Sitting volleyball

Sitting volleyball (sometimes known as paralympic volleyball) is a form of volleyball for athletes with a disability.

London 2012 paralympic volleyball (1)
Netherlands versus Japan women's match at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London

History

Timeline: 1965: invention of sitting volleyball (Netherlands) 1967: first international sitting volleyball competition was held (Germany) 1976: sitting volleyball debuts as a demonstration sport (Toronto Paralympic Games) 1980: men’s sitting volleyball debuts as a medal sport (Arnhem Paralympic Games) 2004: women’s sitting volleyball debuts as a medal sport (Athens Paralympic Games) [1]

Rules

US Navy 110517-N-CD297-109 Members from Team Navy-Coast Guard volley against members of the U.S. Army sitting volleyball team during a preliminary
Men's sitting volleyball match between a combined US Navy-Coast Guard team and the US Army

In sitting volleyball, a 7 meter-long, 0.8 meter-wide net is set at 1.15 meters high for men and 1.05 meters high for women. The court is 10 x 6 meters with a 2-meter attack line. The rules are the same as the original form of volleyball with the exceptions that players must have at least one buttock in contact with the floor whenever they make contact with the ball and it is also possible to block the serve.[2] [3] Athletes with the following disabilities are eligible to compete in sitting volleyball: athletes with amputations, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, brain injuries and stroke. Classifications of these athletes by disability are placed into two categories: MD and D. MD stands for "Minimally Disabled," and D stands for “Disabled.” While Minimally Disabled athletes have lost only a fraction of their muscular strength and flexibility in a joint preventing them from successfully playing standing volleyball, Disabled athletes have lost all of their muscular strength and flexibility in that joint. Only two MD players are allowed on the roster for the Paralympic Games and only one is allowed on the court at a time; this is to keep the competition fair between rival teams. The rest of the team must be classified as D players.[4][5]


Skills are largely identical to the sport of volleyball and the following game terminology apply:

  • Ace - A serve that lands in the opponent's court without being touched.
  • Attack - An attempt by a player to win a point by hitting the ball over the net.
  • Attack line - In indoor volleyball, a line three metres from the net which marks the limit for where a back-row player may advance to hit a ball from above the net.
  • Back-row player - In indoor volleyball, any of three players positioned at the back of the court.
  • Block - To block an opposing player from spiking the ball by jumping at the net with arms in the air.
  • Boom - In beach volleyball, a spike straight down into the sand (slang).
  • Centre line - In indoor volleyball, the imaginary line running directly under the net and dividing the court in half.
  • Chuck - To push or throw the ball rather than hit it (slang).
  • Court - The playing area.
  • Crossing space - The zone above the net and between two antennae through which the ball must pass during a rally.
  • Dig - A defensive move in which both arms are placed together in an attempt to bounce a hard-hit ball up into the air.
  • End line - A back boundary line of the court.
  • Facial - A boom or spike that hits an opponent in the face (slang).
  • Fault - A foul or error which results in the loss of the rally.
  • Front-row player - In indoor volleyball, any of three players positioned closest to the net.
  • Front zone - In indoor volleyball, the area between the net and the attack line.
  • Ground - To hit the ball to the ground, preferably on the other team's court.
  • Heater - A hard-hit or spiked ball (slang).
  • Hit - To touch the ball as an offensive player, one of three "hits" allowed a team in getting the ball back over the net.
  • Hold - To let the ball settle into the hands briefly on a shot instead of releasing it immediately.
  • Joust - A joust occurs above the net between two or more opposing players that forces the ball to become stationary. Point is replayed.
  • Kill - To smash the ball overarm into the opponent's court; also called a "spike".
  • Kong - A one-handed block, named after King Kong's style of swatting biplanes in the original King Kong movie (slang).
  • Libero - In indoor volleyball, a substitute defensive player especially adept at digging.
  • Lip - A good dig (slang).
  • Match - A series of sets to determine a winner.
  • Mintonette - The original name for volleyball.
  • Missile - A spike or serve hit out of bounds (slang).
  • Rally - The exchange of plays that decides each point.
  • Rotate - In indoor volleyball, to move to the next position on the floor in a clockwise manner.
  • Screen - To impede the opponent's view of the ball during the serve.
  • Serve - The stroke used to put the ball in play at the start of each rally.
  • Set - 1. The part of a match completed when one side has scored enough points to win a single contest. 2. To position the ball so a teammate can attack.
  • Setter - A player who excels in setting up teammates to attack.
  • Sideline - A side boundary line on a court.
  • Spade - An ace (slang).
  • Spike - To smash the ball overarm into the opponent's court; also called a "kill". Windmill Spike (hand movement during Spike follows motion of windmill).,

Members

List also includes former members (national teams that took part in previous major tournaments).

List of sitting volleyball national teams[6]

Championships

Paralympics

Sitting volleyball was first demonstrated at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1976 and was introduced as a full Paralympic event in 1980. The 2000 games was the last time standing volleyball appeared on the Paralympic programme. The women's sitting volleyball event introduction followed in the 2004.[2]

World Para Volley (formerly WOVD) World Championships

Sitting

Men's Sitting - Past winners

[7]

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
Netherlands 1983 Delden Netherlands Netherlands Germany Germany Finland Finland
Norway 1985 Kristiansand Iran Iran Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Netherlands Netherlands
Hungary 1986 Pécs Iran Iran Hungary Hungary Netherlands Netherlands
United States 1989 Las Vegas Netherlands Netherlands Hungary Hungary Germany Germany
Netherlands 1990 Assen Iran Iran Netherlands Netherlands Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
Germany 1994 Bottrop Iran Iran Norway Norway Netherlands Netherlands
Iran 1998 Tehran Iran Iran Finland Finland Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
Egypt 2002 Cairo Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany Iran Iran
Netherlands 2006 Roermond Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Iran Iran Egypt Egypt
United States 2010 Edmond Iran Iran Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Egypt Egypt
Poland 2014 Elblag Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brazil Iran Iran
Netherlands 2018 The Hague Iran Iran Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Ukraine Ukraine
  • Ranking
RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Iran (IRI)71210
2 Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH)3216
3 Netherlands (NED)2136
4 Germany (GER)0213
5 Hungary (HUN)0202
6 Finland (FIN)0112
 Yugoslavia (YUG)0112
8 Brazil (BRA)0101
 Norway (NOR)0101
10 Egypt (EGY)0022
11 Ukraine (UKR)0011
Totals (11 nations)12121236

Women's Sitting - Past winners

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
Germany 1994 Bottrop Netherlands Netherlands Latvia Latvia Lithuania Lithuania
Netherlands 2000 Maastricht Netherlands Netherlands Finland Finland Slovenia Slovenia
Slovenia 2002 Kamnik Netherlands Netherlands Slovenia Slovenia Finland Finland
Netherlands 2006 Roermond Netherlands Netherlands China China Slovenia Slovenia
United States 2010 Edmond China China United States United States Ukraine Ukraine
Poland 2014 Elblag China China United States United States Russia Russia
Netherlands 2018 Rotterdam Russia Russia United States United States China China
  • Ranking
RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Netherlands (NED)4004
2 China (CHN)2114
3 Russia (RUS)1012
4 United States (USA)0303
5 Slovenia (SLO)0123
6 Finland (FIN)0112
7 Latvia (LAT)0101
8 Lithuania (LTU)0011
 Ukraine (UKR)0011
Totals (9 nations)77721

Beach

ParaVolley Europe (formerly ECVD) European Championships

Main article : European Para Volleyball Championships

Men's Sitting - Past winners

[7]

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
Germany 1981 Bonn Netherlands Netherlands Germany Germany Sweden Sweden
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1987 Sarajevo Netherlands Netherlands Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
United Kingdom 1991 Nottingham Netherlands Netherlands
Finland 1993 Järvenpää Norway Norway Finland Finland
Slovenia 1995 Ljubljana Hungary Hungary
Estonia 1997 Tallinn Finland Finland Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1999 Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany Finland Finland
Hungary 2001 Sárospatak Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany
Finland 2003 Lappeenranta Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany Finland Finland
Germany 2005 Leverkusen Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany Russia Russia
Hungary 2007 Nyíregyháza Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Russia Russia Germany Germany
Poland 2009 Elblag Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Russia Russia Germany Germany
Netherlands 2011 Rotterdam Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Russia Russia Germany Germany
Poland 2013 Elblag Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Russia Russia Germany Germany
Germany 2015 Warendorf Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Germany Germany Russia Russia
Croatia 2017 Poreč Russia Russia Ukraine Ukraine Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

Women's Sitting - Past winners

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
1993 Finland Jarvenpaa Netherlands Netherlands Finland Finland Estonia Estonia
1995 Slovenia Ljubljana Netherlands Netherlands Latvia Latvia Slovenia Slovenia
1987 Estonia Tallinn Latvia Latvia Lithuania Lithuania Netherlands Netherlands
1999 Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Slovenia Slovenia Finland Finland Netherlands Netherlands
2001 Hungary Sarospatak Netherlands Netherlands Slovenia Slovenia Finland Finland
2003 Finland Lappeenranta Netherlands Netherlands Slovenia Slovenia Finland Finland
2005 Germany Leverkusen Netherlands Netherlands Lithuania Lithuania Slovenia Slovenia
2007 Hungary Nyiregyhaza Netherlands Netherlands Ukraine Ukraine Slovenia Slovenia
2009 Poland Elblag Netherlands Netherlands Ukraine Ukraine Slovenia Slovenia
2011 Netherlands Rotterdam Ukraine Ukraine Netherlands Netherlands Russia Russia
2013 Poland Elblag Russia Russia Ukraine Ukraine Slovenia Slovenia
2015 Slovenia Podcetrtek Ukraine Ukraine Russia Russia Slovenia Slovenia
2017 Croatia Poreč Russia Russia Ukraine Ukraine Netherlands Netherlands

See also

References

  1. ^ “Sitting Volleyball: Paralympic Classification Interactive.” Team USA, United States Olympic Committee, 2019, www.teamusa.org/US-Paralympics/athlete-classifications/sitting- volleyball/.
  2. ^ a b Ng, Kwok (2012). When Sitting is Not Resting: Sitting Volleyball. Bloomington, IL: Authorhouse. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-4772-1789-4.
  3. ^ “Sitting Volleyball: Paralympic Classification Interactive.” Team USA, United States Olympic Committee, 2019, www.teamusa.org/US-Paralympics/athlete-classifications/sitting- volleyball/.
  4. ^ “Sitting Volleyball: Paralympic Classification Interactive.” Team USA, United States Olympic Committee, 2019, www.teamusa.org/US-Paralympics/athlete-classifications/sitting- volleyball/.
  5. ^ “Sitting Volleyball.” UCO, sites.uco.edu/wellness/sr/trainingsite/tssitvolleyball.asp.
  6. ^ http://www.worldparavolley.org/sitting-volleyball-rankings/
  7. ^ a b Kwok Ng (26 September 2016). "Major Competitions". www.sittingvolleyball.info. Retrieved 26 September 2016.

External links

2018 Invictus Games

The 2018 Invictus Games was an adaptive mulit-sport event for wounded, injured and ill veteran and active defence personnel, held in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The fourth Invictus Games, an event founded in 2014 by HRH The Duke of Sussex Prince Harry, included 13 sports (11 medal sports). It was the first Invictus Games held in the southern hemisphere.

Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

Bosnia and Herzegovina competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 to 18 September 2016

Egypt at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

Egypt competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 to 18 September 2016. The country sent a delegation of 44 sportspeople. The team included 16-year-old Ayattalah Ayman, the youngest member of the delegation and the first woman to represent Egypt in swimming. It also included 41-year-old Ibrahim Al-Husseini Hamadtu, the only table tennis player to compete while holding the paddle in his mouth.

Egypt finished the 2016 Games ranked second all time for total medals won by African countries. with 143 total medals, 45 gold, 43 silver and 55 bronze. For the 2016 Games, Egypt ranked fifth in total gold medals among African nations, claiming 3 golds. All but two of the medals won by Egyptians were in powerlifting.

Egypt competed in several sports including athletics, powerlifting, sitting volleyball, swimming and tennis.

Egypt men's national sitting volleyball team

The Egypt men's national sitting volleyball team represents Egypt in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. The team is one of the newcomers in the sport but quickly established themselves as a powerful team to play against. Egypt have appeared in several Paralympic and World Championships semi finals in the past decade.

Germany men's national sitting volleyball team

The Germany men's national sitting volleyball team represents (Germany) in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. Until 1990 team competed as West Germany in sitting volleyball.

Iran at the Paralympics

Iran first competed at the Paralympic Games in 1988, at the Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea.

Iran men's national sitting volleyball team

The Iran men's national sitting volleyball team represents Islamic Republic of Iran in international sitting volleyball competitions and friendly matches. The team is one of the dominant forces in on the court worldwide. In foreign media, team Iran is colloquially known as dream team of sitting volleyball.Iran team dedicated sitting volleyball 2016 Rio Paralympic gold to memory of Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnezhad, who died during Paralympic C4/C5 competition.

Iran women's national sitting volleyball team

Iran women's national sitting volleyball team represents the country at international events.

Libya at the 2000 Summer Paralympics

Libya sent its largest ever delegation to the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, with three judokas, two powerlifters and a sitting volleyball team. The country's only female competitor, Ghazala M. Ali in powerlifting, was the first ever woman to represent Libya at the Paralympic Games.

Major achievements in volleyball by nation

These are lists of achievements in major senior-level international indoor volleyball, beach volleyball and sitting volleyball tournaments according to first-place, second-place and third-place results obtained by teams representing different nations. The objective is not to create combined medal tables; the focus is on listing the best positions achieved by teams in major international tournaments, ranking the nations according to the most number of podiums accomplished by teams of these nations.

Rwanda at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

Rwanda competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016.

Sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics – Men

The men's tournament in sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held between the 9–18 September.

Sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics – Women

The women's tournament in sitting volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held between the 9–17 September

Sitting volleyball classification

Sitting volleyball classification is the classification system for sitting volleyball. Only people with lower leg paralysis or lower leg extremity amputations are eligible to compete.

The sport is governed by the World Organization Volleyball for the Disabled.

Volleyball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Sitting volleyball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics was held in the China Agricultural University Gymnasium from 7 September to 15 September. Two events were contested, men's team and women's team.

In the men's sitting event, Bosnia and Herzegovina were the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran had been the finalists in both 2000 and 2004, with Iran winning in 2000 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. These two countries met once more in the final in Beijing, with Iran emerging victorious by 3 goals to nil. Egypt, the bronze medal-winners of 2008, finished fourth, beaten 2:3 by Russia, who took bronze.The Beijing Games marked the second time the women's sitting event was held. China were the defending champions, while the Netherlands had taken silver, and the United States bronze, in 2004. In Beijing, China was again victorious, while the United States and the Netherlands switched places to ascend the podium with silver and bronze, respectively.

Volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics

Volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics was held from 30 August to 8 September at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London. Two events were contested: men's and women's team.

In the men's sitting event, Iran were the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran were the finalists in 2000, 2004 and 2008, with Iran winning in 2000 and 2008 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. These two countries met once more in the final in Beijing, with Iran emerging victorious by 3–0. Egypt finished fourth in Beijing, beaten 2–3 by Russia, who took bronze. Bosnia and Herzegovina men's team won the gold in 2012.

The London Games marked the third time the women's sitting event was held. China were the defending champions. The Netherlands took silver, and the United States bronze, in 2004. In Beijing, China was again victorious, while the US and the Netherlands switched places to ascend the podium with silver and bronze, respectively.

Volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

Sitting Volleyball at the 2016 Summer Paralympics will be held from 9 September to 18 September at the Riocentro Pavilion 6 in Rio de Janeiro. Two events will be contested: men's and women's team.In the men's sitting event, Bosnia and Herzegovina are the defending champions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iran were the finalists in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012, with Iran winning in 2000 and 2008 and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004 and 2012.

The Rio Games will be the fourth time the women's sitting volleyball event will be contested. China are the defending champions, defeating the United States for gold in 2012. Ukraine won bronze in 2012, their first ever medal in the event.

Volleyball at the Summer Paralympics

Paralympic volleyball was first competed at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1976. That first year, the traditional standing form of volleyball was contested. Sitting volleyball was later introduced as a full Paralympic event in 1980. The 2000 was the last time standing volleyball appeared on the Paralympic programme. The women's sitting volleyball event was also introduced in the 2004.

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