Sitting volleyball (sometimes known as paralympic volleyball) is a form of volleyball for athletes with a disability.
Timeline: 1965: invention of sitting volleyball (Netherlands) 1967: first international sitting volleyball competition was held (Germany) 1976: sitting volleyball debuts as a demonstration sport (Toronto Paralympic Games) 1980: men’s sitting volleyball debuts as a medal sport (Arnhem Paralympic Games) 2004: women’s sitting volleyball debuts as a medal sport (Athens Paralympic Games) 
In sitting volleyball, a 7 meter-long, 0.8 meter-wide net is set at 1.15 meters high for men and 1.05 meters high for women. The court is 10 x 6 meters with a 2-meter attack line. The rules are the same as the original form of volleyball with the exceptions that players must have at least one buttock in contact with the floor whenever they make contact with the ball and it is also possible to block the serve.  Athletes with the following disabilities are eligible to compete in sitting volleyball: athletes with amputations, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, brain injuries and stroke. Classifications of these athletes by disability are placed into two categories: MD and D. MD stands for "Minimally Disabled," and D stands for “Disabled.” While Minimally Disabled athletes have lost only a fraction of their muscular strength and flexibility in a joint preventing them from successfully playing standing volleyball, Disabled athletes have lost all of their muscular strength and flexibility in that joint. Only two MD players are allowed on the roster for the Paralympic Games and only one is allowed on the court at a time; this is to keep the competition fair between rival teams. The rest of the team must be classified as D players.
Skills are largely identical to the sport of volleyball and the following game terminology apply:
List also includes former members (national teams that took part in previous major tournaments).
|List of sitting volleyball national teams|
Sitting volleyball was first demonstrated at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1976 and was introduced as a full Paralympic event in 1980. The 2000 games was the last time standing volleyball appeared on the Paralympic programme. The women's sitting volleyball event introduction followed in the 2004.
|1998||Tehran||Iran||Finland||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|2002||Cairo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany||Iran|
|2006||Roermond||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Iran||Egypt|
|2010||Edmond||Iran||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Egypt|
|2014||Elblag||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Brazil||Iran|
|2018||The Hague||Iran||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Ukraine|
|2||Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH)||3||2||1||6|
|Totals (11 nations)||12||12||12||36|
|4||United States (USA)||0||3||0||3|
|Totals (9 nations)||7||7||7||21|
Main article : European Para Volleyball Championships
|1997||Tallinn||Finland||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|1999||Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany||Finland|
|2001||Sárospatak||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany|
|2003||Lappeenranta||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany||Finland|
|2005||Leverkusen||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany||Russia|
|2007||Nyíregyháza||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Russia||Germany|
|2009||Elblag||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Russia||Germany|
|2011||Rotterdam||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Russia||Germany|
|2013||Elblag||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Russia||Germany|
|2015||Warendorf||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Germany||Russia|
|2017||Poreč||Russia||Ukraine||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
The 2018 Invictus Games was an adaptive mulit-sport event for wounded, injured and ill veteran and active defence personnel, held in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The fourth Invictus Games, an event founded in 2014 by HRH The Duke of Sussex Prince Harry, included 13 sports (11 medal sports). It was the first Invictus Games held in the southern hemisphere.Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 2016 Summer Paralympics
Bosnia and Herzegovina competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 to 18 September 2016Egypt at the 2016 Summer Paralympics
Egypt competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 to 18 September 2016. The country sent a delegation of 44 sportspeople. The team included 16-year-old Ayattalah Ayman, the youngest member of the delegation and the first woman to represent Egypt in swimming. It also included 41-year-old Ibrahim Al-Husseini Hamadtu, the only table tennis player to compete while holding the paddle in his mouth.
Egypt finished the 2016 Games ranked second all time for total medals won by African countries. with 143 total medals, 45 gold, 43 silver and 55 bronze. For the 2016 Games, Egypt ranked fifth in total gold medals among African nations, claiming 3 golds. All but two of the medals won by Egyptians were in powerlifting.
Egypt competed in several sports including athletics, powerlifting, sitting volleyball, swimming and tennis.Egypt men's national sitting volleyball team
The Egypt men's national sitting volleyball team represents Egypt in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. The team is one of the newcomers in the sport but quickly established themselves as a powerful team to play against. Egypt have appeared in several Paralympic and World Championships semi finals in the past decade.Germany men's national sitting volleyball team
The Germany men's national sitting volleyball team represents (Germany) in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. Until 1990 team competed as West Germany in sitting volleyball.Iran at the Paralympics
Iran first competed at the Paralympic Games in 1988, at the Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea.Iran men's national sitting volleyball team
The Iran men's national sitting volleyball team represents Islamic Republic of Iran in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. The team is one of the dominant forces in on the court worldwide. In foreign media, team Iran is colloquially known as dream team of sitting volleyball.Iran team dedicated sitting volleyball 2016 Rio Paralympic gold to memory of Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnezhad, who died during Paralympic C4/C5 competition.Iran women's national sitting volleyball team
Iran women's national sitting volleyball team represents the country at international events.Libya at the 2000 Summer Paralympics
Libya sent its largest ever delegation to the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, with three judokas, two powerlifters and a sitting volleyball team. The country's only female competitor, Ghazala M. Ali in powerlifting, was the first ever woman to represent Libya at the Paralympic Games.Major achievements in volleyball by nation
These are lists of achievements in major senior-level international indoor volleyball, beach volleyball and sitting volleyball tournaments according to first-place, second-place and third-place results obtained by teams representing different nations. The objective is not to create combined medal tables; the focus is on listing the best positions achieved by teams in major international tournaments, ranking the nations according to the most number of podiums accomplished by teams of these nations.Rwanda at the 2016 Summer Paralympics
Rwanda competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016.Sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics – Men
The men's tournament in sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held between the 9–18 September.Sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics – Women
The women's tournament in sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held between the 9–17 SeptemberSitting volleyball classification
Sitting volleyball classification is the classification system for sitting volleyball. Only people with lower leg paralysis or lower leg extremity amputations are eligible to compete.
The sport is governed by the World Organization Volleyball for the Disabled.Volleyball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics
Sitting volleyball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics was held in the China Agricultural University Gymnasium from 7 September to 15 September. Two events were contested, men's team and women's team.
In the men's sitting event, Bosnia and Herzegovina were the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran had been the finalists in both 2000 and 2004, with Iran winning in 2000 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. These two countries met once more in the final in Beijing, with Iran emerging victorious by 3 goals to nil. Egypt, the bronze medal-winners of 2008, finished fourth, beaten 2:3 by Russia, who took bronze.The Beijing Games marked the second time the women's sitting event was held. China were the defending champions, while the Netherlands had taken silver, and the United States bronze, in 2004. In Beijing, China was again victorious, while the United States and the Netherlands switched places to ascend the podium with silver and bronze, respectively.Volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics
Volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics was held from 30 August to 8 September at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London. Two events were contested: men's and women's team.
In the men's sitting event, Iran were the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran were the finalists in 2000, 2004 and 2008, with Iran winning in 2000 and 2008 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. These two countries met once more in the final in Beijing, with Iran emerging victorious by 3–0. Egypt finished fourth in Beijing, beaten 2–3 by Russia, who took bronze. Bosnia and Herzegovina men's team won the gold in 2012.
The London Games marked the third time the women's sitting event was held. China were the defending champions. The Netherlands took silver, and the United States bronze, in 2004. In Beijing, China was again victorious, while the US and the Netherlands switched places to ascend the podium with silver and bronze, respectively.Volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics
Sitting Volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held from 9 September to 18 September at the Riocentro Pavilion 6 in Rio de Janeiro. Two events will be contested: men's and women's team.In the men's sitting event, Bosnia and Herzegovina are the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran were the finalists in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012, with Iran winning in 2000 and 2008 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004 and 2012.
The Rio Games will be the fourth time the women's sitting volleyball event will be contested. China are the defending champions, defeating the United States for gold in 2012. Ukraine won bronze in 2012, their first ever medal in the event.Volleyball at the Summer Paralympics
Paralympic volleyball was first competed at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1976. That first year, the traditional standing form of volleyball was contested. Sitting volleyball was later introduced as a full Paralympic event in 1980. The 2000 was the last time standing volleyball appeared on the Paralympic programme. The women's sitting volleyball event was also introduced in the 2004.
|Stick and ball sports|
Men's national sitting volleyball teams (WOVD)