Sledge hockey (also known as ice sled hockey, and sled hockey in American English) is an adaptation of ice hockey designed for players who have a physical disability. Invented in the early 1960's at a rehabilitation centre in Stockholm, Sweden, and played under similar rules to standard ice hockey, players are seated on sleds and use special hockey sticks with metal "teeth" on the tips of their handles to navigate the ice.
Via its division World Para Ice Hockey, the International Paralympic Committee acts as the international sanctioning body for the sport, under the name Para ice hockey. Sled hockey has been played in the Winter Paralympics since 1994, and has been one of the most popular events.
Two men from Sweden designed the sledge in the 1960s because they wanted to continue to play hockey despite their physical disabilities. Their design included two skate blades on a metal frame that allowed the puck to pass underneath. They completed the ensemble by including two round poles with bike handles for sticks. Although there are many restrictions to the measurements and weight of the sleds used in the Paralympic Games, the basic design of modern sleds remains true to the original 1960´s simple sleds for kids. These sleds were then made to be used hockey.
Despite the initial lack of interest and awareness in the few years that followed, competition between sledge hockey teams started up in 1971 that included five teams in Europe. In 1981, Great Britain established their first sledge hockey team, and that was shortly followed by Canada in 1982. It was not until 1990 that the United States developed their first ice sledge hockey team. Sled hockey continued to expand when Estonia and Japan developed their teams in 1993. Sledge hockey was introduced to the Winter Paralympics in 1994, with Sweden claiming the first gold medal. Since 2010, sledge hockey has been a mixed-gender event.
On November 30, 2016, as part of an effort to improve and unify the marketing of its self-sanctioned sports outside of the Paralympic Games, the International Paralympic Committee announced that it would henceforth refer to sledge hockey as Para ice hockey (with its sanctioning sub-division consequently renamed World Para Ice Hockey). The IPC also noted that the word "sledge" had different meanings across languages.
The sticks have a blade curved at one end in a manner similar to regular ice hockey, and generally six to eight metal teeth at the opposite end of the blade for maneuvering and propulsion. Movement is achieved by using the metal teeth as a means to grip the ice and push oneself forward. The metal teeth cannot be too pointy nor protrude farther than 1 cm beyond the stick, to prevent damage to the ice or injury of other players.
Essentially all of the standard rules of ice hockey apply to sledge hockey. The differences are those necessitated by the ice sled and the athlete. The first set of international rules was created in 1990 and were drafted from Canadian rules. The only penalty unique to sledge hockey is Teeing—the act of charging an opponent using any part of the front radius of the sled.
Games are divided into three 15-minute periods, followed by overtime (and if still tied after the overtime period, a shootout) if there is a tie at the end of regulation
The 6th IPC Ice Sledge Hockey World Championships took place in the Hamar Olympic Amphitheatre in Hamar, Norway from March 24, 2012 to April 1, 2012. It was the first time that Norway hosted the IPC Ice Sledge Hockey World Championships. In the final, the United States defeated Korea 5-1, to win their second title since 2009.Billy Bridges
Billy Bridges (born 22 March 1984) is a Canadian ice sledge hockey and wheelchair basketball player. Born in Summerside, he has spina bifida. On July 1, 2011, Bridges married former Olympic women's ice hockey player Sami Jo Small.
He began playing ice sledge hockey in 1997, aged 12, for the Kitchener Sidewinders. Aged 14, he was selected for Canada's national team, the youngest player ever to be picked. He has World Championship golds from 2000, 2008, 2013 and 2017 and Paralympic gold from 2006, where he was picked for the All-Star Team.
As well as ice sledge hockey, he has a career as a wheelchair basketball player, including seven Canadian titles with Team Ontario. In 2001, he also competed at the Junior World Championships, and in 2005 was selected as the team's most valuable player (MVP).Canada men's national ice sledge hockey team
The Canadian national ice sledge hockey team is the ice sledge hockey team representing Canada. The team has been overseen since 2003 by Hockey Canada, a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation, and participates in international competitions. From 1993 until 2003, the team was an associate member of Hockey Canada.The team is featured in the 2008 documentary "Sledhead".Canada women's national ice sledge hockey team
The Canada national women's ice sledge hockey team is the ice sledge hockey team representing Canada. The team participated in its first IPC-sanctioned international competition in 2014.Declan Farmer
Declan Farmer (born November 5, 1997) is an ice sledge hockey player and Paralympic gold medalist. Competing at the 2014 Winter Paralympics, he won a gold medal in the men's ice sledge hockey tournament. A bilateral amputee, he has played sledge hockey since the age of nine after first trying it out in Clearwater, Florida. He attended Berkeley Preparatory School in Tampa and currently attends Princeton University. In addition to the United States men's national team, he has played on the Spacecoast Hurricanes, Tampa Bay Lightning, and Florida Bandits sledge hockey clubs. He made the American national team at the age of 14 in 2012. He is also the recipient of the best disabled male athlete at the 2014 ESPY awards.
In the 2013 IPC Ice Sledge Hockey World Championships, he finished first on the American team in scoring, with eight points.Germany men's national ice sledge hockey team
The German national ice sledge hockey team is the ice sledge hockey team representing Germany. The team is overseen by the Deutschen Rollstuhl-Sportverband (DRS), and participates in international competitions.Hockey
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, and ice hockey.
In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey usually refers to ice hockey.IPC Ice Sledge Hockey European Championships
The IPC Ice Sledge Hockey European Championships is the name commonly used to refer to the European ice sledge hockey championships. The European Championship is also a qualifying tournament for the IPC Ice Sledge Hockey World Championships and the Paralympic Games.
The first European Championship was held in 2005.Ice sledge hockey at the 2006 Winter Paralympics
At the 2006 Winter Paralympics, the ice sledge hockey events were contested at the Torino Esposizioni.Ice sledge hockey at the 2010 Winter Paralympics
The ice sledge hockey competition of the 2010 Winter Paralympics was held at the UBC Winter Sports Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from 13 March to 20 March 2010.
For the first time, women were allowed to compete in ice sledge hockey at the Paralympic Games.Following high hopes in the host nation, Canada's defeat in the semi-finals was described as causing "national despair".Ice sledge hockey at the 2014 Winter Paralympics
The ice sledge hockey competition of the 2014 Winter Paralympics was held at Shayba Arena in Sochi, Russia, from 8 March to 15 March 2014. A total of eight teams competed in the mixed team tournament.Norway men's national ice sledge hockey team
The Norwegian national ice sledge hockey team is the ice sledge hockey team representing Norway. The team is since 2004 overseen by the Norwegian Ice Hockey Federation (NIHF) a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation, and participates in international competitions.Para ice hockey at the Winter Paralympics
Sledge hockey (promoted by the International Paralympic Committee as Para ice hockey since 2016) tournaments have been staged at the Paralympic Games since 1994 in Lillehammer.
The tournament was to change from a men's to a mixed tournament for the 2010 Paralympic Games in Vancouver, allowing the teams to include female players, but no women participated in the 2010 tournament.Sledge hockey classification
Sledge hockey classification is the classification process for people who play ice sledge hockey. The classification system is governed by the International Paralympic Committee Ice Sledge Hockey.Steve Cash (sledge hockey)
Steven "Steve" Cash (born May 9, 1989) is an ice sledge hockey player from the United States. Cash is in his 13th season with the U.S. National Sled Hockey Team since making his debut in the 2005-06 season. Cash plays goalie and was a member of the U.S. teams that won gold in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games in Vancouver, 2014 Winter Paralympic Games in Sochi, and 2018 Winter Paralympic Games in Pyeongchang. He was also part of the team that won the bronze medal in the 2006 Winter Paralympics in Torino.United States men's national ice sledge hockey team
The United States men's national ice sledge hockey team represents the United States at the IPC World Championships and Paralympic Games. The team is overseen by USA Hockey.United States women's national ice sledge hockey team
The United States women's national ice sledge hockey team represents the United States at the IPC International Cup.World Para Ice Hockey Championships
The World Para Ice Hockey Championships, known before 30 November 2016 as the IPC Ice Sledge Hockey World Championships, are the world championships for sledge hockey. They are organised by the International Paralympic Committee through its World Para Ice Hockey subcommittee.
The first sanctioned World Para Ice Hockey Championships were held in Nynäshamn, Sweden in 1996.On 30 November 2016, the IPC, which serves as the international governing body for 10 disability sports, adopted the "World Para" branding across all of those sports. At the same time, it changed the official name of the sport from "sledge hockey" to "Para Ice hockey". The name of the world championships was immediately changed to "World Para Ice Hockey Championships" (WPIHC).World Sledge Hockey Challenge
The World Sledge Hockey Challenge (WSHC) is a semi-annual international ice sledge hockey tournament sponsored by Hockey Canada and the IPC Sledge Hockey. The tournament is an invitational format to bring four of the strongest ice sledge hockey teams together for international competition in non-Paralympic years.
The tournament features four teams per year and has seen teams from Canada, the United States, Russia, South Korea, Norway, Germany and Japan.
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