Skipping rope

A skipping rope (British English) or jump rope (American English) is a tool used in the sport of skipping/jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads. There are multiple subsets of skipping/jump rope including: single freestyle, single speed, pairs, three person speed (double dutch), and three person freestyle (double dutch freestyle). The events are often separated by sex and age. There are hundreds of competitive teams all around the world. There are a few major organisations that support jump rope as a sport as seen below, schools rarely have jump rope teams, and states do not sanction official events for high school or elementary school. In freestyle events, jumpers use a variety of basic and advanced techniques in a routine of one minute, which is judged by a head judge, content judges, and performance judges. In speed events, a jumper alternates their feet with the rope going around the jumper every time one of their feet hit the ground for 30 seconds, one minute, or three minutes. The jumper is judged on the number of times the right foot touches the ground in those times.

Two girls playing skipping rope
Two girls playing with a skipping rope.
Fairfax County School sports - 22
Boy jumping a long rope in Virginia.
Jumprope navy
Several simultaneous skippers, jumping a single rope

Skipping rope techniques

There are many techniques which can be used when skipping. These can be used individually, or combined in a series, to create a routine.

Solo participants

Basic jump or easy jump

US Navy 101004-N-6427M-149 Airman David Hall, from Buffalo, N.Y., jumps rope during a training session in the hangar bay aboard the aircraft carrie
Basic jump technique

Jump with both feet slightly apart over the rope. Beginners usually master this technique first before moving onto more advanced techniques.

Alternate foot jump (speed step)

US Navy 101101-N-2821G-032 Rear Adm. Mark D. Guadagnini, commander of the Abraham Lincoln Carrier Strike Group, leads a
Alternate foot jump technique

Use alternate feet to jump off the ground. This technique can be used to effectively double the number of jumps per minute as compared to the above technique. This step can be used for speed events.


Jumping Rope Criss-cross
Criss-cross technique

Also known as crossover or cross arms. Perform the basic jump whilst crossing arms in front of the body.

Side Swing

The rope is passed by the side of the participant's body, without jumping it.

EB (front-back cross or sailor)

Perform the criss-cross whilst crossing one arm behind the back.

Double under

A high basic jump, turning the rope twice under the feet. Turning the rope three times is called a triple under. In competitions, participants may attempt quadruple (quads) and quintuple unders (quins) using the same method.


Perform the criss-cross with one arm crossing under the opposite leg from the inside.

Leg over / Crougar

Peter Nestler - Jump-roping around the world
Leg over technique

A basic jump with one arm hooked under the adjacent leg.

Awesome Annie

Also known as Awesome Anna or swish. Alternates between a leg over and a toad without a jump in between.

Inverse toad

Perform the toad whilst one arm crosses the adjacent leg from the outside.


A cross between the inverse toad and the toad, with both arms crossing under one leg.

Frog or Donkey kick

The participant does a handstand, returns to their feet and turns the rope under them. A more advanced version turns the rope during the return to the ground.


A triple-under where the first 'jump' is a side swing, middle jump is a toad, and the final jump in an open.

Competition techniques

Doubletime poster
Advanced competition technique
US Navy 030303-N-9109V-006 Steel Beach picnic aboard USS Saipan
Double Dutch - Competition during a steel beach picnic on the ship USS Saipan (LHA-2)

In competitions, participants are required to demonstrate competence using specific techniques. The selection required depend on the judging system and country in which the tournament is held.

Health effects

Skipping as exercise

Skipping may be used as a cardiovascular workout, similar to jogging or bicycle riding, and has a high MET or intensity level. This aerobic exercise can achieve a "burn rate" of up to 700 to over 1200 calories per hour of vigorous activity, with about 0.1 to nearly 1.1 calories consumed per jump mainly depending upon the speed and intensity of jumps and leg foldings. Ten minutes of skipping is roughly the equivalent of running an eight-minute mile. Skipping for 15–20 minutes is enough to burn off the calories from a candy bar and is equivalent to 45–60 minutes of running depending upon the intensity of jumps and leg swings. Many professional trainers, fitness experts and professional fighters greatly recommend skipping for burning fat over any other alternative exercises like running and jogging.[1]

Weighted skipping ropes are available for such athletes to increase the difficulty and effectiveness of such exercise. Individuals or groups can participate in the exercise, and learning proper techniques is relatively simple compared to many other athletic activities. The exercise is also appropriate for a wide range of ages and fitness levels.



There are two main world organisations: International Rope Skipping Federation (FISAC-IRSF), and the World Jump Rope Federation (WJRF). There have been 11 World Championships (FISAC), with the most recent held in Shanghai, China. There have been 7 World Jump Rope Championships (WJRF); the most recent taking place in Orlando, Florida. Other locations of this championship include Washington DC, France, and Portugal.

World Inter School

The first World Inter School Rope Skipping Championship was held at Dubai, November 2015.[2] The second World Inter School Rope Skipping Championship was held at Eger, Hungary.

United States

Historically in the United States there were two competing jump rope organizations: the International Rope Skipping Organization (IRSO), and the World Rope Skipping Federation (WRSF). IRSO focused on stunt-oriented and gymnastic/athletic type moves, while the WRSF appreciated the aesthetics and form of the exercise. In 1995 these two organizations merged to form the United States Amateur Jump Rope Federation (now, USA Jump Rope). USA Jump Rope hosts annual national tournaments, as well as camps, workshops, and clinics on instruction. Jump rope is also part of the Amateur Athletic Union and participates in their annual AAU Junior Olympic Games.[3][4]

See also


  1. ^ "Jumping rope is cheap, portable, and burns more calories than you might think". WebMD. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
  2. ^ "Seven skips a SECOND! Astonishing video shows Chinese pupil jumping rope faster than you can count".
  3. ^ "". Retrieved 2017-06-13.
  4. ^ "AAU Jump Rope Home". Retrieved 2014-04-01.

Further reading

  • Peter Skolnik (1975). Jump Rope. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-911104-47-X.
  • Elizabeth Loredo and Martha Cooper (1996). The Jump Rope Book. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7611-0448-8.
  • Edward Jackowski (1995). Hold it!. Fireside. ISBN 0-671-89077-8. Compares jumping rope to other exercises
  • Buddy Lee. Jump Rope Training. Human Kinetics Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7360-8159-7.

External links

A. Arthur Giddon

A. Arthur Giddon (April 26, 1909 – November 24, 2010) was an American lawyer, World War II veteran and Major League Baseball batboy.Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Giddon was raised in Brookline. His father, Abram, was in the horse business — commercial hauling ones, the type soon to be replaced by trucks — but the 13-year-old Arthur was more interested in baseball. After classes at Brookline's Edward Devotion Grammar School, he would walk 10 minutes up to Braves Field, the home of the Boston Braves, for whom he served as bat boy during the 1922 season. Early in the season, one day he met two prominent baseball figures at once: Babe Ruth and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, as he recalled on an interview.Giddon graduated from Tufts University in 1932 and received a Juris Doctor degree from Harvard Law School in 1935, to become a successful lawyer. During World War II, he joined the U.S. Navy and served for four years, most of the time in Europe and attained the rank of Lieutenant Commander.In his youth, Giddon was active in Brookline politics, serving as president of the Republican Club and co-chairman of the Young Republicans of Massachusetts. He later served as a member of the 10th District Republican Committee in West Hartford and as a delegate to the 1970 Republican State Convention. In addition, he was on the West Hartford Development Commission and the War Memorial Committee, as well on the Zoning Board of Appeals.Giddon was admitted to the Connecticut Bar in 1948 without examination, and practiced before the state and federal courts of both Connecticut and Massachusetts, including the US Supreme Court and the US District Court of Connecticut. He was in private practice for many years, including a stint as counsel with Cole & Cole until being appointed Chief Public Defender for the Hartford County Superior Court in 1973.After retiring in 1985, Giddon served as a magistrate in the Superior Court. He also was one of the original members of the National Association of Claimant Compensation Attorneys in Connecticut, now the Connecticut Trial Lawyers Association, and later served as vice president. He taught himself Spanish to better assist his clients, but his preferred language was Latin, which he never hesitated to quote, especially in court. In 2001, he was awarded the rank of honorary colonel at Fort Adams, where he trained as a teenager.On his 100th birthday, the Boston Red Sox invited Giddon to be the team's honorary bat boy prior to a game against the New York Yankees at Fenway Park. He reprised his role for his now-beloved Red Sox, wearing a team's jersey with No. 100 and the legend "Big Pappy" on the back. The Red Sox won the contest, 16–11. This story drew headlines in the New York Times and Hartford Courant and an invitation to appear on The Tonight Show.Giddon was a volunteer for Miles of Smiles Day at Connecticut Children's Hospital and belonged to the American Legion Post 96 and the West Hartford Regents. He also served on the Tufts Alumni Council, was a longtime member of Congregation Beth Israel, and was a former president of the Braeburn School PTA in West Hartford.An avid believer in physical exercise, Giddon continued to jump skipping rope 1,200-1,400 times every day in his early 70s. As a centenarian, he continued to exercising regularly on a stationary bicycle.Giddon lived in Hartford, Connecticut for almost 60 years. In 2008, he moved to Bloomfield, where he died at the age of 101.

Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. "Aerobic" means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking.

Bloody Birthday

Bloody Birthday is a 1981 slasher film directed by Ed Hunt and produced by Gerald T. Olson.


Boohbah is a British children's television programme created by Anne Wood. It premiered on 14 April 2003 on ITV in the United Kingdom, followed by its Nick Jr. UK premiere on 30 September 2003. It aired in the United States on PBS Kids. The series is produced by Ragdoll Productions.

The series ran for three seasons, with a total of 104 episodes.


A chant (from French chanter, from Latin cantare, "to sing") is the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases, such as Great Responsories and Offertories of Gregorian chant. Chant may be considered speech, music, or a heightened or stylized form of speech. In the later Middle Ages some religious chant evolved into song (forming one of the roots of later Western music).

Clarence Blum

Clarence Berndt Adolf Blum (10 July 1897 in Liverpool, England - 23 September 1984 in Täby, Sweden) was a British-Swedish sculptor.

Clarence Blum studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm.His art works include a fountain outside the Eastman Institute in Stockholm (1936), the sculptures Fiskegumma at Fisktorget (1949), Malmö and Girl with a skipping rope (1967) at Högalidsparken in Stockholm.

Connie Gilchrist, Countess of Orkney

Connie Gilchrist (23 January 1865 – 9 May 1946) was a British child artist's model, actress, dancer and singer who, at a very early age, attracted the attention of the painters Frederic Leighton, Frank Holl, William Powell Frith and James McNeill Whistler, the writer and photographer Lewis Carroll and aristocrats, Lord Lonsdale and the Duke of Beaufort. She became a popular attraction on stage at the age of 12 in a skipping rope dance routine at London's Gaiety Theatre, where she was then engaged in Victorian burlesque and vaudeville throughout her formative years. Gilchrist, who became known as the "original Gaiety Girl", had abandoned the stage by the time of her marriage in 1892 to Edmond Walter FitzMaurice, 7th Earl of Orkney.

Dimensions (2011 film)

Dimensions is a 2011 science fiction-love story film set in the 1920s and 1930s. The film was directed by Sloane U’Ren and written by Ant Neely, who are a married couple. The film is U’Ren’s feature film directorial debut and is also known as Dimensions: A Line, A Loop, A Tangle of Threads.

Dimensions premiered as part of the 2011 Cambridge Film Festival (U.K.) and outsold, per screen, the U.K. premieres of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Help and Midnight in Paris. After the Cambridge screenings, the film underwent a minor re-edit and was finished in early 2012. Dimensions was voted Best Film 2012 at the 37th Boston Science Fiction Film Festival and awarded the Gort Award. Previous Gort Award winners have included Duncan Jones' Moon. The film went on to win Best Film at the London Independent Film Festival and Best Film at the Long Island International Film Expo. Director Sloane U'Ren was also awarded Best Director at the Long Island International Film Expo.

Jump rope (disambiguation)

Jump rope is a tool used in skipping rope.

Jump rope may also refer to:

"Jump Rope" (song), a 2009 Blue October song

"Jump Rope", a song on the album Gone Fishing by The Cool Kids

"Jump Rope", a song on the album One Man's Trash by Trey Anastasio

"Jump-Rope", a song on the album Flapjacks from the Sky by Gandalf Murphy and the Slambovian Circus of Dreams

Chinese jump rope

List of Mozambican films

This is an alphabetical list of films produced in Mozambique.

List of skill toys

A skill toy is an object or theatrical prop used for dexterity play or an object manipulation performance. A skill toy can be any static or inanimate object with which a person dances, manipulates, spins, tosses, or simply plays. Most skill toys are played alone, although some can be played with multiple people (such as footbag, juggling, and jump rope).


Neolttwigi or nol-ttwigi (Korean: 널뛰기) is a traditional outdoor game of Korean women and girls that is typically enjoyed on traditional holidays such as Korean New Year, Chuseok, and Dano.

Neolttwigi is similar to seesaw, except that participants stand on each end of the Neol (board) and jump, propelling the person opposite into the air. When performed as a spectacle, acrobatic tricks such as flips or skipping rope while in the air are often included.

It is thought that Yangban women developed Neolttwigi to see over the walls that surrounded their homes, as women in traditional Korea were rarely allowed out of their living compounds, except at night. According to the legend, a wife who wants to see a husband trapped in a prison over a high wall could see the face of a husband through Neolttwigi with a wife of another sinner.Neolttwigi also helped to alleviate the lack of exercise.


Skipping can refer to several things:

The hippity-hoppity gait that comes naturally to children

A game or form of exercise using a skipping rope

Stone skipping, throwing a stone so that it bounces off the surface of water

String skipping, a guitar-playing technique

Snowmobile skipping, a sport where drivers hydroplane snowmobiles on lakes or rivers

British slang for dumpster diving

"Skipping", an episode of the television series Teletubbies

"Skipping", a song by Associates from their 1982 album Sulk


Skipping-rope RNA motif

The skipping-rope RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was discovered by bioinformatics.

skipping-rope motif RNAs are found in multiple phyla: Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes. A skipping-rope RNA was also found in a purified phage, specifically the phage Bacillus phage SPbeta, which infects Bacillus organisms that fit into the phylum Firmicutes. Therefore, skipping-rope RNAs likely function, at least sometimes, to perform a function useful to phages.

skipping-rope RNAs likely function in trans as small RNAs, and are often immediately followed on their 3' ends by Rho-independent transcription terminators. Genes that encode apparently homologous proteins are often located nearby to skipping-rope RNAs. These genes can occur 5' or 3' relative to the RNA, and on the same or opposite DNA strand. Occasionally, these proteins match the DUF3800 conserved protein domain, and so skipping-rope RNAs might be an example of DUF3800 RNA motifs. These properties are also similar to the Drum RNA motif.

Skipping-rope rhyme

A skipping rhyme (occasionally skipping-rope rhyme or jump-rope rhyme), is a rhyme chanted by children while skipping. Such rhymes have been recorded in all cultures where skipping is played. Examples of English-language rhymes have been found going back to at least the 17th century. Like most folklore, skipping rhymes tend to be found in many different variations. The article includes those chants used by English speaking children.

Speden Spelit

Speden Spelit was a television game show presented by Spede Pasanen. It aired first on the Finnish channel Kolmoskanava in 1988 and since 1993 on MTV3.

Super Junior Unbelievable Story

Super Junior Unbelievable Story (Hangul: 슈퍼주니어의 기막힌 이야기) is a 25-minute one-act drama starring Super Junior members Sungmin and Leeteuk. It aired on MBCevery1 on March 21, 2008 as part of MBC's Triple Drama lineup.

Although the drama surrounds Super Junior-T, only Sungmin and Leeteuk play themselves while the other members are played by comedians with very little resemblance.


In physics and geometry, the troposkein is the curve an idealized rope assumes when anchored at its ends and spun around its long axis at a constant angular velocity. This shape is similar to the shape assumed by a skipping rope, and is independent of rotational speed in the absence of gravity, but varies with respect to rotational speed in the presence of gravity. The troposkein does not have a closed-form representation; in the absence of gravity, though, it can be approximated by a pair of line segments spanned by a circular arc (tangential to the line segments at its endpoints). The form of a troposkein can be approximated for a given gravitational acceleration, rope density and angular velocity by iterative approximation. This shape is also useful for decreasing the stress experienced by the blades of a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.