Sister city

Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.[1] The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation,[2][3] and to encourage trade and tourism.[1] By the 2000s, town twinning became increasingly used to form strategic international business links among member cities.[4][5]


Gemellaggio Castellabate-Blieskastel
An example of a twinning agreement between Castellabate, Italy ('gemellaggio') and Blieskastel, Germany ('Partnerschaft').

In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most commonly used; the term "sister cities" is generally used for agreements with towns and cities in the Americas.[1][6] In mainland Europe, the most commonly used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", and "friendship towns". The European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning".[1][6] Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt (De) / miasto partnerskie (Pl) / partnerské město (Cz), which translate as "partner town or city". France uses ville jumelée (twinned town or city), and Italy has gemellaggio (twinning) and comune gemellato (twinned municipality).[7] In the Netherlands, the term is partnerstad or stedenband ("city bond", when providing mutual support). In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση (adelfopiisi – fraternisation) has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir (friend towns) and vinaborgir (friend cities) are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used,[8] along with города-побратимы (Ru) (sworn brother cities).[9][10]

The Americas, South Asia, and Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市 (yǒuhǎo chéngshì – friendship city).[11] Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea. The douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union.[1][12]

Despite the term often being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, and friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements.[13]

City diplomacy

In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance, particularly as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy. It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy, particularly around trade and tourism, but also in culture and post-conflict reconciliation.[14] The importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment, tourism and attracting foreign talent" has also been highlighted by the World Economic Forum.[15]


Castro Pretorio - Colonna di Parigi alle Terme di Diocleziano 1010023
Column dedicated to Paris in Rome

The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Germany, and Le Mans, France, in 836.[2][16] Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, England, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux.[17][18] The first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War.[5][18][19][20] This was initially referred to as an adoption of the French town; formal twinning charters were not exchanged until 1986.[21]

The practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.[1][2][22][23][24] For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and later with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war.[1][20][25][26][27] The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, and children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946.[28] Similarly, in 1947, Bristol Corporation (later Bristol City Council) sent five 'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover.[5][20] Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf. The link still exists (Reading-Düsseldorf Association: Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been exclusively and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."[29][30]

Within Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union.[1][2][5] The support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about 12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects. The Council of European Municipalities and Regions also works closely with the Commission (DG Education and Culture) to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community. It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning.[31] As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving almost 10,000 European municipalities, primarily French (2837 twinnings) and German (2485 twinnings).[24]

Sutton twin towns mural painting, SUTTON, Surrey, Greater London (2)
The painting of Gagny
Sutton twin towns mural sunlit in June, SUTTON, Surrey, Greater London (2)
Sutton twin towns mural
Sutton twin towns mural sunlit in June, SUTTON, Surrey, Greater London (3)
The painting of Minden

Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London. The five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting also features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness.[32] In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting (above its main one) showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from which Carshalton Beeches in the borough derives its name.[33]

Another example of the use of public art is the wall sculpture of the partner cities of Munich, Germany.

A recent study has concluded that geographical distance has very little, if any, influence upon communities' selections of a twin town.[34] Twinned towns are often chosen because of similarities between them; thus about 15 towns in Wales are twinned with towns in Brittany, and Oxford is with Bonn, Leiden, Grenoble and other university cities.[1] In Italy a good example of Twinnings is Rovigo with Viernheim, Bedford and Tulcea. Many former West German cities are twinned with former East German cities; these twinning links were established before the fall of the Iron Curtain. Famous examples are the partnerships of Hanover and Leipzig, both of which have important trade fair grounds, or between Hamburg and Dresden. The first US-German town twinning was in 1947 between Worthington, Minnesota and Crailsheim.[1] St Petersburg in Russia holds the record for the largest number of partnership arrangements with other communities.[34] In June 2012, the Scottish village of Dull and the US town of Boring, Oregon, agreed to twin their municipalities to promote tourism in both places, playing on their names.[35][36][37]

Recently some towns have made novelty twinning arrangements with fictional or virtual locations. Wincanton, England is partnered with Ankh-Morpork from Terry Pratchett's Discworld books.[38]

Town twinning has increasingly been used to form strategic international business links. For example, in the 1990s, when the Nottingham City Council in the UK considered installing a tram network, it consulted experts from its twin city of Karlsruhe, which has one of the most extensive and efficient tram networks in Germany. With assistance from Karlsruhe's specialist engineers, Nottingham completed its second tram line in 2013.[4] In 2014, Bristol and New Orleans announced their intention to form a 'tuning' partnership based on a shared musical heritage and culture offer, at the initiative of Bristol Mayor George Ferguson.[39] Annecy, France and Nerima, Tokyo have for several years shared a partnership based around their "co-existent animation industry".[40][41]

United States

Toledo, Ohio twinned with Toledo, Spain in 1931 and was the first city in North America to engage in town twinning. Denver, Colorado twinned with Brest, France was the second twinned city in North America. Liberal, Kansas was twinned with Olney, Buckinghamshire in 1950, and the cities have run a joint Pancake Day race ever since.[42][43] Littleton, CO twinned with Bega, Australia in 1961. Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan, was twinned with Seattle, Washington in 1973. Rochester, Minnesota and Knebworth, UK are both centers for primary medical research, and they twinned in 1967.

Town twinning begins for a variety of reasons. Generally, partner towns have similar demographics and size. They may arise from business connections, travel, similar industries, diaspora communities, or shared history. For example, the partnership between Portland, Oregon and Bologna, Italy arose from shared industries in biotechnology and education, and a "similar attitude towards food",[44] whereas Chicago's link with Warsaw, Poland began with Chicago's historic Polish community.[45] The twinning of Indianapolis with Monza, Italy is due to both cities' long association with auto racing. Mexico City is also one of Chicago's sister cities.

A twin towns program was instituted in the United States in 1956 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a citizen diplomacy initiative. Sister Cities International (SCI) was originally a program of the National League of Cities, but it became a separate corporation in 1967 due to the growth and popularity of the program.[46]

Twin town cultural events include the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington, D.C. honoring Washington's twin relationship with Tokyo City. Many twinned towns developed business agreements with their partners. For example, Vermont's Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream company opened a factory in the Republic of Karelia in Russia and offered the same profit-sharing plan to its Russian employees.


Isfahan Street in Kuala Lumpur (top) and Kuala Lumpur Avenue in Isfahan (bottom).

Town twinning is supported in Japan by the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations, a joint agency of local governments established by the Japanese government in 1988 (similar to Sister Cities International, its counterpart in the US). More recently, Tokyo has begun to actively promote 'city diplomacy' with other global cities at the initiative of its governor Yoichi Masuzoe.[48]

Linguistic reasons

Relationships between communities can also arise because of shared names; they may be named after one community (as in the case of Córdoba), they may share names (as in the case of Santiago de Compostela), or their names may have a common etymology.

Artieda con EZLN (detalle)
Road sign of Artieda de Aragón and Emiliano Zapata, an autonomous Zapatista municipality.

These similarities usually arise from sharing the same or related language, or from having been a colony or previously conquered.

Political significance

Twinning towns and cities is sometimes done for political purposes. The Hungarian city Gyöngyös was twinned with the Azerbaijani city of Shusha in 2013, signing the twinning agreement with representatives from the Azerbaijani government; Hungary recognises Shusha as part of Azerbaijan, even though since the end of the Karabakh War it has been controlled by the military forces of Armenia and the unrecognised Artsakh (de jure part of Azerbaijan).[49] An attempt was made in 2003 by Preston city councillors in England to twin with the Palestinian town of Nablus in the name of solidarity.[50]

Termination of sister city relationships as the result of a dispute


2018-05-04 Europa Brunnen

The "Europe Fountain" Town Twinning, Mindelheim, Bavaria, Germany

Louisville sistercities

Louisville's twin towns

Groß-Gerau Partnerstädte Szamotuly Brignoles

Coats of arms of the twin towns Szamotuły, Poland and Brignoles, France

Aubergenville Villes jumelées01

Aubergenville, France Villes jumelées

Kralupy nad Vltavou CZ twin towns 086

Insignia of twin towns on town hall in Kralupy nad Vltavou, Czech Republic.

Epping and Eppingen (420184318)

Sign in the United Kingdom showing the twinning of Epping, England with similarly-named Eppingen in Germany.

Direction signs - Plovdiv's sister cities, Bulgaria

Plovdiv, Bulgaria twin towns directions

Ottobrunn Partnerschaftsschild 2010-06-29

Ottobrunn, Germany Partnerschaftsschild Partner cities


Four twinning towns of Brzeg Dolny, Poland

Twin town signs Kemi 20110627

Twin town signs of Kemi, Finland

Neckarsulm PartnerStaedte

Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm and Baden-Württemberg, Germany


Zaventem, Belgium twin towns

Tawau Sabah Twin-Town-Memorial-01

Twin town monument in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia

Vanort stadshus

Linköping, Sweden twin towns

Yalta and Santa Barbara California are sister cities (3943064681)

Yalta, Crimea and Santa Barbara, California are twin towns

Schild Weinsberger Partnerstaedte Mai 2005

Coats of arms of Weinsberg's twin towns Carignan, France and Costigliole d'Asti, Italy

Twin towns sign, Osijek

Twin towns sign in Osijek, Croatia

Znak miasta partnerskie Bełchatów

Bełchatów, Poland's twin towns

Holon Twin cities

Holon, Israel, a twin towns garden

Dundee twin flags

The coats of arms of the twin towns of Dundee, UK, with their countries' flags

Worms Wappen 2005-05-27

Worms, Germany partner cities sign

Welcome to Glastonbury - - 1114993

Welcome to Glastonbury, UK - Twin towns Lalibela, Ethiopia and Patmos, Greece

Town twinning commemoration in Bridge Street - - 1602357

Town twinning commemoration, Godalming, UK


Rimini, Italy's twin towns


'50 years of town twinning', German stamp from 1997

2011 Fete jumelage Suresnes Holon

50th Anniversary celebrations twin towns Suresnes, France and Holon[59]


Kragujevac and Suresnes twinning agreement

Rochester NY Sister Cities Bridge and Chamber of Commerce 2001

Rochester NY Sister Cities Bridge and Chamber of Commerce

Friendship Gate Chinatown Philadelphia from west

Chinatown, Philadelphia. The arch built in Qing Dynasty style, using tiles from Philadelphia's twin town, Tianjin, China

Partnerstädte Ilmenau

Partnership shield in Ilmenau, Germany

Pápa twin towns

Sign showing twin towns of Pápa, Hungary

Piazza Terracina, Exeter - - 236121

Piazza Terracina, Exeter. Named after one of Exeter's twin towns Terracina

PikiWiki Israel 4929 sister cities garden in holon

Twin towns garden in Holon

Montigny le Bx Jumellage

Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France twinnings


Melun, France twinnings


Wołów, Poland's MiG-17 twin town direction sign to Berdychiv, Ukraine

Zalaegerszeg testvérvárosait jelző tábla

Zalaegerszeg, Hungary twinnings


Tbilisi Platz in Saarbrücken, Germany


Créteil, France twinnings

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clarke, N. "Town Twinning in Britain since 1945: A Summary of findings" (PDF). School of Geography, University of Southampton. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "The Origins of Town Twinning" (PDF). Inverness: The City of Inverness Town Twinning Committee. 8 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  3. ^ "What is town twinning?". L'Association des Communes Jumelées du Limousin. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b Brown, Tom (31 July 2013). "Twin towns: Do we still need them?". BBC East Midlands Today. BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d Handley, Susan. Judith Barton (eds.). Take your partners – The local authority handbook on international partnerships. 2006 (10 ed.). Local Government International Bureau. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2013.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b "Action 1 – Measure 1: Town Twinning". The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA). Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  7. ^ Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Firenze (BNCF) Thesaurus (in Italian)
  8. ^ "Mogilev: Twin Towns – Twin Cities". Mogilev city executive committee. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  9. ^ "Tbilisi, Vilnius become brother cities". Trend News Agency. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  10. ^ Self-Pierson, Rob (30 April 2012). "Is there a point to twin towns?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  11. ^ "Sister City" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  12. ^ " Home". Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  13. ^ "What is the difference between a Sister City and a Friendship City? | - The Official Website of the City of Austin". Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Lords Hansard text for 26 Mar 2014 (pt 0001)". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  15. ^ "Five key lessons for city competitiveness". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  16. ^ Lelièvre, Jean; Balavoine, Maurice (1994). Le Mans-Paderborn, 836–1994: dans l'Europe, une amitié séculaire, un sillage de lumière (in French). Le Mans: M. Balavoine. pp. 1–42. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  17. ^ Frank Crane (2008). War and World Government. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-559-44381-7. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  18. ^ a b "France Magazine – Twin Towns". Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  19. ^ Handley, Susan (2006). Take your partners: The local authority handbook on international partnerships. London: Local Government International Bureau. p. 4. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  20. ^ a b c "Town twinning in the UK and Germany". East Street Arts. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  21. ^ "Keighley celebrates twin town jubilee". Telegraph & Argus. Newsquest Media Group. 2002. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  22. ^ " – Twinning". Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  23. ^ "Twin Towns". Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  24. ^ a b Furmankiewicz, Marek (21 March 2004). "Town-twinning as a factor generating international flows of goods and people" (PDF). Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wrocław, Poland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  25. ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  26. ^ "Coventry—Twin towns and cities". Coventry City Council. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Disney seeks UK twin". Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  28. ^ "Bath Alkmaar Twinning Association | ORIGINS". Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  29. ^ "Twinning with Rome". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  30. ^ "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération". Mairie de Paris. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
  31. ^ "Twinnings". Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  32. ^ "Murals for Sutton twin towns to get new lease of life". Sutton Guardian. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2014. "Murals for Sutton twin towns to get new lease of life". London News. 12 June 2011. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  33. ^ "Revealing Sutton's twinning heritage 06.06.11: A set of murals celebrating Sutton's links with its continental twin towns is to be given a new lease of life" (Press release). London Borough of Sutton press office. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  34. ^ a b Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Aragon, Pablo; Laniado, David; Volkovich, Yana (16 February 2013). "Not all paths lead to Rome: Analysing the network of sister cities". arXiv:1301.6900 [cs.SI].
  35. ^ LeVeille, David. "A Tale of Dull and Boring Sister Cities". The Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Boring in Oregon votes to pair with Dull in Perthshire". BBC News. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  37. ^ Gambino, Lauren. "Dull and Boring? Sounds exciting". KVAL. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  38. ^ unknown (6 December 2002). "Pratchett city twins with real town". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  39. ^ unknown (27 February 2014). "How Bristol could become the New Orleans of the UK". Bristol Post. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  40. ^ 'Stimulation Project for the Coexistent Animation Industry Cluster in Nerima', Nerima City, January 2009
  41. ^ 'Using pop culture to assert distinctiveness of place', Japan Local Government Centre, London, March 2011
  42. ^ "Liberal wins 60th Int'l Pancake race". United Press International (UPI). Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  43. ^ "Pancake Race 2007". Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  44. ^ "Mission". Portland Bologna Sister City Association. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  45. ^ Leroux, Charles (31 July 2001). "Chicago has assembled a sorority of sister cities". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  46. ^ Sister Cities International Fact Sheet Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ "Greek twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  48. ^ Alexander Martin. "Tokyo Governor Seeks Better Ties With Seoul". WSJ. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  49. ^ "APA – Gyöngyös city of Hungary fraternize with Azerbaijan's occupied town of Shusha – PHOTOSESSION". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  50. ^ "Nablus twinning bid rejected". BBC News. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  51. ^ Wang, Chuhan (22 February 2012). "Nanjing suspends official contact with Nagoya". CNTV.
  52. ^ "Milan severs twin city ties with St Petersburg over 'homosexual propaganda' ban". The Telegraph. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  53. ^ Claire Bigg, Sister Cities Ramp Up Russia Boycott Over Antigay Law, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (July 19, 2013).
  54. ^ Bajko, Matthew S. (15 August 2013). "Political Notebook: Cities asked to suspend ties with Russian counterparts". The Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  55. ^ "Prague suspends partnership with Russian cities". Prague Post. 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  56. ^ Jacey Fortin, 'Comfort Women' Statue in San Francisco Leads a Japanese City to Cut Ties, New York Times (November 25, 2017).
  57. ^ Adam Taylor, Osaka mayor to end sister city status with San Francisco over 'comfort women' statue, Washington Post (November 25, 2017).
  58. ^ "Japan city mayor lodges protest over "comfort women" memorial cost". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  59. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2013.

External links

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The City of Brighton is the Home Rule Municipality in Adams and Weld counties that is the county seat of Adams County, Colorado, United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the city population was 35,719 in 2013.


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Ebetsu, Hokkaido

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Government and politics of Seattle

Seattle, Washington, is a charter city, with a mayor–council form of government, unlike many of its neighbors that use the council–manager form. The mayor of Seattle and two of the nine members of the Seattle City Council are elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions. The remaining seven council positions are elected based on the city's seven council districts. The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All offices are non-partisan. Seattle is a predominantly liberal city and tends to elect left-leaning politicians to office. Jenny Durkan was elected as Mayor of Seattle in a municipal election on November 7, 2017, becoming the second woman to hold the office.

Kamifurano, Hokkaido

Kamifurano (上富良野町, Kamifurano-chō) is a town located in Kamikawa Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 11,053 and a density of 47 persons per km². The total area is 237.18 km².

Kamisunagawa, Hokkaido

Kamisunagawa (上砂川町, Kamisunagawa-chō) is a town located in Sorachi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 3,278. The total area is 39.91 km². There is a microgravity test facility located in Kamisunagawa used for astronomic purposes.

Since 1980, Kamisunagawa has been the sister city of Sparwood in British Columbia, Canada.

Kikonai, Hokkaido

Kikonai (木古内町, Kikonai-chō) is a town located in Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 4,448, and a density of 20 persons per km². The total area is 221.88 km².

Kollo, Niger

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List of sister cities in Florida

This is a list of sister states, regions, and cities in the U.S. state of Florida. Sister cities, known in Europe as town twins, are cities which partner with each other to promote human contact and cultural links, although this partnering is not limited to cities and often includes counties, regions, states and other sub-national entities.

Florida jurisdictions often partner with foreign cities through Sister Cities International, an organization whose goal is to "promote peace through mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation." Sister cities interact with each other across a broad range of activities, from health care and education to business and the arts.

Madison, Mississippi

Madison is a city in Madison County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 24,841 at the 2010 census. The population is currently over 25,000. It is part of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Neyagawa, Osaka

Neyagawa (寝屋川市, Neyagawa-shi) is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, that was founded May 3, 1951.

As of April 2017, the city has an estimated population of 236,758 and a population density of 9,600 persons per km². The total area is 24.73 km².

Neyagawa entered a Sister City relationship with Newport News, Virginia (US), in 1982, and with Oakville, Ontario (Canada), in 1984, where a boulevard is named after the city.

Rankoshi, Hokkaido

Rankoshi (蘭越町, Rankoshi-chō) is a town located in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 4,893, and a density of 11 persons per km². The total area is 449.68 km².

Rusutsu, Hokkaido

Rusutsu (留寿都村, Rusutsu-mura) is a village located in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the village has an estimated population of 1,940. The total area is 119.92 km².

Setana, Hokkaido

Setana (せたな町, Setana-chō) is a town located in Hiyama Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 8,501, and a density of 13 persons per km². The total area is 638.67 km².

Shibetsu, Hokkaido

Shibetsu (士別市, Shibetsu-shi, Ainu: シペㇳ Sipet) is a city located in Kamikawa Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of September 2016, the city has an estimated population of 19,794 and the density of 18 persons per km². The total area is 1119.29 km².

On September 1, 2005, the town of Asahi was merged into Shibetsu.

Sister Cities International

Sister Cities International (SCI) is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between communities in the United States and those in other countries, particularly through the establishment of "sister cities". More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in over 140 countries around the world. The organization "strives to build global cooperation at the municipal level, promote cultural understanding and stimulate economic development".As the official organization which links jurisdictions in the U.S. with communities worldwide, Sister Cities International recognizes, registers, and coordinates sister city, county, municipalities, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, state, town, and village linkages.

The U.S. sister city program began in 1956 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a people-to-people, citizen diplomacy initiative. Originally a program of the National League of Cities, Sister Cities International became a separate, nonprofit corporation in 1967, due to the growth and popularity of the U.S. program.

Sister City (Parks and Recreation)

"Sister City" is the fifth episode of the second season of Parks and Recreation, and the eleventh overall episode of the series. It originally aired on NBC in the United States on October 15, 2009. In the episode, Leslie welcomes a delegation from Venezuela, who act disrespectfully toward Pawnee and the United States.

The episode was written by Alan Yang and directed by series co-creator Michael Schur. It featured Saturday Night Live performer Fred Armisen in a guest appearance as Raul, the head of the Venezuelan delegation. According to Nielsen Media Research, the episode was seen by 4.69 million household viewers, a drop from the previous week. The episode received generally positive reviews.

Takasu, Hokkaido

Takasu (鷹栖町, Takasu-chō) is a town in Kamikawa Subprefecture in Hokkaido, Japan. Translated into English, Takasu means "hawk's nest". As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 7,140 people.

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