge of the water, or (sometimes) zooming high on the breeze to drop a shellfish or sea urchin onto rocks.

Philippe Cuénoud

Philippe Cuénoud (born 1968) is a Swiss entomologist and botanist living in Geneva, who worked on the Psocoptera of Switzerland

and Papua New Guinea, as well as on plant phylogeny.

He found the only recently known population of Lachesilla rossica near Geneva (the species has been described from southern Russia and may still exist there) and contributed further to the knowledge of the flora and fauna of the canton of Geneva with the first mention of a slender-billed gull (a Mediterranean bird species usually absent form Switzerland) and with the discovery of the first reported population of small-leaved helleborines. He also participated in a multidisciplinary study of the free-living fauna and flora of Basel's Zoo. In a 1999 trip to Brasil with Alain Chautems, he was among the first few people to see the newly rediscovered flower Sinningia araneosa, that had gone missing for more than a century.

Relict gull

The relict gull or Central Asian gull (Ichthyaetus relictus) is a medium-sized gull. It was believed to be an eastern race of the Mediterranean gull until 1971 and was traditionally placed in the genus Larus.

Ring-billed gull

The ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) is a medium-sized gull. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific delawarensis refers to the Delaware River.

Ross's gull

The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a small gull, the only species in its genus, although it has been suggested it should be moved to the genus Hydrocoloeus, which otherwise only includes the little gull.

This bird is named after the British explorer James Clark Ross. Its breeding grounds were first discovered in 1905 by Sergei Aleksandrovich Buturlin near village of Pokhodsk in North-Eastern Yakutia, while visiting the area as a judge. The genus name Rhodostethia is from Ancient Greek rhodon, "rose", and stethos, "breast". The specific rosea is Latin for "rose-coloured".

Yellow-footed gull

The yellow-footed gull (Larus livens) is a large gull, closely related to the western gull and thought to be a subspecies until the 1960s. It is endemic to the Gulf of California.

Gulls (family: Laridae)
Genus
Larus
Ichthyaetus
Leucophaeus
Chroicocephalus
Saundersilarus
Hydrocoloeus
Rhodostethia
Rissa
Pagophila
Xema
Creagrus

Languages

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