Siwanoy

The Native American Siwanoy or Sinawoy were a tribe of the Wappinger Confederacy, in what is now the New York City area.[1] They spoke Delaware language of the Algonquian language family. By the mid-17th century, when their territory became hotly contested between Dutch and English colonial interests, the Siwanoy were settled along the East River and Long Island Sound between Hell Gate and Norwalk, Connecticut, a territory that included eastern parts of what became the Bronx and Westchester County in New York and southwestern Fairfield County in Connecticut.

History

The first European settler to the territory was Jonas Bronck, who had arrived in New Netherland in 1639, and negotiated the purchase of 254 acres of land along the Harlem River in what is today's Mott Haven.

They are known for their massacre of Anne Hutchinson and her family during Kieft's War in 1643. In August 1643, a group of Siwanoy led by the sachem Wampage massacred Hutchinson's household of 16 people near Split Rock, an ancient landmark. The only survivor was Hutchinson's nine-year-old daughter, Susanna, who may have been spared because of her red hair. The attack was in revenge for New Netherland governor Willem Kieft's February massacres of Wappinger refugees from Wecquaesgeek at Corlaer's Hook and Pavonia. Like thousands of Native Americans and numerous colonists, Hutchinson became caught up in the bloody reprisals which characterized the two year conflict. The Siwanoy attack killed Hutchinson, six of her children, and nine others.[2]

On June 27, 1654, Thomas Pell, a Connecticut physician, obtained title to a large amount of Siwanoy territory in New York through a treaty with a number of sachems, including Wampage. This included the Pelham Islands and parts of the mainland Bronx and coastal Westchester. New Netherland authorities did not recognize his title. They accused the New Englanders of continued encroachment upon Dutch territory. Pell's coup turned out to be decisive in New York history. A militia of his colonists from Minneford Island (present-day City Island) supported the English naval invasion force that conquered New Amsterdam in 1664.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cook, Sherburne Friend. "The Indian Population of New England in the Seventeenth Century", p-60
  2. ^ p. 160 of: Shorto, Russell (2004). The Island at the Center of the World. New York: Doubleday/Vintage. p. 384. ISBN 1-4000-7867-9.

References

Cook, Sherburne Friend. "The Indian Population of New England in the Seventeenth Century", University of California Press, 1976. p.60. ISBN 0-520-09553-7

1916 PGA Championship

The 1916 PGA Championship was the first PGA Championship, which is now considered one of golf's major championships. It was held October 10–14 at Siwanoy Country Club in Bronxville, New York, just north of New York City

in Westchester County.

The field of 32 golfers qualified by sectional tournaments. They competed in 36-hole match play rounds in a single-elimination tournament. In the Saturday final, Jim Barnes defeated Jock Hutchison, 1 up. Walter Hagen and Willie Macfarlane were the other semifinalists.

Barnes and Hutchison had arrived at the final hole level. Both players were short of the green with their second shots and both hit their chip shots to within five feet of the hole. A measurement was needed to determine who was away and Barnes was one inch closer. Hutchison missed his putt and Barnes calmly holed his to become the first PGA of America champion.

Bronx River

The Bronx River, approximately 24 miles (39 km) long, flows through southeast New York in the United States and drains an area of 38.4 square miles (99 km2). It is named after colonial settler Jonas Bronck. The Bronx River is the only fresh water river in New York City.It originally rose in what is now the Kensico Reservoir, in Westchester County north of New York City. With the construction of the Kensico Dam in 1885, however, the river was cut off from its natural headwaters and today a small tributary stream serves as its source. The Bronx River flows south past White Plains, then south-southwest through the northern suburbs, passing through Edgemont, Tuckahoe, Eastchester, and Bronxville. It forms the border between the large cities of Yonkers and Mount Vernon, and flows into the northern end of The Bronx, where it divides East Bronx from West Bronx, southward through Bronx Park, New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo and continues through neighborhoods of the South Bronx. It empties into the East River, a tidal strait connected to Long Island Sound, between the Soundview and Hunts Point neighborhoods.

In the 17th century, the river—called by the natives "Aquehung"—served as a boundary between loosely associated bands under sachems of the informal confederacy of the Wecquaesgeek, Europeanized as the Wappinger; the east bank of the river was the boundary for the Siwanoy, clammers and fishermen. The same line would be retained when manors were granted to the Dutch and the English. The Algonkian significance of the name is variously reported; the acca- element, as represented in the Long Island place-name Accabonac, was deformed into the more familiar, suitably watery European phoneme aque-.

The tract purchased by Jonas Bronck in 1639 lay between the Harlem River and the river that came to be called "Bronck's river".

Harding Park, Bronx

Harding Park also known as "Little Puerto Rico" is a private waterfront community geographically located in the Clason Point section of the Bronx, a borough in New York City. The neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 9. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: O'Brien Avenue to the north, White Plains Road to the east, the East River to the south, and the Bronx River to the west. White Plains Road is the primary thoroughfare through Harding Park. ZIP code is 10473. The area is patrolled by the 43rd Precinct, Sector Adam located at 900 Fteley Avenue in the Soundview section of the Bronx. As in Silver Beach and Edgewater Park in Throggs Neck, a peninsular location and irregular street grid incongruent with the main Bronx grid lend an air of isolation.

Hunter Island (Bronx)

Hunter Island (also Hunters Island or Hunter's Island) is a 166-acre (67 ha) peninsula and former island in the Bronx, New York City, United States. It is situated on the western end of Long Island Sound, along the sound's northwestern shore, and is part of Pelham Bay Park in the northeastern part of the Bronx. Hunter Island initially covered 215 acres (87 ha). It was part of the Pelham Islands, the historical name for a group of islands in western Long Island Sound that once belonged to Thomas Pell. The island is connected to another former island, Twin Island, on the northeast.

The area around Hunter Island was originally settled by the Siwanoy Native Americans. One of Pell's descendants, Joshua Pell, moved onto the island in 1743. It was subsequently owned by the Hunter and Henderson families, and the island was briefly named Henderson's Island after the latter. Henderson's Island was purchased by politician John Hunter in 1804. Hunter built a mansion on the island and his family resided on the island until 1865, when it was sold to former mayor Ambrose Kingsland. Hunter Island was owned by several other people before being incorporated into Pelham Bay Park in 1888. Subsequently, the island became a vacation destination. In the 1930s, New York City parks commissioner Robert Moses extended nearby Orchard Beach, to the south of the island, by connecting Hunter Island to the mainland.

Hunter Island formerly contained Hunter Mansion, which Hunter had built for his family in 1811. It was located on the island's highest point and was destroyed in 1937 when Orchard Beach was expanded onto the island. A causeway connecting Hunter Island to the mainland still exists. Today the former island is part of a wildlife refuge, the Hunter Island Marine Zoology and Geology Sanctuary, which was established in 1967 on the northern shores of Hunter and Twin Islands. The sanctuary includes rock outcroppings and an intertidal marine ecosystem that is not found anywhere else in New York state. Hunter Island also contains the Kazimiroff Nature Trail and Orchard Beach Environmental Center, which was established in 1986 as a tribute to Bronx preservationist Theodore Kazimiroff.

Jess Sweetser

Jesse William Sweetser (April 18, 1902 – May 27, 1989) was an amateur golfer, best known as the first American-born player to win the British Amateur. The first U.S. citizen to win it was the Australian-born naturalized-American Walter Travis.

Mahackemo

Mahackemo (or Mahackamo) was chief of the Norwalke Indians, a small tribe of the Siwanoy, who sold land to Roger Ludlow in 1640 (Old Style or 1641 New Style) which later became Norwalk, Connecticut.

New Castle, New York

New Castle is a town in Westchester County, New York, United States. The population was 17,569 at the 2010 census. It includes the hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood.

Pelham Bay Park

Pelham Bay Park is a municipal park located in the northeast corner of the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha), the largest public park in New York City. The park is more than three times the size of Manhattan's Central Park. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks).

Pelham Bay Park contains many geographical features, both natural and man-made. The park includes several peninsulas, including Rodman's Neck, Tallapoosa Point, and the former Hunter and Twin Islands. A lagoon runs through the center of Pelham Bay Park, and Eastchester Bay splits the southwestern corner from the rest of the park. There are also several recreational areas within the park. Orchard Beach runs along Pelham Bay on the park's eastern shore. Two golf courses and various nature trails are located within the park's central section. Other landmarks include the Bartow-Pell Mansion, a city landmark, as well as the Bronx Victory Column & Memorial Grove.

Before its creation, the land comprising the current Pelham Bay Park was part of Anne Hutchinson's short-lived dissident colony. Part of New Netherland, it was destroyed in 1643 by a Siwanoy attack in reprisal for the unrelated massacres carried out under Willem Kieft's direction of the Dutch West India Company's New Amsterdam colony. In 1654 an Englishman named Thomas Pell purchased 50,000 acres (200 km²) from the Siwanoy, land which would become known as Pelham Manor after Charles II's 1666 charter. During the American Revolutionary War, the land was a buffer between British-held New York City and rebel-held Westchester, serving as the site of the Battle of Pell's Point, where Massachusetts militia hiding behind stone walls (still visible at one of the park's golf courses) stopped a British advance.

The park was created in 1888, under the auspices of the Bronx Parks Department, largely inspired by the vision of John Mullaly, and passed to New York City when the part of the Bronx east of the Bronx River was annexed to the city in 1895. Orchard Beach, one of the city's most popular, was created through the efforts of Robert Moses in the 1930s.

Pelham Gardens, Bronx

Pelham Gardens is a neighborhood located in the Northeast section of New York City in the United States. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: East Gun Hill Road to the north and east, Pelham Parkway to the south, and Laconia Avenue to the west. Eastchester Road is the primary thoroughfare through Pelham Gardens. The local subway is the 5 train, operating alongside Esplanade. ZIP codes include 10469. The area is patrolled by the New York Police Department's 49th Precinct located at 2121 Eastchester Road in Morris Park.

Pelham Islands

The Pelham Islands are a group of islands in western Long Island Sound which belonged to Thomas Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor in the 17th century. The islands, and most of the surrounding area, were purchased from the Siwanoy Indians by Pell in 1654, creating Pelham Manor. This large tract of land would eventually become the present day Town & Village of Pelham and Pelham Manor, Town of Eastchester, and cities of New Rochelle and Mount Vernon in Westchester County, and the Pelham Bay and Eastchester sections within the borough of the Bronx in New York City. Several of the Pelham Islands became part of New Rochelle after Jacob Leisler’s purchase of 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares) from the Pell family in 1688. The remaining islands became part of Bronx County in 1895 with the establishment of the current Westchester-Bronx County line.

Siwanoy Country Club

Siwanoy Country Club is a country club located in Bronxville, New York. The club hosted the first PGA Championship in 1916, which was won by Jim Barnes.Tom Kerrigan joined the Siwanoy Country Club in 1914 and served as professional at the Club for a half century. In 1939 he shot the exceptionally low score of 62 on the par 71 Siwanoy course. He was often called "Tee Shot" Kerrigan due to his ability to hit unusually long drives. He is one of just a few who were granted lifetime honorary membership at the Club. The World War I fighter ace Eddie Rickenbacker also received that honor.

Stepping Stones Light

Stepping Stones Light is a Victorian-style lighthouse in Long Island Sound, in Nassau County, New York. The lighthouse is square-shaped and made of red brick, standing one-and-a-half stories high. The Hudson-Athens Lighthouse is a virtual twin of this structure. The light is in current use, under the management of the United States Coast Guard. It is not open to the public.

The reef upon which it sits was given its name by Siwanoy (Minnefords) Native American legends. According to the legend, the tribe used warriors, medicine, and magic to chase the devil out of present-day Westchester County, New York onto City Island (formerly Greater Minneford Island), surrounding him at Belden Point. The devil then picked up huge boulders lying there and tossed them into Long Island Sound, using them as stepping stones to make his escape. The natives named the rocks, "The Devil's Stepping Stones".

It was added to the National Register of Historic Places as Stepping Stones Light Station on September 15, 2005, reference number 05001026. The light station has been declared surplus, and the application for transfer under the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000 is under review. In 2008, the light station was transferred to the Town of North Hempstead. In 2014, the Town of North Hempstead entered into a partnership with the Great Neck Historical Society and the Great Neck Park District to raise funds to rehabilitate the Lighthouse. The National Park Service and New York State Senator Jack Martins provided $165,000 and $100,000 in grant funding, respectively, to support the restoration efforts.

Susanna Cole

Susanna Cole (née Hutchinson; 1633 – before December 14, 1713) was the lone survivor of an American Indian attack in which many of her siblings were killed, as well as her famed mother Anne Hutchinson. She was taken captive following the attack and held for several years before her release.

Susanna Hutchinson was born in Alford, Lincolnshire, England and was less than a year old when her family sailed from England to New England in 1634. She was less than five when her family settled on Aquidneck Island (later Rhode Island) in the Narragansett Bay following her mother's banishment from Massachusetts during the Antinomian Controversy. Her father died when she was about eight years old, and she, her mother, and six of her siblings left Rhode Island to live in New Netherland. They settled in an area that became the far northeastern section of The Bronx in New York City, near the Westchester County line. The family found themselves caught in the middle of Kieft's War between the local Siwanoy Indians and the colony of New Netherland, and they were all massacred in August 1643, except for Susanna. She was taken captive by the Indians, and was traded back to the English three years later.

When Susanna was released from her Indian captivity, she was taken to Boston where her oldest brother and an older sister lived, was re-introduced into English society, and married John Cole at the age of 18, the son of Boston innkeeper Samuel Cole. They lived in Boston for a few years, but moved by 1663 to the Narragansett country of Rhode Island (later North Kingstown) to look after the lands of her oldest brother Edward Hutchinson. Here the couple remained and raised a large family. Susanna Cole was still alive in 1707 when given administration of her husband's estate, but was deceased by December 1713 when her son William took receipts concerning his parents' estate.

Thomas Pell

Thomas Pell (1612/13–1669) was an English-born physician who bought the area known as Pelham, New York, as well as land that now includes the eastern Bronx and southern Westchester County, New York, and founded the town of Westchester at the head of navigation on Westchester Creek in 1654.Born in Sussex, England, Thomas Pell was a brother of mathematician John Pell. He studied at Cambridge, but did not finish his course. In the 1630s he emigrated to New England; he lived in Fairfield, Connecticut as of 1654.In 1654, Pell signed a treaty with Chief Wampage and other Siwanoy Indian tribal members that granted him 50,000 acres (20,000 ha) of tribal land, including all or part of the Bronx and land to the west along Long Island Sound in what is now Westchester County, extending west to the Hutchinson River and north to Mamaroneck. There are no contemporary records of the price he paid for the land, but an 1886 source states that the Siwanoy were paid with "sundry hogshead of Jamaica rum". He named the area Pelham in honor of Pelham Burton, who had been his tutor in England.Pell was legally challenged by the Dutch courts who considered the "English were trespassing on Dutch territory". This dispute was finally resolved by Pell in September 1664 when the British Navy, supported by a militia invasion force consisting largely of City Island colonists and led by Pell himself, entered New Amsterdam and forced Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch Governor of New Netherland, to surrender.Thomas Pell died in 1669. Having no children, he left his estate to a nephew, John Pell (1643-1700), son of his brother the English mathematician John Pell. The nephew traveled from England to New York and took up residence at Pelham Manor.The Pell family lived in this area until the Revolutionary War and has remained prominent to the present, with family members including U.S. Ambassador Herbert Pell and U.S. Senator Claiborne Pell. Thomas Pell's grandson Philip Pell II built Pelhamdale at Pelham Manor, New York about 1750.

Tom Creavy

Thomas Daniel Creavy (February 3, 1911 – March 3, 1979) was an American professional golfer, the winner of the PGA Championship in 1931.

Born in Tuckahoe, New York, Creavy learned the game as a caddie at Siwanoy Country Club, and was the club professional at the Albany Country Club and Saratoga Spa. He won the PGA Championship at age 20 in 1931 at Wannamoisett Country Club in Rumford, Rhode Island, defeating Gene Sarazen 5 & 3 in the semifinals and Denny Shute 2 & 1 in the finals. Creavy played in 11 major championships, including the inaugural Masters in 1934. He had an outstanding short game, but his competitive playing career was hampered by recurring back problems and shortened by spinal meningitis in 1943.Creavy died of a heart attack in 1979 at age 68 in Delray Beach, Florida.

Tom Kerrigan (golfer)

Thomas Francis Kerrigan (October 10, 1895 – May 6, 1964) was an American professional golfer who played in the early 20th century. Kerrigan's best performance in the Open Championship came in the 1921 Open Championship when after enduring an Atlantic voyage aboard the RMS Aquitania he quickly acclimated himself to the Open Championship course at St Andrews on arrival in Britain and finished in third place. He was a frequent competitor in the PGA Championship in which his best results were quarter-final losses (in match play) in 1916, 1922, and 1925.

Wampage

Wampage I, aka Anhõõke, was the Sachem of the Siwanoy Native Americans of Westchester County, New York. He took part in Kieft's War, fighting against the colony of New Netherland.

The Siwanoys under the leadership of Wampage massacred the family of Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643). It has been written that Wampage himself was the murderer of Hutchinson and that he adopted the name of Anhõõke (Anne Hoek) due to a Native American tradition of taking the name of a notable person personally killed. On June 27, 1654, 50,000 acres (200 km²) of land were granted to Thomas Pell, reaching from the Bronx west along Long Island Sound to the Hutchinson River. Wampage and other Siwanoys signed a treaty under the Treaty Oak near Bartow Pell Mansion in Pelham. The other Siwanoys who signed the treaty were Shawanórõckquot, Poquõrúm, Wawhamkus, and Mehúmõw. Cockho, Kamaque, and Cockinsecawa also signed as "Indyan Witnesses" to the "Articles of Agreement" section of the Treaty.Sources indicate that Wampage's granddaughter Ann (or Anna) married Thomas Pell II, who was the third lord of Pelham Manor.

Wappinger

The Wappinger were an Eastern Algonquian-speaking tribe from New York and Connecticut. They lived on the east bank of the Hudson River eastward to the Connecticut River Valley.In the 17th century, they were primarily based in what is now Dutchess County, New York, and their territory included the east bank of the Hudson along both Putnam and Westchester counties all the way to Manhattan Island to the south, the Mahican territory bounded by the Roeliff-Jansen Kill to the north, and extended east into parts of Connecticut.

Westchester–Putnam Council

Westchester–Putnam Council is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America, serving Boy Scouts in southeastern New York State.

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