Skin care

Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appearance include the use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy.[1] Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.[2]

Skin care is a part of the treatment of wound healing, radiation therapy and some medications.

Cosmetologist applying skincare treatment
A cosmetologist applying a face mask

Background

Skin care is at the interface of cosmetics,[3] and dermatology, a traditional medical discipline;[4] there is some overlap with each of these topics.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines cosmetics as products intended to cleanse or beautify (for instance, shampoos and lipstick). A separate category exists for medications, which are intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body (for instance, sunscreens and acne creams), although some products, such as moisturizing sunscreens and anti-dandruff shampoos, are regulated within both categories.[3][5]

Skin care differs from dermatology, as traditionally practiced, by its additional but less medical scope and by its inclusion of non-physician professionals, such as estheticians and wound care nursing staff.[1][6] Skin care includes modifications of individual behavior and of environmental and working conditions.[6] Nevertheless, dermatology has co-opted some aspects of skin care, particularly in the U.S., and to a significantly lesser extent elsewhere, such as the U.K.[1] Add from[1][2][7][8] [9]

Neonate

Guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed. Nevertheless, the pediatric and dermatologic communities have not reached consensus on best cleansing practices, as good quality scientific evidence is scarce.[10] Immersion in water seems superior to washing alone, and use of synthetic detergents or mild liquid baby cleansers seems comparable or superior to water alone.[10] Add from [11][12]

Sunscreen

Woman applying sunscreen
A woman applying sunscreen

Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. Though the sun is beneficial in order for the human body to get its daily dose of vitamin D, unprotected excessive sunlight can cause extreme damage to the skin. Ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) radiation in the sun's rays can cause sunburn in varying degrees, early ageing and increased risk of skin cancer.[13] UV exposure can cause patches of uneven skin tone and dry out the skin.

This can reduce the skin's elasticity and encourage sagging and wrinkle formation. Sunscreen can protect the skin from sun damage; sunscreen should be applied at least 20 minutes before exposure, and should be re-applied every four hours. Sunscreen should be applied to all areas of the skin that will be exposed to sunlight, and at least a tablespoon (25 ml) should be applied to each limb, the face, chest, and back, to ensure thorough coverage. Many tinted moisturizers, foundations and primers now contain some form of SPF.

Sunscreens may come in the form of creams, gels or lotions; their SPF number indicates their effectiveness in protecting the skin from the sun's radiation. There are sunscreens available to suit every skin type; in particular, those with oily skin should choose non-comedogenic sunscreens; those with dry skins should choose sunscreens with moisturizers to help keep skin hydrated, and those with sensitive skin should choose unscented, hypoallergenic sunscreen and spot-test in an inconspicuous place (such as the inside of the elbow or behind the ear) to ensure that it does not irritate the skin.

Elderly

Skin ageing is associated with increased vulnerability.[14] Skin problems including pruritus are common in the elderly but are often inadequately addressed.[15] A literature review of studies that assessed maintenance of skin integrity in the elderly found most to be low levels of evidence[14] but the review concluded that skin-cleansing with synthetic detergents or amphoteric surfactants induced less skin dryness than using soap and water.[14] Moisturizers with humectants helped with skin dryness, and skin barrier occlusives reduced skin injuries.[14]

Acne

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, between 40 and 50 million Americans suffer from acne each year.[16] While many associate acne with adolescence, acne can occur at any age. Causes of acne can include heredity/genetics, hormones, menstruation, food, and emotional stress.[16]

There are a few ways to help reduce the effects of acne. Use a gentle exfoliating product, such as a scrub that contains sea salt or jojoba beads instead of one that uses sharp seeds, granules, or husks. Exfoliation should only be performed based on skin type. Those with inflammatory acne should exfoliate with caution as the procedure may make conditions worse and consult a Dermatologist before treatment.[17] Some anti-acne creams contain drying agents such as benzoyl peroxide ( in concentrations of 2.5 - 10% ),[18] which can help ease acne in certain cases — particularly among teenagers. However, many adults can't tolerate the intense drying effects and might experience cracked skin and red blemishes the longer they use the product. Users often choose to discontinue using the product if skin is experiencing extreme side effects imposed by the product.

Pressure sore

Pressure sores are injuries to skin and underlying tissue as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin. A known example of pressure sore is bedsore called pressure ulcer.

Stoma

Add from [19][20]

When cleaning the stoma area, plain warm water should be use and dry wipe to gently clean around the stoma. Pat gently and make sure not to rub the area.Put all used wipes in a disposable bag and wash your hands after.

Wound healing

Wound healing is a complex and fragile process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. It is susceptible to interruption or failure that creates non-healing chronic wounds.[21]

Nutrition

Add from

  • 2001 American Society for Clinical Nutrition Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids Esther Boelsma, Henk FJ Hendriks, and Len Roza.

Radiation

Radiation induces skin reactions in the treated area, particularly in the axilla, head and neck, perineum and skin fold regions.[22] Formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties are often used, but no preferred approach or individual product has been identified as best practice.[22][23] Soft silicone dressings that act as barriers to friction may be helpful.[22] In breast cancer, calendula cream may reduce the severity of radiation effects on the dark spot corrector.[23][24] Deodorant use after completing radiation treatment has been controversial but is now recommended for practice.[24] Add from[25][26][27][28]

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are medications used in cancer treatment. These medications commonly cause skin and nail problems, including rashes, dry skin and paronychia.[29] Preventive intensive moisturising with emollient ointments several times, avoidance of water-based creams and water soaks (although in certain circumstances white vinegar or potassium permanganate soaks may help), protection the skin from excessive exposure to sunshine, and soap substitutes which are less dehydrating for the skin than normal soaps, as well as shampoos that reduce the risk of scalp folliculitis, are recommended. Treatment measures with topical antibiotic medication can be helpful.[29][30][31]

Related products

Cosmeceuticals are topically-applied, combination products that bring together cosmetics and "biologically active ingredients". Products which are similar in perceived benefits but ingested orally are known as nutricosmetics. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act "does not recognize any such category as "cosmeceuticals." A product can be a drug, a cosmetic, or a combination of both, but the term "cosmeceutical" has no meaning under the law". Drugs are subject to an intensive review and approval process by FDA. Cosmetics, and these related products, although regulated, are not approved by FDA prior to sale.

Procedures

Skin care procedures include use of botulinum;[32] exfoliation; fillers; laser medicine in cosmetic resurfacing, hair removal, vitiligo, port-wine stain and tattoo removal; photodynamic therapy; microdermabrasion; peels; retinol therapy.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Penzer R, Ersser S. Principles of Skin Care: A Guide for Nurses and Health Care Practitioners. John Wiley & Sons, 2010. ISBN 9781405170871 [1]
  2. ^ a b Lichterfeld A, Hauss A, Surber C, Peters T, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J (2015). "Evidence-Based Skin Care: A Systematic Literature Review and the Development of a Basic Skin Care Algorithm". J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 42 (5): 501–24. doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000162. PMID 26165590.
  3. ^ a b Kessler R. More than Cosmetic Changes: Taking Stock of Personal Care Product Safety. Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.123-A120 [2]
  4. ^ Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Random House, Inc. 2001. Page 537. ISBN 0-375-72026-X.
  5. ^ FDA. Cosmetics: Guidance & Regulation; Laws & Regulations. Prohibited & Restricted Ingredients. [website]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Updated 26 January 2015. [3]
  6. ^ a b Schwanitz HJ, Riehl U, Schlesinger T, et al. (2003). "Skin care management: educational aspects". Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 76 (5): 374–81. doi:10.1007/s00420-002-0428-z. PMID 12719982.
  7. ^ Handbook of Cosmetic Skin Care Second Edition AVI SHAI, HOWARD I. MAIBACH, and ROBERT BARAN Published August 2009 ISBN 9780415467186 Edition Second Pages 308 226 http://informahealthcare.com/isbn/9781616310004
  8. ^ Antioxidants and skin care: The essentials Graf J - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2010
  9. ^ Draelos ZD Active agents in common skin care products - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2010
  10. ^ a b Blume-Peytavi U, Hauser M, Stamatas GN, Pathirana D, Garcia Bartels N (2012). "Skin care practices for newborns and infants: review of the clinical evidence for best practices". Pediatr Dermatol. 29 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2011.01594.x. PMID 22011065.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  11. ^ PMID 10633681 Lund C, Kuller J, Lane A, Lott JW, Raines DA (1999). "Neonatal skin care: the scientific basis for practice". Neonatal Netw. 18 (4): 15–27. doi:10.1891/0730-0832.18.4.15. PMID 10633681.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ Telofski LS, Morello AP 3rd, Mack Correa MC, Stamatas GN (2012). "The infant skin barrier: can we preserve, protect, and enhance the barrier?". Dermatol Res Pract. 2012: 1–18. doi:10.1155/2012/198789. PMC 3439947. PMID 22988452.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Clark A, Hessler JL (Aug 2015). "Skin Care". Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 23 (3): 285–95. doi:10.1016/j.fsc.2015.04.002. PMID 26208767.
  14. ^ a b c d Kottner J, Lichterfeld A, Blume-Peytavi U (2013). "Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review". Br. J. Dermatol. 169 (3): 528–42. doi:10.1111/bjd.12469. PMID 23773110.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ Beauregard S, Gilchrest BA (1987). "A survey of skin problems and skin care regimens in the elderly". Arch Dermatol. 123 (12): 1638–43. doi:10.1001/archderm.1987.01660360066014. PMID 3688904.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  16. ^ a b AAD. Acne facts.. [website]. American Academy of Dermatology. 10 November 2015. [4]
  17. ^ AAD2. Evaluate before you exfoliate./. [website]. American Academy of Dermatology. 20 March 2015. [5]
  18. ^ "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21".
  19. ^ Skin care management of gastrointestinal fistulas JL Dearlove - Surgical Clinics of North America, 1996 - Elsevier* Peristomal skin care: an overview of available products P Black - Br J Nurs, 2007 - silesse.com
  20. ^ Nix D, Ermer-Seltun J (2004). "A review of perineal skin care protocols and skin barrier product use". Ostomy Wound Manage. 50 (12): 59–67. PMID 15632457.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  21. ^ Flanagan M. Wound Healing and Skin Integrity: Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. ISBN 9780470659779
  22. ^ a b c Herst PM (2014). "Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review". J Med Radiat Sci. 61 (2): 119–25. doi:10.1002/jmrs.46. PMC 4175840. PMID 26229646.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ a b McQuestion M (2006). "Evidence-based skin care management in radiation therapy". Semin Oncol Nurs. 22 (3): 163–73. doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2006.04.004. PMID 16893745.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  24. ^ a b McQuestion M (2011). "Evidence-based skin care management in radiation therapy: clinical update". Semin Oncol Nurs. 27 (2): e1–17. doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2011.02.009. PMID 21514477.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  25. ^ Aistars J (Aug 2006). "The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation". Clin J Oncol Nurs. 10 (4): 487–92. doi:10.1188/06.CJON.487-492. PMID 16927902.
  26. ^ Bolderston A, Lloyd NS, Wong RK, Holden L, Robb-Blenderman L (2006). "The prevention and management of acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy: a systematic review and practice guideline". Support Care Cancer. 14 (8): 802–17. doi:10.1007/s00520-006-0063-4. PMID 16758176.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  27. ^ Kumar S, Juresic E, Barton M, Shafiq J (Jun 2010). "Management of skin toxicity during radiation therapy: a review of the evidence". J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 54 (3): 264–79. doi:10.1111/j.1754-9485.2010.02170.x. PMID 20598015.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ Trueman E (2015). "Management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions". Int J Palliat Nurs. 21 (4): 187–92. doi:10.12968/ijpn.2015.21.4.187. PMID 25901591.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  29. ^ a b Califano R, Tariq N, Compton S, et al. (2015). "Expert Consensus on the Management of Adverse Events from EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the UK". Drugs. 75 (12): 1335–48. doi:10.1007/s40265-015-0434-6. PMC 4532717. PMID 26187773.
  30. ^ Thatcher N, Nicolson M, Groves RW, et al. (2009). "Expert consensus on the management of erlotinib-associated cutaneous toxicity in the U.K.". Oncologist. 14 (8): 840–7. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0055. PMID 19679688.
  31. ^ Kiyohara Y, Yamazaki N, Kishi A (2013). "Erlotinib-related skin toxicities: treatment strategies in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69 (3): 463–72. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.02.025. PMID 23602600.
  32. ^ http://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/botox_cosmetic_pi.pdf
Anti-aging cream

Anti-aging creams are predominantly moisturiser-based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing, masking or preventing signs of skin aging. These signs are laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and photoaging, which includes erythema (redness), dyspigmentation (brown discolorations), solar elastosis (yellowing), keratoses (abnormal growths), and poor texture.Despite great demand, many anti-aging products and treatments have not been proven to give lasting or major positive effects. One study found that the best performing creams reduced wrinkles by less than 10% over 12 weeks, which is not noticeable to the human eye. Another study found that cheap moisturisers were as effective as high-priced anti-wrinkle creams. A 2009 study at Manchester University showed that some ingredients had an effect.Traditionally, anti-aging creams have been marketed towards women, but products specifically targeting men are increasingly common.

Artistry (cosmetics)

Artistry is a brand of skin care and cosmetic products, manufactured by Access Business Group and sold through direct selling by Amway in 108 countries and territories worldwide.

As of 2000, the Artistry range included over 400 products.In May 2007, it was announced by Skate Canada and Amway that Artistry Cosmetics would be the official skin care and cosmetics sponsor for Skate Canada events and the Skate Canada national team.In 2008, Artistry announced actress Sandra Bullock as the face of Artistry Creme LuXury.In 2010, Artistry and Amway became sponsors of the Miss America competition, with the winner taking the role of Artistry spokesperson.The Artistry Essentials skincare line won AmeriStar’s 2007 Package Competition in the category of Health & Beauty Aids Artistry Créme Luxury (also known Créme L/X) won the Skin Care Prestige category in the International Package Design Awards (IPDA) in 2008 and was nominated as a finalist in the Best New Skincare Product of the Year category for the 2009 UK Beauty Awards.

Baby powder

Baby powder is an astringent powder used for preventing diaper rash, as a deodorant, and for other cosmetic uses. It may be composed of talcum (in which case it is also called talcum powder) or corn starch (in which case it is also called corn starch). Talcum powder is dangerous if inhaled since it may cause aspiration pneumonia or granuloma. Pediatricians generally prefer cornstarch to talc because it is unlikely to be easily inhaled. Baby powder can also be used as a shampoo, cleaning agent, and freshener.Some studies have found a statistical relationship between talc applied to the perineal area by women and incidence of ovarian cancer. However, there is not a consensus that the two are linked. In 2017, over 1,000 U.S. women sued Johnson & Johnson for covering up the possible cancer risk with its Baby Powder product.Baby powder is also efficient for removing greasy hair, or oil on clothes.

Cleanser

The term cleanser refers to a product that cleans or removes dirt or other substances. A cleanser could be a detergent, and there are many types of cleansers that are produced with a specific objective or focus. For instance a degreaser or carburator cleanser used in automotive mechanics for cleaning certain engine and car parts.

Other varieties include the ones used in cosmetology and dermatology or skin care. In this case, a cleanser is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil, dirt, and other types of pollutants from the skin of the face. This helps to unclog pores and prevent skin conditions such as acne. A cleanser can be used as part of a skincare regimen together with a toner and moisturizer.

Using a cleanser to remove dirt is considered to be a better alternative to bar soap or another form of skin cleanser not specifically formulated for the face for the following reasons:

Bar soap has a high pH (in the area of 9 to 10), and the skin's surface pH is on average 4.7. This means that soap can change the balance present in the skin to favor the overgrowth of some types of bacteria, increasing acne.

Bar cleansers have thickeners that allow them to assume a bar shape. These thickeners can clog pores, leading to acne.

Using bar soap on the face can remove natural oils from the skin that form a barrier against water loss. This causes the sebaceous glands to subsequently overproduce oil, a condition known as reactive seborrhoea, which will lead to clogged pores. In order to prevent drying out the skin, many cleansers incorporate moisturizers.

Cosmetics

Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body. Many cosmetics are designed for use of applying to the face, hair, and body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds; some being derived from natural sources (such as coconut oil), and some being synthetics or artificial. Cosmetics applied to the face to enhance its appearance are often called make-up or makeup. Common make-up items include: lipstick, mascara, eye shadow, foundation, blush, and contour. Whereas other common cosmetics can include skin cleansers, body lotions, shampoo and conditioner, hairstyling products (gel, hair spray, etc.), perfume and cologne.

In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions". This broad definition includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.

Destination spa

A destination spa is a resort centered on a spa, such as a mineral spa. Historically many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or mineral springs; in the era before modern biochemical knowledge and pharmacotherapy, "taking the waters" was often believed to have great medicinal powers. Even without such mystic powers, however, the stress relief and health education of spas also often has some degree of positive effect on health. Typically over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, and special interest programming.

Some destination spas offer an all-inclusive program that includes facilitated fitness classes, healthy cuisine, educational classes and seminars as well as similar services to a beauty salon or a day spa. Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting for a treatment or pure vacation. Some destination spas are in exotic locations or in spa towns.

Destination spas have been in use for a considerable time, and some are no longer used but preserved as elements of earlier history; for example, Gilroy Yamato Hot Springs in California is such a historically used spa whose peak patronage occurred in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Resort spas are generally located in resorts and offer similar services via rooms with services, meals, body treatments and fitness a la carte.

Elizabeth Arden, Inc.

Elizabeth Arden, Inc. is a major American cosmetics, skin care and fragrance company founded by Elizabeth Arden. As of September 7, 2016, the company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Revlon, Inc.

Facial

A facial is a family of skin care treatments for the face, including steam, exfoliation, extraction, creams, lotions, facial masks, peels, and massage. They are normally performed in beauty salons, but are also a common spa treatment. They are used for general skin health as well as for specific skin conditions. Types of facials include European facial, LED light therapy facials, and mini-facials.

Garnier

Garnier (French pronunciation: ​[ɡaʁnje]) is a mass market cosmetics brand of French cosmetics company L'Oréal. It produces hair care and skin care products.

Lip balm

Lip balm or lip salve is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to moisturize and relieve chapped or dry lips, angular cheilitis, stomatitis, or cold sores. Lip balm often contains beeswax or carnauba wax, camphor, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, paraffin, and petrolatum, among other ingredients. Some varieties contain dyes, flavor, fragrance, phenol, salicylic acid, and sunscreens.

Lise Watier

Lise Watier is a Canadian prestige cosmetic company and brand, launched in 1972 by Madame Lise Watier, and distributed through department and select drugstores.

Lotion

A lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to the skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity, typically due to lower water content. Lotions are applied to external skin with bare hands, a brush, a clean cloth, or cotton wool.

While a lotion may be used as a medicine delivery system, many lotions, especially hand lotions and body lotions are meant instead to simply smooth, moisturize, soften and perhaps perfume the skin.Some skincare products, such as sunscreen and moisturizer, may be available in multiple formats, such as lotions, gels, creams, or sprays.

Moisturizer

Emollients are cosmetic preparations used for protecting, moisturizing, and lubricating the skin. These functions are normally performed by sebum produced by healthy skin. The word "emollient" is derived from the Latin verb mollire, to soften.

Natural skin care

Natural skin care uses topical creams and lotions made of ingredients available in nature. Much of the recent literature reviews plant-derived ingredients, which may include herbs, roots, flowers and essential oils, but natural substances in skin care products include animal-derived products such as beeswax, and minerals. These substances may be combined with various carrier agents, preservatives, surfactants, humectants and emulsifiers.There are no legal definitions in the U.S. for advertising terms "natural" or "organic" when applied to personal care products. Consumers often express a preference for skin products with organic and natural ingredients. The personal skin care market based on natural products has shown strong growth. Clinical and laboratory studies have identified activities in many natural ingredients that have potential beneficial activities for personal skin care, but there is a shortage of convincing evidence for natural product efficacy in medical problems.Some natural products and therapies may be harmful, either to the skin or systemically. People prone to allergies should pay careful attention to what they use on their skin. Dermatologists may feel that there is enough scientific evidence to assist in the selection or avoidance of particular natural ingredients.

Neutrogena

Neutrogena is an American brand of skin care, hair care and cosmetics, that is headquartered in Los Angeles, California. According to product advertising at their website, Neutrogena products are distributed in more than 70 countries.

Neutrogena was founded in 1930 by Emanuel Stolaroff, and was originally a cosmetics company named Natone. It is now part of the US-based Johnson & Johnson conglomerate, which bought the independent company in 1994.

Origins (cosmetics)

Origins is a cosmetics brand from the US, founded in 1990 by Leonard Lauder, son of Estée Lauder. It is one of the original brands of The Estée Lauder Companies.

SkinCeuticals

SkinCeuticals is a skin care line founded in 1997 by Alden Pinnell and Russell Moon. The products are based on a combination of antioxidant ingredients, and were developed and patented by Sheldon R. Pinnell, the J. Lamar Callaway Professor Emeritus of Dermatology at Duke University Medical Center.

L’Oreal purchased SkinCeuticals in 2005, in what was honored as the "Deal of Year/Southwest" award from The Deal finance and business magazine. Moon and Pinnell were named "Entrepreneurs of the Year/Southwest Division" by Ernst & Young in 2003.SkinCeuticals sells its products through a distribution network including dermatologists, cosmetic surgeons, and spas. Its headquarters remain in Dallas, Texas.

The Face Shop

The Face Shop (Hangul: 더페이스샵) (stylized as THE FACE SHOP) is a South Korea-based skincare and cosmetics manufacturer, retailer and a franchise business. It is a subsidiary of LG Household & Health Care of LG Corporation. Its products includes body, bath, skin care and make-up aimed at both women and men. Its headquarters is in the LG Gwanghwamun Building in Jongno-gu, Seoul.

Toner (skin care)

In cosmetics, skin toner or simply toner refers to a lotion or wash designed to cleanse the skin and shrink the appearance of pores, usually used on the face. Toners can be applied to the skin in different ways:

On damp cotton wool. (This is the most frequently used method.)

Spraying onto the face.

By applying a tonic gauze facial mask—a piece of gauze is covered with toner and left on the face for a few minutes.Users often apply moisturiser after toner has dried.

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