Six point movement

The six point movement was a movement in West Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.[1] The movement's main agenda was to realize the six demands put forward by a coalition of Bengali nationalist political parties in 1966, to end the perceived exploitation of East Pakistan by the West Pakistani rulers.[2] It is considered a milestone on the road to Bangladesh's independence.[3]

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Announcing 6 Points At Lahore
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announcing the six points in Lahore

Background

Following the partition of India, the new state of Pakistan came into being. The inhabitants of East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) made up the majority of its population, and exports from East Pakistan (such as jute) were a majority of Pakistan's export income. However, East Pakistanis did not feel they had a proportional share of political power and economic benefits within Pakistan. A statistical overview of economic discrimination is shown in this table:[4]

Year Spending on West Pakistan (in crore rupees) Amount spent on West as percentage of total Spending on East Pakistan (in crore rupees) Amount spent on East as percentage of total
% of total population 36.23 63.77
1950–55 1,129 68.31 524 31.69
1955–60 1,655 75.95 524 24.05
1960–65 3,355 70.5 1,404 29.5
1965–70 5,195 70.82 2,141 29.18
Total 11,334 71.16 4,593 28.84
Source: Reports of the Advisory Panels for the Fourth Five Year Plan 1970–75, Vol. I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan (quick reference: crore = 107, or 10 million)

East Pakistan was facing a critical situation after being subjected to continuous discrimination on a regional basis, year after year. As a result, the economists, intelligentsia, and the politicians of East Pakistan started to raise questions about this discrimination, giving rise to the historic six-point movement.[4]

The six points

The six points are noted as being:[2]

  1. The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sense based on the Lahore Resolution, and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a Legislature directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise.[1]
  2. The federal government should deal with only two subjects: Defence and Foreign Affairs, and all other residual subjects should be vested in the federating states.[1]
  3. Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should be introduced; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate Banking Reserve should be established and separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan.[1]
  4. The power of taxation and revenue collection should be vested in the federating units and the federal centre would have no such power. The federation would be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures.[1]
  5. There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries.[1]
  6. East Pakistan should have a separate military or paramilitary force, and Navy headquarters should be in East Pakistan.[1]

Reception

The proposal was rejected by politicians from West Pakistan and non Awami League politicians from East Pakistan. It was rejected by the President of All Pakistan Awami League Nawabzada Nasarullah Khan. It was also rejected by National Awami Party, Jamaat-i-Islami, and Nizam-i-Islam.[4] The movement had the support of the population of East Pakistan.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Six-point Programme - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  2. ^ a b "Six Points and June 7, 1966". The Daily Star. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  3. ^ "Historic Six-Point Day today". The Daily Star. 2012-06-07. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  4. ^ a b c "The historic six-point movement and its impact on the struggle for independence". The Daily Star. 2008-06-07. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  5. ^ Manik, M Waheeduzzaman. "Revisiting the significance of the historic Six-Point Movement". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
1969 Mass uprising in East Pakistan

The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The uprising consisted of a series of mass demonstrations and sporadic conflicts between government armed forces and the demonstrators. Although the unrest began in 1966 with the Six point movement of Awami League, it got momentum at the beginning of 1969 and culminated in the resignation of Field Marshal Ayub Khan, the first military ruler of Pakistan. The uprising also led to the withdrawal of Agartala Conspiracy Case and acquittal of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his colleagues from the case.

Admiral Ahsan Mission

Ahsan's Formula (or an Admiral Ahsan Mission) was a fact-finding expedition and peace initiative mission dispatched by the Pakistani government to East Pakistan in early 1971. The mission was led by Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, then-Governor of East Pakistan and commander of the East-Pakistani military, with the support from his chief of staff Lieutenant-General Yaqub Ali Khan to investigate the prelude causes of the civil war progress and to workout a peace initiative to end the political crises in the East Pakistan to avoid international humiliation of Pakistan.The mission came in the wake of increasingly strained and difficult foreign relations between Pakistan and East Pakistan since the civil unrest had gripped East Pakistan as Awami League's demonstrations and demands for the provincial autonomy against Pakistan's central administration after the general elections held in 1970. Following the violent raids in Dhaka University by the East-Pakistani police supported by the military stationed in East, and ultimatum issued by India to intervene in the conflict, the Pakistan had authorized Admiral Ahsan to carry out the investigations into a possible Indian intervention through a cable communication to work out a possible peace solution to end violence in East.The recommendations based on the studies were roughly based on six-point movement proposed by the Awami League in 1969 and called for:

Center would control the defence, military, foreign, national security, and the currency.

Province(s) would have the authority to raise revenue and would fund the subject of the federation.

Repatriation of Western Pakistanis citizens and bureaucrats to Pakistan with Eastern Pakistanis stationed back to East.

Equal divisions of national assets between Pakistan and East Pakistan based on population census.The Mission also called for Pakistan becoming a co-federation with Yahya Khan as President with Mujib being the Prime Minister of East while Bhutto being Prime Minister of Pakistan. Civil servants from Pakistan stationed in East would repatriated to Pakistan and the national assets would equally be divided between East and West Pakistan. The proposal was met with strong support from the international community and India fell in line though reluctant.The mission was met with support from the President Yahya Khan, opposition leaders Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the international community while India fell in line despite criticising Pakistan. However, the Mission was not supported by the military elements in the Yahya administration who debated acrimoniously over the scope of the mission's recommendations among the advisors in Yahya administration. Eventually, the mission studies and recommendations at the National Security Council cabinet meeting were vetoed and no further study missions were directed to the East Pakistan.By the fall of 1971, the mission's recommendations were bypassed with Admiral Ahsan submitting his resignation and posted back to Pakistan, followed by the resignation of Lieutenant-General Yaqub Ali Khan.

Awami League

The Bangladesh Awami League (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.

The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was founded in Dhaka, the capital of the Pakistani province of East Bengal, in 1949 by Bengali nationalists Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, Shawkat Ali, Yar Mohammad Khan, Shamsul Huq, and joined later Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy who went on to become Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Pakistan Awami Muslim League was established as the Bengali alternative to the domination of the Muslim League in Pakistan and over centralisation of the government. The party quickly gained massive popular support in East Bengal, later named East Pakistan, and eventually led the forces of Bengali nationalism in the struggle against West Pakistan's military and political establishment.

The party under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, led the struggle for independence, first through massive populist and civil disobedience movements, such as the Six Point Movement and 1971 Non-Cooperation Movement, and then during the Bangladesh Liberation War.

After the emergence of independent Bangladesh, the Awami League won the first general elections in 1973 but was overthrown in 1975 after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The party was forced by subsequent military regimes onto the political sidelines and many of its senior leaders and activists were executed and jailed. After the restoration of democracy in 1990, the Awami League emerged as one of the principal players of Bangladeshi politics.

Amongst the leaders of the Awami League, five have become the President of Bangladesh, four have become the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and one became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The incumbent Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, has headed the party since 1981.

Bengali nationalism

Bengali nationalism (Bengali: বাঙালি জাতীয়তাবাদ) is a form of nationalism that focuses on Bengalis as a singular nation. It is one of the four fundamental principles according to the original Constitution of Bangladesh. It was the main driving force behind the creation of the Independent nation state of Bangladesh through the 1971 liberation war. The people of Bengali ethnicity speak Bengali Language. Apart from Bangladesh, people of Bengali ethnicity live across the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and some parts of Jharkhand known as united Bengal during the British period. After the 19th century's Bengal Renaissance occurred in Bengal, it then was the four decades long Bengali Nationalist Movement that shook the region which included the Bengali Language Movement, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the creation of Bangladesh in 1971.

Call Ready

Call-Ready (Bengali: কল-রেডী) is a historic microphone and sound service company based in Bangladesh. The Call-Ready service became very popular between 1950s and 1970s in East Pakistan before the Independence of Bangladesh. This mic service has been used in almost every movements during that period. The notable events where the service was used, the Bengali language movement in 1952, 1954 East Bengali legislative election, the Six point movement in 1966, 1969 Mass uprising, 1970 Pakistani general election and 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu.

Districts of Bangladesh

The divisions of Bangladesh are divided into 64 districts, or zila (কুষ্টিয়া জিলা/কুষ্টিয়া জেলা=Zela/zila). The capital of a district is called a district seat (zila sadar). The districts are further subdivided into 493 sub-districts or upazila (কুষ্টিয়া উপজেলা upojela).

Divisions of Bangladesh

The administration of Bangladesh is divided into eight major regions called divisions (বিভাগ bibhag). Each division is named after the major city within its jurisdiction that also serves as the administrative headquarters of that division. Each division is further split into several districts (জেলা jela) which are then further sub-divided into Upazilas (উপজেলা upôjela).

East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Myanmar, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal.

East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra. The Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957 and a Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan. The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan replaced Mirza as president and launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962 which ended universal suffrage. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy. The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, usurped the presidency and enacted martial law. in 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election. The Awami League emerged as the single largest party, followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party. The military junta stalled in accepting the results, leading to civil disobedience, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. East Pakistan seceded with the help of India.

The East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was the legislative body of the territory.

Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. The economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan, even though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan. The Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament. The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca.

Foreign policy of Bangladesh

Foreign Policy of Bangladesh consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the Constitution of the country to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs formulates and executes the policies according to the guidance from the relevant section of the Constitution of Bangladesh.

Government Seal of Bangladesh

The Government Seal of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ সরকারের সীল - Bānglādēś sarkārēr sīl) used by the Cabinet of Bangladesh and the Government of Bangladesh on official documents.

One version is used on the cover page of Bangladeshi passports.

The Seal features the same design elements as the first Flag of Bangladesh in a circular setting. The outer white ring is shown with the caption of the official name of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh in Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার with 4 red 5-pointed stars. In centre the country map on a red disc.

Independence Day (Bangladesh)

The Independence Day of Bangladesh (Bengali: স্বাধীনতা দিবস Shadhinôta Dibôs), taking place on 26 March, is a national holiday. It commemorates the country's declaration of independence from Pakistan in the late hours of 25 March 1971.

List of years in Bangladesh

This is a list of years in Bangladesh. See also the timeline of Bangladeshi history.

National Martyrs’ Memorial

National Martyrs’ Memorial (Bengali: জাতীয় স্মৃতি সৌধ Jatiya Smriti Saudha) is the national monument of Bangladesh, set up in the memory of those who died in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought independence and separated Bangladesh from Pakistan. The monument is located in Savar, about 35 km north-west of the capital, Dhaka. It was designed by Syed Mainul Hossain.

Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence

The independence of Bangladesh was declared on 26 March 1971 at the onset of the Bangladesh Liberation War by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman . Later on March 27, the declaration was broadcast by Major Ziaur Rahman over radio, (declaration by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the radio broadcast by Ziaur Rahman were widely circulated in the international press in late March 1971). On 17 April, the Provisional Government of Bangladesh issued a proclamation on the basis of the previous declaration and established an interim constitution for the independence movement.

Provisional Government of Bangladesh

The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, most popularly known as Mujibnagar Government was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971. It was the supreme leadership of the Bangladeshi liberation movement. It included the first cabinet of Bangladesh; the nascent Bangladeshi diplomatic corps; the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh; the Mukti Bahini military, paramilitary and guerrilla forces; and the Independent Bangladesh Radio.

The provisional government was formed in the town of Mujibnagar (formerly Baidyanathtala). Its capital in exile was Calcutta, the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and the former capital of British India, which hosted thousands of Bangladeshi refugees escaping the 1971 genocide. The provisional government included many defectors from the Pakistani government, foreign service and military; as well as leading intellectuals and cultural figures from East Pakistan. Its chief executive was Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Bangladeshi Prime Minister.

A worldwide campaign was undertaken by the Provisional Government to garner support for Bangladesh's independence, genocide victims and refugees. It appointed special envoys and operated representative missions in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and London among many other cities.

Sexuality in Bangladesh

Sexuality in Bangladesh is influenced by religion and culture. Bangladeshi culture is predominantly conservative and patriarchal. Several issues in Bangladesh, including sexual education, homosexuality, and sexual behavior are taboo topics.

Shahbag

Shahbag or Shahbagh (also Shahbaugh, Bengali: শাহবাগ, translit. Shāhbāg, IPA: [ˈʃaːbaːɣ]) is a major neighbourhood and a police precinct or thana in Dhaka, the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is also a major public transport hub. It is a junction between two contrasting sections of the city—Old Dhaka and New Dhaka—which lie, respectively, to its south and north. Developed in the 17th century during Mughal rule in Bengal, when Old Dhaka was the provincial capital and a centre of the flourishing muslin industry, it came to neglect and decay in early 19th century. In the mid-19th century, the Shahbag area was developed as New Dhaka became a provincial centre of the British Raj, ending a century of decline brought on by the passing of Mughal rule.

Shahbag is the location of the nation's leading educational and public institutions, including the University of Dhaka, the oldest and largest public university in Bangladesh, Dhaka Medical College, the largest medical college in the country, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), and the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, the largest public university for technological studies in the country. Shahbag hosts many street markets and bazaars. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the Shahbag area has become a venue for celebrating major festivals, such as the Bengali New Year and Basanta Utsab.

Shahbag's numerous ponds, palaces and gardens have inspired the work of writers, singers, and poets. With Dhaka University at its centre, the thana has been the origin of major political movements in the nation's 20th century history, including the All India Muslim Education Conference in 1905, which led to the All India Muslim League. In 1947, to both the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan; the Bengali Language Movement in 1952, which led to the recognition of Bengali as an official language of Pakistan; and the Six point movement in 1966, which led to the nation's independence. It was here, on 7 March 1971, that Sheikh Mujibur Rahman delivered a historic speech calling for the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan, and here too, later that year, that the Pakistani Army surrendered in the Liberation War of Bangladesh. The area has since become a staging ground for protests by students and other groups. It was the site of public protests by around 30,000 civilians on 8 February 2013, against a lenient ruling against war criminals.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bengali: শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান); (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bangladeshi politician and statesman. He is the founding father of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. He served as the first President of Bangladesh and later as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 17 April 1971 until his assassination on 15 August 1975. He is considered to be the driving force behind the independence of Bangladesh. He is popularly dubbed with the title of Bangabandhu (Bôngobondhu "Friend of Bengal") by the people of Bangladesh. He became a leading figure in and eventually the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan-based political party in Pakistan. Mujib is credited as an important figure in efforts to gain political autonomy for East Pakistan and later as the central figure behind the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Thus, he is regarded Jatir Janak or Jatir Pita (Jatir Jônok or Jatir Pita, both meaning "Father of the Nation") of Bangladesh. His daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current leader of the Awami League and also the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

An advocate of democracy and socialism, Mujib rose to the ranks of the Awami League and East Pakistani politics as a charismatic and forceful orator. He became popular for his opposition to the ethnic and institutional discrimination of Bengalis in Pakistan, who comprised the majority of the state's population. At the heightening of sectional tensions, he outlined a 6-point autonomy plan and was jailed by the regime of Field Marshal Ayub Khan for treason. Mujib led the Awami League to win the first democratic election of Pakistan in 1970. Despite gaining a majority, the League was not invited by the ruling military junta to form a government. As civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, Mujib indirectly announced independence of Bangladesh during a landmark speech on 7 March 1971. On 26 March 1971, the Pakistan Army responded to the mass protests with Operation Searchlight, in which Prime Minister-elect Mujib was arrested and flown to solitary confinement in West Pakistan, while Bengali civilians, students, intellectuals, politicians and military defectors were murdered as part of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. During Mujib's absence, many Bengalis joined the Mukti Bahini and defeated the Pakistan Armed Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War. After Bangladesh's independence, Mujib was released from Pakistani custody due to international pressure and returned to Dhaka in January 1972 after a short visit to Britain and India.

Sheikh Mujib became the Prime Minister of Bangladesh under a parliamentary system adopted by the new country. His government enacted a constitution proclaiming socialism and secular democracy. The Awami League won a huge mandate in the country's first general election in 1973. However, Mujib faced challenges of rampant unemployment, poverty and corruption, as well as the Bangladesh famine of 1974. The government was criticized for denying constitutional recognition to indigenous minorities and human rights violations by its security forces, notably the National Defence Force para militia. Amid rising political agitation, Mujib initiated one party socialist rule in January 1975. Six months later, he and most of his family were assassinated by renegade army officers during a coup. A martial law government was subsequently established. In a 2004 BBC poll, Mujib was voted the Greatest Bengali of all time.

Tofazzal Hossain Manik Miah

Tofazzal Hossain Manik Miah (c. 1911 – 1 June 1969) was a Bengali journalist and politician. He served as the founding editor of The Daily Ittefaq. He wrote the editorial Rajnoitik Moncho (The Political Stage). Most of his journalists were considered leftist as Miah followed the pattern of Awami League. According to journalist and editor of Shongbad Bozlur Rahman, Awami activists followed his editorial more than any actual decision of a meeting.

Bangladesh Liberation War
Sheikh Mujib Administration
Family
Family relatives
Legacy

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