Slacklining

Slacklining refers to the act of walking or balancing along a suspended length of flat webbing that is tensioned between two anchors. Slacklining is similar to slack rope walking and tightrope walking. Slacklines differ from tightwires and tightropes in the type of material used and the amount of tension applied during use. Slacklines are tensioned significantly less than tightropes or tightwires in order to create a dynamic line which will stretch and bounce like a long and narrow trampoline. Tension can be adjusted to suit the user, and different webbing may be used in various circumstances.

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Slacklining

Styles of slacklining

1B GASP slackline 11
Slacklining on a beach

Urbanlining

Urbanlining or urban slacklining combines all the different styles of slacklining. It is practiced in urban areas, for example in city parks and on the streets. Most urban slackliners prefer wide 2-inch (5 cm) lines for tricklining on the streets, but some may use narrow (58 or 1 inch, 1.6 or 2.5 cm) lines for longline purposes or for waterlining. Also see the other sections of slackline styles below.

One type of urbanlining is timelining, where one tries to stay on a slackline for as long as possible without falling down. This takes tremendous concentration and focus of will, and is a great endurance training for postural muscles.

Slackline handstand
Slackline handstand

Another type of urbanlining is streetlining, which combines street workout power moves with the slackline's dynamic, shaky, bouncy feeling. Main focus are static handstands, super splits — hands and feet together, planche, front lever, back lever, one arm handstand and other interesting extreme moves that are evolving in street workout culture.

Tricklining

Tricklining has become the most common form of slacklining because of the easy setup of 2-inch (5 cm) slackline kits. Tricklining is often done low to the ground but can be done on highlines as well. A great number of tricks can be done on the line, and because the sport is fairly new, there is plenty of room for new tricks. Some of the basic tricks done today are walking,[1] walking backwards, turns, drop knee, running and jumping onto the slackline to start walking, and bounce walking. Some intermediate tricks include: Buddha sit, sitting down, lying down, cross-legged knee drop, surfing forward, surfing sideways, and jump turns, or "180s." Some of the advanced tricks are: jumps,[2] tree plants, jumping from line-to-line, 360s, butt bounces, and chest bounces. With advancements in webbing technology & tensioning systems, the limits for what can be done on a slackline are being pushed constantly. It is not uncommon to see expert slackliners incorporating flips and twists into slackline trick combinations.

Highlining

Man highlining in Yosemite National Park with El Capitan in the background
Man highlining at Taft Point in Yosemite National Park with El Capitan in the background.

Highlining is slacklining at elevation above the ground or water. Many slackliners consider highlining to be the pinnacle of the sport. Highlines are commonly set up in locations that have been used or are still used for Tyrolean traverse. When rigging highlines, experienced slackers take measures to ensure that solid, redundant and equalized anchors are used to secure the line into position. Modern highline rigging typically entails a mainline of webbing, backup webbing, and either climbing rope or amsteel rope for redundancy. However, many highlines are rigged with a mainline and backup only, especially if the highline is low tension (less than 900 lbf (410 kgf; 4,000 N)), or rigged with high quality webbing like Type 18 or MKII Spider Silk. It is also common to pad all areas of the rigging which might come in contact with abrasive surfaces. To ensure safety, most highliners wear a climbing harness or swami belt with a leash attached to the slackline itself. Leash-less, or "free-solo" slacklining – a term loosely taken from rockclimbing ("free" refers to free of aid equipment vs free from the slackline) – is not unheard of, however, with proponents such as Dean Potter and Andy Lewis.[3]

Slackline yoga

Slackline yoga takes traditional yoga poses and moves them to the slackline. It has been described as "distilling the art of yogic concentration". To balance on a 1-inch (2.5 cm) piece of webbing lightly tensioned between two trees is not easy, and doing yoga poses on it is even more challenging. The practice simultaneously develops focus, dynamic balance, power, breath, core integration, flexibility, and confidence. Using standing postures, sitting postures, arm balances, kneeling postures, inversions and unique vinyasa, a skilled slackline yogi is able to create a flowing yoga practice without ever falling from the line.

Simon grižon Super split on a slackline
Split on a slackline

Slackline yoga has been covered in The Wall Street Journal,[4] Yoga Journal[5] and Climbing Magazine.[6]

Rodeo lines

Rodeo slacklining is the art and practice of cultivating balance on a piece of rope or webbing draped slack between two anchor points, typically about 15 to 30 feet (455 to 915 cm) apart and 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 cm) off the ground in the center. This type of very "slack" slackline provides a wide array of opportunities for both swinging and static maneuvers. A rodeo line has no tension in it, while both traditional slacklines and tightropes are tensioned. This slackness in the rope or webbing allows it to swing at large amplitudes and adds a different dynamic. This form of slacklining first came into popularity in 1999, through a group of students from Colby College in Waterville, Maine. It was first written about on a website called the "Vultures Peak Center for Freestyle and Rodeo Slackline Research" in 2004. The article "Old Revolution — New Recognition - 3-10-04" describes these early developments in detail.

Windlining

Windlining is a practice of slacklining performed in very windy conditions. Depending on the intensity of the wind, it can be difficult to remain on the line without being blown off. The sensation one experiences is like flying as the slacker must angle his body and arms in an aerodynamic manner to maintain balance.

History

While rope walking has been around in one manner or another for thousands of years, the origins of modern-day slacklining is generally attributed to a young rock climber named Adam Grosowsky from southern Illinois in 1979.[7] A then sixteen-year-old Adam, the son of the head of Southern Illinois University's Design Department, became obsessed with a photo he found in the university library with the understated caption "Circus Performers c1890"; the photo depicted a wire bolted low on a wall on one end and the other terminating in a wristloop held by a performer doing a one-hand handstand on the top of a flagpole with his body canted far to the opposite side counterbalancing the weight of the wire. In the middle of that wire was another performer in a handstand. Adam successfully harassed the small band of local climbers into almost believing they could reproduce this feat. They all set about learning to walk on climbing ropes, webbing, chains and low / high wires, but only Adam managed to carry through with achieving some elements of that historic circus feat, most notably being able to maintain an indefinite handstand on 1-inch (2.5 cm) webbing and even getting it rocking side-to-side while in the handstand. Adam carried those bad habits to Olympia, Washington's The Evergreen State College in 1979,[8] where he met fellow climbers Jeff Ellington and Brooke Sandahl. Adam set up his permanent heavy highwire in the woods on campus while the trio continued to perfect walking, handstands, and jump mounts on webbing. Their handstand work focused on 1-inch (2.5 cm) flat climbing webbing and they also employed the dynamics and flexibility of the nylon webbing to develop all manner of other tricks, including a three-club passing (juggling) routine between two slackliners balanced simultaneously on the same line. Red Square, Evergreen's central campus plaza, was a convenient between-class practice area where they often drew crowds of spectators. Grosowsky, along with Ellington were fascinated with wirewalking history and circus culture from the start, and in 1981 performed leashless on a 30-foot (9 m) highline strung 25 feet (8 m) over a concrete floor as part of a project to recreate a traditional one-ring circus in The Evergreen State College's main performance auditorium. During this period Grosowsky, who is now a regionally well-known Northwest artist, devoted much of his lithographic art to themes involving wirewalking and circus culture. The sport blossomed within the West Coast rock climbing community, and then spread to other areas. It got attention during the 2016 Rio Olympics when slackliner Giovanna Petrucci performed on the beach at Ipanema, attracting the attention of the New York Times.[9]

A professional slackliner was credited with climbing a ski lift tower in Colorado and shimmying across a cable to save a man caught by a ski lift in January 2017.[10]

Highlining history

Highlining was inspired by a number of highwire artists who walked steel cable up high in unique places. From 1907-1948, Mr. Ivy Baldwind of Eldorado Springs, Colorado crossed Eldorado Canyon on a high wire numerous times. His final crossing was documented on his 82nd birthday.[11] On August 7, 1974 Philippe Petit set-up and crossed a high wire between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York.[12] In the summer of 1983, Adam Grosowsky and Jeff Ellington set up a 55-foot (17 m) high wire at Yosemite's Lost Arrow Spire that was nearly 2,890 feet (880 m) high. However, neither of them were able to completely cross this line because of inadequate guying. In the autumn of 1983, inspired by Jeff and Adam's efforts, a 20-year-old Scott Balcom and 17-year-old Chris Carpenter successfully completed what is believed to be the first documented high walk on nylon webbing,[8][13] instead of using cable, giving birth to what slackliners now call highlining. This first highline, referred to as The Arches,[14] was a span about 30 feet (9 m) long and about 120 feet (35 m) above ground in Pasadena, California under the California SR 134 Freeway bridge, between two arches that spanned the trickling Arroyo Seco below. The next summer (1984), Scott Balcom set up a highline on Yosemite’s Lost Arrow Spire with the help of Darrin Carter and Chris Carpenter. Scott’s attempt, however, was unsuccessful (neither Darrin nor Chris made an attempt). On July 13, 1985, Scott Balcom returned and successfully crossed the now-famous Lost Arrow Spire highline.[15] In June 1990, Chris Carpenter purposefully "surfed" a highline spanning the gap of Horsetooth Rock in Fort Collins, Colorado. In 1993, Darrin Carter became the second person to successfully cross the Lost Arrow Spire highline.[12][16] In 1995, Darrin Carter performed unprotected crossings of the Lost Arrow Spire in Yosemite and The Fins, in Tucson, AZ on Mt. Lemmon highway.[8] On July 16, 2007, Libby Sauter became the first woman to successfully cross the Lost Arrow Spire,[17] with Jenna McLennan walking it shortly after.[18] In 2008, Dean Potter became the first person to BASE jump from a highline at Hell Roaring Canyon in Utah.[19] Since then highlining has grown tremendously. Gatherings such as the GGBY Highline Gathering during Thanksgiving week in Moab Utah have helped grow the sport.

World records

Longest highline

The last highline record was set by the team Slack.fr in le Cirque de Navacelles in France, the line was 1662 meters long and 334 meters high. [20] In Aiglun, France, on Tuesday, April 19, 2016 Nathan Paulin, along with Danny Menšík, set a new record for the longest slackline ever – 1020m.[21] The highline was 600 meters high at its highest point.

The longest highline walked by a woman, with a length of 222m at 400m high was set in Hunlen Falls, in Northern British Columbia on 24 August 2016 by Mia Noblet.[22]

Longest free solo highline

The longest free solo highline was walked in Hunlen Falls, in Northern British Columbia August, 2016. At a length of 72m and 400m high, it was walked by Friedi Kühne.[23] The longest free solo highline by a female is held by Faith Dickey, who walked a 28-meter-long highline in Ostrov, Czech Republic in August 2012. The line was 25 meters high.

Highest slackline

The highest slackline on record was walked by Christian Schou on August 3, 2006 at Kjerag in Rogaland, Norway. The slackline was 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) high. The project was repeated by Aleksander Mork in September 2007. [24]

The current record for walking the highest and longest urban highline is held by professional slackliner Alexander Schulz of Germany, who walked a slackline at a height of 807 feet (246 m) on December 4, 2016 between the Torre BBVA Bancomer and Torre Reforma in Mexico City, Mexico. Alexander Schulz walked successfully the 712 feet (217 m) long slackline that was stretched over the wide avenue Paseo de la Reforma.[25][26][27][28]

Longest slackline (longline)

The longest slackline, with a length of 610 metres (2,000 ft), was walked on May 9, 2015 by Alexander Schulz in Mongolia.[29]

The longest slackline walked by a woman, with a length of 230 metres (750 ft), was walked in September 2014 in Lausanne (CH) by Laetitia Gonnon.

See also

References

  1. ^ "How To Walk a Slackline". Wikihow.
  2. ^ "How to Slackline: Jump Line-to-Line". Wikihow.
  3. ^ "US slackline walker Dean Potter crosses China canyon". BBC News. 23 April 2012.
  4. ^ Alter, Alexandra (5 April 2008). "Into the Wild With Yoga". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 November 2012. Jason Magness meditates in full-lotus posture balanced on a slackline over the Arizona desert.. He's also the innovator of slackline yoga and is one of its few masters.
  5. ^ Bolster, Mary. "A climbing yogi has found a unique way to improve his balance, focus, and core strength: Doing yoga poses on a slackline". Yoga Journal. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  6. ^ Nadlonek, Ryan. "Highballin' – The Spot Gym Goes Off for Highball Comp". Climbing.com. Retrieved 8 November 2012. they ran a slackline 20-feet in the air and tied in some of the area's most balanced men and women for toproped highline highjinx... The high-line event, which took place January 24, 2009, was a best-trick competition, with each slacker receiving three minutes to show their skills. Highlights included Greg Kalfa's ballsy backflip attempt and Josh Beau, looking as at home on the webbing as anyone else did on the ground (especially during his side-plank and other yoga-inspired moves).
  7. ^ "Above the Lawn, Walking the Line". New York Times; Sept. 8, 2006 https://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/08/travel/escapes/08slack.html
  8. ^ a b c Alpinist, Issue 21, Autumn 2007, "The Space Between, a history of funambulism" by Dean Potter
  9. ^ ANNA JEAN KAISER (August 18, 2016). "This Rio Phenom Would Be a Lock for a Gold. If There Were One for Slacklining". New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2016. ..Petrucci is a world-champion slackliner, ... front flips and back flips and falls flat on the five-centimeter-wide strap, her torso parallel to the ground. ...If slackline were an Olympic sport, Petrucci, 18, would be a lock for gold....
  10. ^ http://www.seattletimes.com/life/outdoors/man-dangling-by-neck-from-ski-lift-saved-by-professional-slackliner/
  11. ^ Rudolph M. Olson and the Carnegie Branch of the Boulder Public Library. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJLBvBIoJ88
  12. ^ a b "The History of Slacklining". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19.
  13. ^ Walk the Line — the art of balance and the craft of slackline, by Scott Balcom 2005 ISBN 0-9764850-0-1
  14. ^ "The Arches – 1983". rockclimbing.com.
  15. ^ "First Slackline Crossing of the Lost Arrow Spire". YouTube. 24 May 2009.
  16. ^ "History of Slacklining". slackline.com.
  17. ^ YouTube: First Woman Walks the Lost Arrow Spire Highline
  18. ^ "First Woman to Walk the Lost Arrow Spire". slackline.com. 2008.
  19. ^ Longman, Jeré (14 March 2008). "900 Feet Up With Nowhere To Go But Down". The New York Times.
  20. ^ Template:Cite¦url:https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slackline
  21. ^ redbull.com http://www.redbull.com/en/adventure/stories/1331789988303/these-guys-just-crossed-a-1020m-slackline. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ "MEET MIA - THE NEW FEMALE WORLD RECORD HOLDER [VIDEO]!". Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  23. ^ Leftcoast (2016-09-01), New Free Solo Highline World Record by Friedi Kühne | shot in 4k, retrieved 2016-09-27
  24. ^ Template:Http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/74401-highest-slackline-walk
  25. ^ https://uk.news.yahoo.com/barefoot-walker-breaks-world-record-in-nail-biting-high-line-stroll-105707746.html
  26. ^ http://www.spiegel.de/video/slackline-alexander-schulz-mit-weltrekord-in-mexiko-stadt-video-1726357.html
  27. ^ http://nortedigital.mx/alexander-schulz-atraviesa-reforma-mas-200-metros/
  28. ^ https://www.ratchetstraps.com/slackline
  29. ^ Fullerton, Jamie (2015-05-14). "Daredevil breaks world slackline record with 610m walk in Mongolian desert". Daily Mail.

Slackline Straps

External links

Andy Lewis (performer)

Andy Lewis (born October 7, 1986 in Santa Rosa, California), is a professional performer, stunt coordinator, and internationally recognized extreme sports athlete. He is most famous for his efforts as a slackliner. Lewis has completed numerous accomplishments as a highliner and trickliner, and is also a distinguished BASE jumper and rock climber. He has created new "slack" vocabulary, new slackline disciplines, and is an ambassador to the sport.Lewis grew up in Greenbrae, California. He graduated valedictorian of the class of 2008 from Humboldt State University.

BMX

BMX, an abbreviation for bicycle motocross or bike motocross, is a cycle sport performed on BMX bikes, either in competitive BMX racing only. freestyle BMX, FBMX or else in general on- or off-road recreation. BMX began when young cyclists appropriated motocross tracks for fun, racing. Stunts, eventually Came in evolving Two specialized bikes BMX Bike For Racing competitions. FBMX Bike For FreeStyle, Street & Dirt jumping.

Bellyboarding

Bellyboarding is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a bodyboard on the crest, face, and curl of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore.

Cliff jumping

Cliff jumping is jumping off a cliff as a form of sport. When done without equipment, it may be also known as tombstoning. It forms part of the sport of coastal exploration or "coasteering". When performed with a parachute, it is known as BASE jumping. The world record for cliff jumping is currently held by Laso Schaller, with a jump of 58.8 m (193 ft).

Crane climbing

Crane climbing is the act, usually illicit, of climbing a crane. It is a worldwide phenomenon that was said to be growing in popularity in the mid-2010s, in a category with the illicit climbing of skyscrapers and tall monuments.Canada's York Regional Police view crane climbers as thrill seekers influenced by the popularity of crane climbing video on YouTube, and warns that in addition to putting themselves at risk, crane climbers put the lives of first responders at risk.Crane climbers are routinely arrested and charged.

Extreme sport

Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and highly specialized gear.

Freestyle scootering

Freestyle scootering (also known as scootering, scooter riding, or simply riding) is not a sport but involves using stunt scooters to perform freestyle tricks, in a manner similar to a mix of BMXing and skateboarding.

Giovanna Petrucci

Giovanna Petrucci is a Brazilian athlete from Rio de Janeiro notable for being a champion slackliner. This relatively new sport is performed on a thin strap of nylon or polyester, five centimeters wide, suspended under tension between two trees or poles, over land or sand or water. Tension on the slackline is maintained with ratchets strong enough to support the weight of the slackliner, like having a thin trampoline only a few centimeters wide. Petrucci propels herself airborne to perform tricks such as jumps and somersaults, sometimes called trickling, as well as front and back flips and dismounts. According to a report in the New York Times, she is credited with being the first to do a complex combination of aerial moves termed a fearless. She began slacklining in 2011 when she bought her first slackline. According to one source, she won first place at PuckSurf and has been described as the "World Slackline Master." She has performed at the beach at Ipanema as well as above a river, and has competed internationally. In 2013, she was described as the current Brazilian champion in the sport.

Hung Up

"Hung Up" is a song by American singer Madonna from her tenth studio album Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005). It was written and produced by Madonna in collaboration with Stuart Price, and released as the lead single from the album. Initially used in a number of television advertisements and serials, the song was released as the album's lead single on October 17, 2005. It has also made an appearance on her 2009 greatest hits album, Celebration.

"Hung Up" prominently features a sample from the instrumental introduction to ABBA's hit single "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)", for which Madonna personally sought permission from ABBA's songwriters Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus. Musically the song is influenced by 1980s pop, with a chugging groove and chorus and a background element of a ticking clock that suggests the fear of wasting time. Lyrically the song is written as a traditional dance number about a strong, independent woman who has relationship troubles.

"Hung Up" received critical praise from reviewers, who believed that the track would restore the singer's popularity, which had diminished following the release of her 2003 album American Life. Critics suggested it was her best dance track to date and have compared it favorably to other Madonna tracks in the same genre. They also complimented the effective synchronization of the ABBA sample with the actual song. "Hung Up" became a worldwide commercial success, peaking atop the charts of 41 countries and earning a place in the Guinness Book of World Records. It was Madonna's 36th top 10 single on the Billboard Hot 100, tying her with Elvis Presley as the artist with most top ten hits. It also became the most successful dance song of the decade in the United States. "Hung Up" remains one of the best-selling singles of all time, with sales of over nine million copies worldwide.

The music video is a tribute to John Travolta, his movies and to dancing in general. Directed by Johan Renck, the clip starts with Madonna clad in a pink leotard dancing alone in a ballet studio and concludes at a gaming parlor where she dances with her backup troupe. Interspersed are scenes of people displaying their dancing skills in a variety of settings, including a Los Angeles residential neighborhood, a small restaurant and the London Underground. It also features the physical discipline Parkour. Madonna has performed the song in a number of live appearances, including as the final number of 2006's Confessions Tour, a heavy metal-inspired arrangement in the 2008 leg of the Sticky & Sweet Tour, and 2012's The MDNA Tour, where the singer performed the song while slacklining.

Libby Sauter

Libby Sauter (born October 8, 1984) is an American mountaineer, rock climber, and pediatric cardiac intensive care nurse educator. She and her climbing partner, Mayan Smith-Gobat, set the women's speed record climbing The Nose on El Capitan, Yosemite National Park, in 2014. In 2017, she became the youngest woman inducted into the American Alpine Club hall of fame. She was the first woman to walk the Lost Arrow Spire highline in 2007.

Lost Arrow Spire

The Lost Arrow Spire is a detached pillar in Yosemite Valley, California, located immediately adjacent to Upper Yosemite Falls. The structure includes the Lost Arrow Spire Chimney route which is recognized in the historic climbing text Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. The last two pitches of Lost Arrow Spire Chimney are called the Lost Arrow Spire Tip and completes the detached portion of the spire. The Tip route is often reached by rappelling into an area known as The Notch. Once the route is completed climbers will often return to the main wall via a dramatic and famous Tyrolean traverse.

The spire was originally summited by lassoing the summit from the main wall and then Ax Nelson prusiked the lassoed line to the peak and was followed by Jack Arnold. While Steve Roper called this "one of the greatest rope stunts ever pulled off in climbing history" many climbers did not recognize this "rope trick" as a true ascent. An undisputed ascent was completed later that season by John Salathé and Ax Nelson via the Lost Arrow Spire Chimney.Lost Arrow Spire later became one of the early hotspots for Highlining, the version of slacklining on high places. The first successful walk over a slackline to the spire happened on July 13, 1985.

Rob Slater

Robert John Slater (1960 – August 13, 1995) was an American mountaineer known for his first ascent of the big wall route Wyoming Sheep Ranch on El Capitan. A tireless outdoor recreationalist, Slater built up an impressive climbing resume during his college years and later as he worked as a trader on the Chicago Board of Trade and for Goldman Sachs. He died on August 13, 1995, while descending from the summit of K2.

Rob started climbing early, summiting the Grand Teton at age 13 with mountaineering pioneer Paul Petzoldt. He attended high school in Cheyenne, Wyoming and college at the University of Colorado at Boulder, an institution he chose for its beautiful location beneath the Flatirons and, according to fellow climber John Sherman, its beautiful female students. Slater soon demonstrated his nerve in nearby Eldorado Canyon by dispatching the testpiece route Wide Country (11a R), still difficult today even though the availability of sticky rubber climbing shoes and micronuts has reduced the challenge.

While in college, Slater began making summer trips to Yosemite Valley, where he climbed his first big wall route Zodiac with Tom Cosgriff and climbed Aquarian Wall with Robert Kayen. During his junior year Slater met Randy Leavitt, who taught Slater how to BASE jump. Attempting a risky jump with Leavitt in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Slater was forced to make a downwind landing on the wrong side of the river, twisting his foot and scrubbing their plans to exit the canyon by climbing one of the walls.

Slater was one of the top aid climbers of his day. In 1982, he made the first solo ascent of the Pacific Ocean Wall, at the time one of the hardest routes on El Capitan. Slater naturally capped his ascent with a BASE jump. In 1984 Slater put up Wyoming Sheep Ranch (A5) with John Barbella. Caught by nightfall in the middle of a difficult and overhung pitch, Slater lowered off 40' on hooks, and Barbella had to pull him in 20' to the belay. Wyoming Sheep Ranch held title for many years as the most difficult and dangerous aid climb on El Cap, but the inevitable widening of placements and appearance of fixed gear has subsequently reduced the grade to A4.As a specialist in climbs with poor protection, Slater was drawn to the Fisher Towers near Moab, Utah, famous for their soft, crumbly rock. Slater was the first and as of 1995 the only climber to summit all of the towers.Slater may be the first person to take a leash-protected fall on a highline slackline. In 1983 he set up a short 22' line under a freeway overpass in Pasadena with Scott Balcom and others. The line was 80' above the ground. Even though Slater only had 15 minutes of slacklining practice at the ground level, he was the first in the group to attempt to walk the line.

Slater excelled at all types of climbing, having ascended the 3000' ice route Slipstream in the Canadian Rockies as well as K2 without bottled oxygen. Slater perished in a storm on the descent from K2 along with 5 other climbers, including his team member, noted English climber Alison Hargreaves.

Slackwire

Slackwire (or slack wire) is an acrobatic circus act that involves the balancing skills of moving along a flexible, thin wire suspended in the air, connected to two anchor points.

Slackwire is not to be confused with slacklining.

Speed skiing

Speed skiing is the sport of skiing downhill in a straight line at as high a speed as possible, as timed over a fixed stretch of ski slope. There are two types of contest: breaking an existing speed record or having the fastest run at a given competition. Speed skiers regularly exceed 200 kilometres per hour (125 mph)

Stawamus Chief

The Stawamus Chief, officially Stawamus Chief Mountain (often referred to as simply The Chief, or less commonly Squamish Chief), is a granitic dome located adjacent to the town of Squamish, British Columbia, Canada. It towers over 700 m (2,297 ft) above the waters of nearby Howe Sound. It is often claimed to be the "second largest granite monolith in the world".The Squamish, indigenous people from this area, consider the Chief to be a place of spiritual significance. The Squamish language name for the mountain is Siám' Smánit (siám' is usually translated as "chief" though it is really a social ranking), and their traditions say it is a longhouse transformed to stone by Xáays, as the Transformer Brothers are known in this language. The great cleft in the mountain's cliff-face in Squamish legend is a mark of corrosion left by the skin of Sínulhka, a giant two-headed sea serpent.The mountain gets its name from their village near its foot, Stawamus (St'a7mes), as is also the case with the Stawamus River and Stawamus Lake, though the pronunciation of the village name is different than as commonly used in English ( is an approximation of the Squamish language, vs as commonly used in English).

The Bottle Inn

The Bottle Inn is a 16th-century public house at Marshwood in Dorset, England which hosts the World Nettle Eating Championship.

Tightrope walking

Tightrope walking, also called funambulism, is the skill of walking along a thin wire or rope. It has a long tradition in various countries and is commonly associated with the circus. Other skills similar to tightrope walking include slack rope walking and slacklining.

Tyrolean traverse

A Tyrolean traverse is a method of crossing through free space between two high points on a rope without a hanging cart or cart equivalent. This is used in a range of mountaineering activities: rock climbing, technical tree climbing, caving, water crossings and mountain rescue. A zip-line is in essence a Tyrolean traverse which is traveled down quickly with the assistance of gravity. Several sources claim that the name comes from the Tyrolean Alps, where climbers are said to have developed the system in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.In rock climbing a Tyrolean traverse is most often used to return to the main part of a wall after climbing a detached pillar. Lost Arrow Spire, a detached pillar in Yosemite Valley, is often abseiled using a dramatic Tyrolean traverse. There are many ways to anchor the line at the two high points but the significant feature is that there is a line strung between them.Many classic locations for Tyrolean traverses have since been used as locations for "highlining" or "slacklining" (techniques which involve walking across the line like a tightrope, rather than hanging beneath) at great heights. In a sense completing such a slackline would count as a Tyrolean traverse but since slacklines are not typically used as a form of transportation this is not entirely accurate. With the rise in popularity of slacklining and the relative decline in the use of Tyrolean traverse by the climbing community the terms "highlining" and "Tyrolean traverse" have been somewhat confused due to obvious overlaps in the nature of the activity, including preparation and location.

Traveling across a Tyrolean traverse varies from purely using one's hands and legs to the use of prusiks, one way pulleys, or ascenders. In most modern situations the traverser is secured to the line through some combination of climbing harness, webbing, carabiner, and/or pulleys.

There are situations in which a Tyrolean traverse is the preferred way to descend a route, a Tyrolean traverse may allow a climber to avoid a long multi-pitch rope rappel in favor of a walk-off (walking descent); or a Tyrolean traverse may allow the climber to avoid an undesirable or dangerous location such as a steep scree field.

The longest Tyrolean traverse agreed by Guinness is 1550 meters. It was created on September 19th, 2008, in Rila mountain range in Bulgaria. Another famous Tyrolean traverse, set up in 2000, connected Castleton Tower and Rectory desert towers, which are about 500 meters apart.A famous use of a Tyrolean traverse in popular culture was in the opening scene of the 1993 Sylvester Stallone film "Cliffhanger", where a mountain rescue climber (played by Stallone) unsuccessfully attempts to transport a woman across a high Tyrolean traverse, only to have her fall to her death. This scene was later spoofed in the Jim Carrey comedy film "Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls".

Webbing

Webbing is a strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibres, often used in place of rope. It is a versatile component used in climbing, slacklining, furniture manufacturing, automobile safety, auto racing, towing, parachuting, military apparel, load securing, and many other fields.

They may be made of hemp, cotton or linen, but also synthetic fibers such as nylon, polypropylene or polyester. Webbing is also made from exceptionally high-strength material, such as Dyneema, and Kevlar. Webbing is both light and strong, with breaking strengths readily available in excess of 10,000 lb (44.4 kN)There are two basic constructions of webbing. Flat webbing is a solid weave, with seatbelts and most backpack straps being common examples. Tubular webbing consists of a flattened tube, and is commonly used in climbing and industrial applications.

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