The Slattery Report, officially titled The Problem of Alaskan Development, was produced by the United States Department of the Interior under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's secretary Harold L. Ickes in 1939–40. It was named after Undersecretary of the Interior Harry A. Slattery. The report, which dealt with Alaskan development through immigration, included a proposal to move European refugees, especially Jews from Nazi Germany and Austria, to four locations in Alaska, including Baranof Island and the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. Skagway, Petersburg and Seward were the only towns to endorse the proposal.
In November 1938, two weeks after Kristallnacht, Ickes proposed the use of Alaska as a "haven for Jewish refugees from Germany and other areas in Europe where the Jews are subjected to oppressive restrictions." Resettlement in Alaska would allow the refugees to bypass normal immigration quotas, because Alaska was a territory and not a state. That summer Ickes had toured Alaska and met with local officials to discuss improving the local economy and bolstering security in a territory viewed as vulnerable to Japanese attack. Ickes thought European Jews might be the solution.
In his proposal, Ickes pointed out that 200 families from the Dust Bowl had settled in Alaska's Matanuska-Susitna Valley. The plan was introduced as a bill by Senator William King (Utah) and Democratic Representative Franck Havenner (California), both Democrats. The Alaska proposal won the support of theologian Paul Tillich, the Federal Council of Churches, and the American Friends Service Committee.
The plan won little support from leaders of American Jewish people, with the exception of the Labor Zionists of America. Rabbi Stephen Wise, president of the American Jewish Congress, stated that adoption of the Alaska proposal would deliver "a wrong and hurtful impression ... that Jews are taking over some part of the country for settlement."
Some non-Jewish Americans also moved against the proposal, relying on a backlash of anti-Jewish rhetoric and fear of the socialism that was commonly believed to be associated with European Jewish populations.
The plan was dealt a severe blow when President Franklin D. Roosevelt told Ickes that he insisted on limiting the number of refugees to 10,000 a year for five years, and with a further restriction that Jews not make up more than 10% of the refugees. Roosevelt never mentioned the Alaska proposal in public, and without his support the plan died.
Baranof Island, also sometimes called Baranov Island, Shee or Sitka Island (Russian: остров Баранова, Ситха) is an island in the northern Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle, in Alaska. The name Baranof was given in 1805 by Imperial Russian Navy captain U. F. Lisianski to honor Alexander Andreyevich Baranov. It was called Sheet’-ká X'áat'l (often expressed simply as "Shee") by the native Tlingit people. It is the smallest of the ABC islands of Alaska.Harry A. Slattery
Harry A. Slattery (June 13, 1887 – September 1, 1949), was an American lawyer and statesman. He was United States Under Secretary of the Interior from 1938–39 and gave his name to the Slattery Report, which proposed to develop Alaska through immigration. The proposal, which included the settlement of Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria, largely in response to Nazi antisemitism, was never implemented.History of the Jews in Alaska
The history of the Jews in Alaska began before the Alaska Purchase in 1867. Jews from Imperial Russia lived there periodically as fur traders, and a Jewish community has existed since the 1880s. The Klondike and Nome gold rushes attracted Jews to Alaska to seek their fortunes as miners and businessmen and resulted in the first organized Jewish communities. In the Nazi period, Jewish refugee resettlement in Alaska was seriously considered by the government, but after facing backlash, never came to be. Alaskan Jews played a significant role in business and politics before and after statehood, and have included mayors, judges, senators and governors. Today, there are Jews living in every urban area of the state.Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire
Shortly prior to and during World War II, and coinciding with the Second Sino-Japanese War, tens of thousands of Jewish refugees were resettled in the Japanese Empire. The onset of the European war by Nazi Germany involved the lethal mass persecutions and genocide of Jews, later known as the Holocaust, resulting in thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing east. Many ended up in Japanese-occupied China.List of George Washington University alumni
The list of George Washington University alumni includes numerous prominent politicians, including the current U.S. Attorney General, four current heads of state or government, CEOs of major corporations, scientists, Nobel laureates, MacArthur fellows, Olympic athletes, Academy Award and Golden Globe winners, royalty, and Time 100 notables.List of Georgetown University alumni
Georgetown University is a private research university located in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1789, Georgetown University is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit institution of higher education in the United States. The school graduates about two thousand undergraduate and postgraduate students annually. There are nine constitutive schools, five of which offer undergraduate degrees and six of which offer graduate degrees, as two schools offer both undergraduate and graduate degrees.List of University of South Carolina people
This list of University of South Carolina people includes alumni that are graduates or non-matriculating students, and former professors and administrators of the University of South Carolina, with its primary campus located in the American city of Columbia, South Carolina.Matanuska-Susitna Valley
Matanuska-Susitna Valley () (known locally as the Mat-Su or The Valley) is an area in Southcentral Alaska south of the Alaska Range about 35 miles (56 km) north of Anchorage, Alaska.
It is known for the world record sized cabbages and other vegetables displayed annually in Palmer at the Alaska State Fair.
It includes the valleys of the Matanuska, Knik, and Susitna Rivers.
11,000 of Mat-Su Valley residents commute to Anchorage for work (as of 2008).
It is the fastest growing region in Alaska and includes the towns of Palmer, Wasilla, Big Lake, Houston, Willow and Talkeetna.The valleys are shaped by three mountain ranges: the Alaska Range, the Talkeetna Mountains and the Chugach Mountains. The Matanuska-Susitna Valley was carved by glaciers
leaving thousands of lakes.
The Mat-Su rivers and lakes are home to the spawning grounds of chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon.
The area is home to 31 state parks and campgrounds.The 23,000-square-mile (60,000 km2) Matanuska-Susitna Borough (the Alaskan equivalent of a county) governs the Mat-Su Valley.
According to the 2010 Census, the borough's population is 88,995, a 50% increase since 2000.The area now known as Palmer was first inhabited by Athabaskan Indians. Wasilla was first inhabited by the Dena'ina Indians. The city was founded when the Alaska Railroad was constructed in 1917. Knik, the first boom-town in the valley, predates Wasilla. In 1893 the Alaska Commercial Company was built at Knik, and in 1898 Knik was settled by trappers and gold miners. Talkeetna began in the late 1890s, with the construction of a trading station and later the Alaska Railroad. Today, Talkeetna serves as the starting point for mountaineers who climb Denali.The Mat-Su Valley was explored by Russians in 1818.
In 1935, as part of the New Deal 203 families from the Midwest travelled to Alaska and started the Matanuska Valley Colony. Families were specifically chosen from the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, due to their similarly cold winter climates.The 1939 Slattery Report on Alaskan development identified the region as one of the areas where new settlements would be established through Jewish immigration. This plan was never implemented.
The region is also home to the Matanuska-Susitna College
and the Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman newspaper.Missouri Athletic Club
The Missouri Athletic Club (often referred to as the MAC), founded in 1903, is a private city and athletic club with two locations. The Downtown Clubhouse is in Downtown St. Louis, Missouri, USA and the West Clubhouse is located in St. Louis County a suburb of Town and Country.
The MAC awards the annual Hermann Trophy, the highest award in American college soccer, and the Jack Buck Award (in recognition of enthusiastic and dedicated support of sports in the city of St. Louis). Notable members have included President Harry S. Truman, Stan Musial, and Alan Shepard. The American Legion was organized there in 1919.Mount St. Mary's University
Mount St. Mary's University (also known as The Mount) is a Catholic liberal arts university near Emmitsburg, Maryland. The campus includes the second largest Catholic seminary in the United States. Lay students can pursue a Master of Arts in Theology at the seminary.
The undergraduate university is divided into three schools: the College of Liberal Arts, the Richard J. Bolte School of Business, and the School of Natural Science and Mathematics. The university has more than 40 majors, minors, concentrations and special programs, including bachelor's/master's combinations in partnership with other universities. The university also offers eight master's degree programs and six postgraduate certificate programs.One Thousand Children
The One Thousand Children (OTC) is a designation, created in 2000, which is used to refer to the approximately 1,400 Jewish children who were rescued from Nazi Germany and other Nazi-occupied or threatened European countries, and who were taken directly to the United States during the period 1934–1945. The phrase "One Thousand Children" only refers to those children who came unaccompanied and left their parents behind back in Europe. In nearly all cases, their parents were not able to escape with their children, because they could not get the necessary visas among other reasons. Later, nearly all these parents were murdered by the Nazis.
The OTC children were rescued by both American and European organizations, as well as by individuals.
Originally only about one thousand such children had been identified as OTC children — hence the name "The One Thousand Children". By 2017 about 1,400 have been identified.
The One Thousand Children, Inc. (OTC, Inc.) was an organization created for further welfare of the OTC children.Petersburg, Alaska
Petersburg (Tlingit: Gantiyaakw Séedi "Steamboat Channel") is a census-designated place (CDP) in Petersburg Borough, Alaska, United States. The population was 2,948 at the 2010 census, down from 3,224 in 2000.
The borough encompasses Petersburg and Kupreanof, plus mostly uninhabited areas stretching to the Canadian–American border and the southern boundary of the City and Borough of Juneau. While the city of Petersburg ceased to exist as a separate administrative entity (the borough assembly created a service area to assume operation of the former city's services), the tiny city of Kupreanof remains separate within the borough.Proposals for a Jewish state
There were several proposals for a Jewish state in the course of Jewish history between the destruction of ancient Israel and the founding of the modern State of Israel. While some of those have come into existence, others were never implemented. The Jewish national homeland usually refers to the State of Israel or the Land of Israel, depending on political and religious beliefs. Jews and their supporters, as well as their detractors and anti-Semites have put forth plans for Jewish states.Seward, Alaska
Seward (Alutiiq: Qutalleq) is an incorporated home rule city in Alaska, United States. Located on Resurrection Bay, a fjord of the Gulf of Alaska on the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is situated on Alaska's southern coast, approximately 120 miles by road from Alaska's largest city, Anchorage, and nearly 1,300 miles from the closest point in the contiguous United States at Cape Flattery, Washington.
With an estimated permanent population of 2,831 people as of 2017, Seward is the fourth-largest city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, behind Kenai, Homer, and the borough seat of Soldotna. The city is named for former U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who orchestrated the United States' purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 while serving in this position as part of President Andrew Johnson's administration.
Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad and the historic starting point of the original Iditarod Trail to the Alaskan interior, with Mile 0 of the trail marked on the shoreline at the southern end of town.Slattery
Slattery is a surname of Irish origin. The name is an anglicisation of the Irish: Ó Slatara or Ó Slatraigh, meaning 'descendant of slatra' meaning 'robust', 'strong', 'bold'. The name originated in the townland of Ballyslattery in the barony of Tulla Upper in east County Clare, Ireland.The Slattery coat of arms which shows three red submissive lions against a white background indicates a family that are magnanimous in warfare and yet kind and warm in peacetime.Notable people named Slattery include:
Bevan Slattery, Australian technology entrepreneur
Brian Slattery, Canadian academic
Edward James Slattery, American Roman Catholic bishop
Fergus Slattery, Irish rugby union player
Francis Slattery, American naval submarine commander
Harry A. Slattery, American lawyer and statesman
Henry Slattery, Australian football player
Jack Slattery, American baseball player
James M. Slattery, United States Senator
Jim Slattery, United States politician
Jimmy Slattery, New York Boxer
John Henry Slattery, Colorado businessman
John Slattery, American actor
Joseph Patrick Slattery, Australian physicist, radiologist, Catholic priest
Martin Slattery, British musician
Michael Slattery (archbishop), Irish priest
Michael Slattery (hurler), Irish hurler
Michael Slattery (Gaelic footballer), Irish Gaelic footballer
Michael Slattery (admiral), Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and Judge Advocate General of the Australian Defence Force
Mike Slattery (baseball), Major League Baseball player
Mike Slattery (politician), Democratic member of the Kansas House of Representatives
Richard X. Slattery, American actor
Ryan Slattery, American film and television actor
Tadhg Slattery, South African swimmer who competed in six Paralympic Games
Tony Slattery, English actor and comedian
Troy Slattery, Australian rugby league footballerFictional characters with the name Slattery include:
Trevor Slattery, a character in the Marvel Cinematic UniverseStephen Samuel Wise
Stephen Samuel Wise (1874–1949) was an early 20th-century American, Progressive Era, Reform rabbi, and Zionist leader.The Yiddish Policemen's Union
The Yiddish Policemen's Union is a 2007 novel by American author Michael Chabon. The novel is a detective story set in an alternative history version of the present day, based on the premise that during World War II, a temporary settlement for Jewish refugees was established in Sitka, Alaska, in 1941, and that the fledgling State of Israel was destroyed in 1948. The novel is set in Sitka, which it depicts as a large, Yiddish-speaking metropolis.
The Yiddish Policemen's Union won a number of science fiction awards: the Nebula Award for Best Novel, the Locus Award for Best SF Novel, the Hugo Award for Best Novel, and the Sidewise Award for Alternate History for Best Novel. It was shortlisted for the British Science Fiction Association Award for Best Novel and the Edgar Allan Poe Award for Best Novel.Uganda Scheme
The Uganda Scheme was a plan in the early 1900s to give a portion of British East Africa to the Jewish people as a homeland. It drew support from Theodor Herzl, a prominent Zionist, as a temporary refuge for European Jews facing antisemitism.