Sir

Sir is a formal English honorific address for men, derived from Sire in the High Middle Ages. Traditionally, as governed by law and custom, Sir is used for men titled knights i.e. of orders of chivalry, and later also to baronets, and other offices. As the female equivalent for knighthood is damehood, the suo jure female equivalent term is typically Dame. The wife of a knight or baronet tends to be addressed Lady, although a few exceptions and interchanges of these uses exist.

Since the Late Modern era, "Sir" has been increasingly used also as a respectful way to address any commoners of a superior social status or military rank. Equivalent terms of address for women are Madam (shortened "Ma'am"), in addition to social honorifics such as Mr, Mrs and Miss.

Etymology

'Sir' derives from the honorific title sire, used in Spanish, Italian, French, German, and Swedish. Sire developed alongside the word seigneur, also used to refer to a feudal lord. Both derived from the Vulgar Latin senior, sire comes from the nominative case declension senior and seigneur, the accusative case declension seniōrem.[1]

The form 'Sir' is first documented in English in 1297, as title of honour of a knight, and latterly a baronet, being a variant of sire, which was already used in English since at least c.1205 as a title placed before a name and denoting knighthood, and to address the (male) Sovereign since c.1225, with additional general senses of 'father, male parent' is from c.1250, and 'important elderly man' from 1362.

Entitlement to formal honorific address by region

Commonwealth of Nations

Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet
Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet, whose entitlement to use 'Sir' derived from his position as baronet

The prefix is used with the holder's given name or full name, but never with the surname alone. For example, whilst Sir Alexander and Sir Alexander Fleming would be correct, Sir Fleming would not.[2]

The equivalent for a female who holds a knighthood or baronetcy in her own right is 'Dame', and follows the same usage customs as 'Sir'.[3] Although this form was previously also used for the wives of knights and baronets, it is now customary to refer to them as 'Lady', followed by their surname; they are never addressed using their full names. For example, while Lady Fiennes is correct, Lady Virginia and Lady Virginia Fiennes are not.[4][5] The widows of knights retain the style of wives of knights,[5] however widows of baronets are either referred to as 'dowager', or use their forename before their courtesy style. For example, the widow of Sir Thomas Herbert Cochrane Troubridge, 4th Baronet, would either be known as Dowager Lady Troubridge or Laura, Lady Troubridge.[6]

Emperor Taisho the Order of the Garter
Emperor Taishō, a Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter who as a foreign national was not entitled to use the prefix 'Sir' (which as a sovereign monarch he would not have used in any case) but was permitted to post-nominally use KG

Today, in the UK and in certain Commonwealth realms, a number of men are entitled to the prefix of 'Sir', including knights bachelor, knights of the orders of chivalry and baronets; although foreign nationals can be awarded honorary knighthoods. Honorary knights do not bear the prefix "Sir" (and they receive not an accolade); instead they use the associated post-nominal letters.[7]

Church of England clergy who receive knighthoods do also not receive an accolade and therefore do not use the title 'Sir', but instead refer to their knighthood using post-nominal letters.[2] For example, the Reverend Dr John Polkinghorne, KBE is never referred to as Sir John Polkinghorne. Clergy of other denominations may use different conventions.[2]

Dual nationals holding a Commonwealth citizenship that recognise the British monarch as head of state are entitled to use the styling. Common usage varies from country to country: for instance, dual Bahamian-American citizen Sidney Poitier, knighted in 1974, is often styled 'Sir Sidney Poitier', particularly in connection with his official ambassadorial duties, although he himself rarely employs the title.

The permissibility of using the style of 'Sir' varies. In general, only dynastic knighthoods in the personal gift of the Sovereign and Head of the Commonwealth – the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle and the knighthoods in the Royal Victorian Order – are recognised across the Commonwealth realms, along with their accompanying styles.

Knighthoods in the gift of the government of a Commonwealth realm typically only permit the bearer to use his title within that country or as its official representative, provided he is a national of that country; Commonwealth realms may consider knighthoods from other realms to only be foreign honours. For instance, Anthony Bailey was reprimanded by Buckingham Palace and the British government in 2016 for asserting that an honorary Antiguan knighthood allowed him the style of 'Sir' in the UK.[8][9][10]

Commonwealth realms

United Kingdom

Antigua and Barbuda

Australia

  • Knight of the Order of Australia (AK; for male Australian subjects only; discontinued 1986-2014, reintroduced briefly in 2014, again discontinued in 2015)[13][14]

Barbados

Grenada

  • Knight Commander, Knight Grand Cross, or Knight Grand Collar of the Order of the Nation in the Order of Grenada (KCNG/GCNG/KN)

New Zealand

Saint Lucia

Ireland

Established in 1783 and primarily awarded to men associated with the Kingdom of Ireland, Knights of the Order of St. Patrick were entitled to the style of 'Sir'. Regular creation of new knights of the order ended in 1921 upon the formation of the Irish Free State. With the death of the last knight in 1974, the Order became dormant.

India

King Of Travancore sct
Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma was the last surviving Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India

As part of the consolidation of the crown colony of India, the Order of the Star of India was established in 1861 to reward prominent British and Indian civil servants, military officers and prominent Indians associated with the Indian Empire. The Order of the Indian Empire was established in 1878 as a junior-level order to accompany the Order of the Star of India, and to recognise long service.

From 1861 to 1866, the Order of the Star of India had a single class of Knights (KSI), who were entitled to the style of 'Sir'. In 1866, the order was reclassified into three divisions: Knights Grand Commander (GCSI), Knights Commander (KCSI) and Companions (CSI); holders of the upper two degrees could use the title 'Sir'. From its creation in 1878 until 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire had a single class, Companion (CIE), which did not entitle the recipient to a style of knighthood.

In 1887, two higher divisions, Knight Grand Commander (GCIE) and Knight Commander (KCIE) were created, which entitled holders of those ranks to the style of 'Sir'. The last creations of knights of either order were made on 15 August 1947 upon Indian independence. All British honours and their accompanying styles were officially made obsolete in India when the Dominion of India became a modern Commonwealth republic in 1950, followed by Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956.

The Order of the Star of India became dormant in the Commonwealth realms from February 2009, and the Order of the Indian Empire after August 2010, when the last knights of the orders died.

Nigeria

In Nigeria, holders of religious honors like the Knighthood of St. Gregory make use of the word as a pre-nominal honorific in much the same way as it is used for secular purposes in Britain and the Philippines. Wives of such individuals also typically assume the title of Lady.

Philippines

As a privilege of the members of the Order of the Knights of Rizal, the prefix "Sir" is attached to their forenames while wives of Knights add the prefix "Lady" to their first names.[16] These apply to both spoken and written forms of address. The Knights of Rizal is the sole order of knighthood in the Philippines and a constituted[17] Order of Merit recognized by the Orders, decorations, and medals of the Philippines.[18] The prefix is appended with the relevant post-nominal according to their rank at the end of their names: Knight of Rizal (KR), Knight Officer of Rizal (KOR), Knight Commander of Rizal (KCR), Knight Grand Officer of Rizal (KGOR) and Knight Grand Cross of Rizal (KGCR). Among the notable members of the Knights of Rizal include King Juan Carlos I of Spain who was conferred a Knight Grand Cross of Rizal on 11 February 1998. [19]

Combinations with other titles and styles

Military

In the case of a military officer who is also a knight, the appropriate form of address puts the professional military rank first, then the correct manner of address for the individual, then his name. Examples include:

Academic

This is also the case with academic ranks and titles, such as 'Professor'. For example, Patrick Bateson was both a professor[note 2] and a knight bachelor; his correct title would be Professor Sir Patrick Bateson. However, the title of 'Doctor' (Dr.) is not used in combination with 'Sir', with the knighthood taking precedence. Knighted doctors are addressed as knights, though they may still use any post-nominal letters associated with their degrees.

Peers

Peers who have been knighted are not addressed as 'Sir' in the formal sense of the style, as their titles of nobility take precedence. If the heir apparent to a dukedom, marquessate or earldom holds a courtesy title and has been knighted, the same principle applies to him, as well as to the male heirs of a duke or a marquess, who are styled 'Lord' followed by their first name. For instance, diplomat Lord Nicholas Gordon-Lennox, KCMG, KCVO, who was a younger son of the Duke of Richmond, continued to be styled as 'Lord Nicholas' following his knighthood in 1986, not 'Lord Sir Nicholas'. Other male heirs of an earl who lack courtesy titles, and the male heirs of a viscount or baron, do however use the style of 'Sir' if knighted, the style following that of 'The Hon'.

Educational, military and other usage

Education system

'Sir', along with Miss for females, is commonly used in the British school system to address teachers; and or members of faculty as well as staff. Usage of these terms is considered a mark of respect, and can be dated back to the 16th century. The practice may have been an attempt to reinforce the authority of teachers from lower social classes among classes of largely upper class students.[22] Jennifer Coates, emeritus professor of English language and linguistics at Roehampton University has criticised the use of the title for male teachers, saying that "Sir is a knight. There weren't women knights, but 'Miss' is ridiculous: it doesn't match 'Sir' at all. It's just one of the names you can call an unmarried woman", and that "It's a depressing example of how women are given low status and men, no matter how young or new in the job they are, are given high status".[22] This view is not unchallenged however. The chief executive of the Brook Learning Trust, Debbie Coslett, said "... they call me 'Miss', I'm fine with that. They're showing respect by giving me a title rather than 'hey' or 'oi, you' or whatever", and dismissed the male/female issue as "That's just the way the English language works".[22]

In the Southern United States, the term 'sir' is often used to address someone in a position of authority or respect, and is commonly used in schools and universities by students to address their teachers and professors. Whereas the British and Commonwealth female equivalent is Miss, students will often refer to female teachers as Ma'am.[23]

In the Northeast United States, particularly New England, there remains influence of both the British and French traditions as noted above; in general parlance, teachers, authority-figures, and so forth, are referred to by a title of respect such as 'Sir' for males and 'Miss, Ms, or Mrs' for females: 'Miss' for unmarried, younger females; 'Ms' for senior, elder, or ranking females that may or may not be married (see article Ms/Mrs/Miss); and 'Mrs' for married or widowed females. The predominant form of address remains "Sir/Ma'am", though in some sectors - such as service, hospitality, or politics - "Sir/Madam(e)" prevails, while in Northern Maine - Aroostock County and St John's Valley - most female teachers or public officials, regardless of marital status, are addressed "Miss" in English or "Madame" in French, though the two are not interchangeable. As noted in Coslett's statement above citing her personal acceptance of 'Miss', generally teachers or other public officials may specify to which form they prefer, while in other cases social and cultural norms dictate the appropriate form.

Military and police

If not specifically using their rank or title, 'sir' is used in the United States Armed Forces to address a male, senior commissioned officer or civilian. Privates and non-commissioned officers, such as corporals and sergeants, are addressed using their ranks.[24] Similarly, in both the United States Air Force (USAF) and Royal Air Force (RAF), 'sir' is used to address all male commissioned officers. Male non-commissioned officers and airmen are addressed by their rank. In the RAF, male warrant officers are addressed as Mr by commissioned officers, but as 'sir' by non-commissioned officers and airmen.[25]

In the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), only commissioned officers are addressed as 'sir'; NCOs and constables are addressed by their rank. Male British police officers of the rank of Inspector or above are addressed as 'Sir' (women of inspecting rank are called Ma'am).

In the British Army, a Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM), the most senior non-commissioned officer, is addressed as 'Sir' by his subordinates.

In the Hong Kong Police Force, male superiors are respectfully known by their surname followed by 'sir'. For example, Inspector Wong would be addressed or referred to as 'Wong-sir'. Male police officers are sometimes known colloquially as "Ah-sir" (阿Sir) to the wider public.[26]

Service industry

The term 'Sir' is also used frequently in the customer service industry, by employees to refer to customers, and sometimes vice versa. In the United States, it is much more common in certain areas (even when addressing male peers or men considerably younger). For example, a 1980 study showed that 80 % of service interactions in the South were accompanied by 'Sir' or Ma'am, in comparison to the Northern United States, where 'Sir' was only used 25 % of the time.[23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c In the personal gift of the Sovereign and Head of the Commonwealth.
  2. ^ Note a difference in usage between British and US usage. A Professor in the UK is only used for the highest academic rank. See a summary here.

References

  1. ^ Ayres-Bennet, Wendy (1996). "The 'heyday' of Old French (French in the 12th and 13th centuries)". A History of the French Language Through Texts. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415099994.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Knight". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Baronetess". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  4. ^ "Family of a Baronet". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Wife of a Knight". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Wife of a Baronet". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  7. ^ "Honorary Knighthood". Debretts. n.d. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  8. ^ London Gazette, 1 June 2016, accessed 16 August 2016
  9. ^ "Something of the Knight...", Private Eye, no, 1420, 10 June 2016
  10. ^ Donovan, Ned; Gallagher, Ian (28 May 2016). "Queen's envoy 'Baroness Brazen' is entangled in honours scandal: Title given to Commonwealth chief's crony is 'reviewed' after she is accused of abusing the system". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  11. ^ Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Royal Victorian Order". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  12. ^ "Baronet". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  13. ^ "Knight /Dame of the Order of Australia". Australian Government. n.d. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  14. ^ "Australia PM Malcolm Turnbull drops knights and dames from honours system". BBC. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  15. ^ "New Zealand State Honours - The New Zealand Order of Merit". New Zealand Defence Force. n.d. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Who is entitled to the prefix of 'Sir'?". R.A.U. Juchter van Bergen Quast, LLM (in Dutch). 25 October 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Republic Act No. 646 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  18. ^ "Speech of President Aquino at the International Assembly and Conference of Rizal, February 17, 2011 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  19. ^ "Entitlement to the prefix of 'sir'". Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  20. ^ Royal Navy Flag Officers, 1904-1945: Admiral of the Fleet Sir Bruce Fraser, admirals.org.uk
  21. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey, adb.online.anu.edu.au
  22. ^ a b c Paton, Graeme (13 May 2014). "Stop calling teachers 'Miss' or 'Sir', pupils are told". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  23. ^ a b Hudley, Anne; Mallinson, Christine (2011). "A Regional and Cultural Variety". Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools. NY, USA: Teachers College Press. ISBN 9780807751480.
  24. ^ Rush, Robert S. NCO Guide (9th ed.). PA, USA: Stackpole Book. p. 328. ISBN 9780811736145.
  25. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". RAF. n.d. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  26. ^ Guldin, Gregory Eliyu (1992). Urbanizing China. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 171.

External links

Anthony Hopkins

Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins (born 31 December 1937) is a Welsh actor, director, and producer. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1992, and was nominated three additional times. Hopkins has also won three BAFTAs, two Emmys, and the Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. Hopkins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, and in 2008, he received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.After graduating from the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in 1957, he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and was then spotted by Laurence Olivier who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre. In 1968, he achieved renown, playing Richard the Lionheart in The Lion in Winter. In the mid-1970s, Richard Attenborough, who would direct five Hopkins films, called him "the greatest actor of his generation."

Hopkins portrayed Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, its sequel Hannibal, and the prequel Red Dragon. Hopkins was nominated for three other Academy Awards for the films, The Remains of the Day (1993), Nixon (1995), and Amistad (1997). Other notable films include: 84 Charing Cross Road (1987), The Elephant Man (1980), Howards End (1992), Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992), Legends of the Fall (1994), Meet Joe Black (1998), The Mask of Zorro (1998), and Thor and its sequels. In 2015, he starred in the BBC television film The Dresser, and in 2016 and 2018, he starred in the HBO television series Westworld.

Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes. Originally a physician, in 1887 he published A Study in Scarlet, the first of four novels and more than fifty short stories about Holmes and Dr. Watson. The Sherlock Holmes stories are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction.

Doyle was a prolific writer; his non-Sherlockian works include fantasy and science fiction stories about Professor Challenger and humorous stories about the Napoleonic soldier Brigadier Gerard, as well as plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction and historical novels. One of Doyle's early short stories, "J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement", helped to popularise the mystery of the Mary Celeste.

David Attenborough

Sir David Frederick Attenborough (; born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster and natural historian. He is best known for writing and presenting, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit, the nine natural history documentary series forming the Life collection that together constitute a comprehensive survey of animal and plant life on Earth. He is a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the 1960s and 1970s. He is the only person to have won BAFTAs for programmes in each of black and white, colour, HD, 3D and 4K.Attenborough is widely considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not like the term. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide poll for the BBC. He is the younger brother of the director, producer and actor Richard Attenborough, and older brother of the motor executive John Attenborough.

Elton John

Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight; 25 March 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, pianist, and composer. He has worked with lyricist Bernie Taupin since 1967; they have collaborated on more than 30 albums. John has sold more than 300 million records, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists. He has more than fifty Top 40 hits, as well as seven consecutive number-one albums in the United States, 58 Billboard Top 40 singles, 27 Top 10 singles, four of which reached number two and nine of which reached number one. His tribute single "Candle in the Wind 1997", rewritten in dedication to Diana, Princess of Wales, sold over 33 million copies worldwide and is the best-selling single in the history of the UK and US singles charts. He has also produced records and occasionally acted in films. John owned Watford F.C. from 1976 to 1987 and from 1997 to 2002, and is an honorary Life President of the club.

Raised in the Pinner area of London, John learned to play piano at an early age, and by 1962 had formed Bluesology. He met his longtime musical partner Taupin in 1967, after they both answered an advert for songwriters. For two years they wrote songs for artists including Lulu, and John worked as a session musician for artists including the Hollies and the Scaffold. In 1969 John's debut album, Empty Sky, was released. In 1970 his first hit single, "Your Song", from his second album, Elton John, reached the top ten in the UK and the US. John has also had success in musical films and theatre, composing for The Lion King and its stage adaptation, Aida and Billy Elliot the Musical.

John has received five Grammy Awards, five Brit Awards, an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Tony Award, a Disney Legends award, and the Kennedy Center Honor. In 2004 Rolling Stone ranked him 49th on its list of 100 influential musicians of the rock and roll era. In 2013 Billboard ranked him the most successful male solo artist on the Billboard Hot 100 Top All-Time Artists, and third overall, behind the Beatles and Madonna. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1992, and is a fellow of the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors. He was knighted by Elizabeth II for "services to music and charitable services" in 1998. John has performed at a number of royal events, such as the funeral of Princess Diana at Westminster Abbey in 1997, the Party at the Palace in 2002 and the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Concert outside Buckingham Palace in 2012.

John has been involved in the fight against AIDS since the late 1980s. In 1992 he established the Elton John AIDS Foundation and a year later he began hosting his annual Academy Awards Party, which has since become one of the highest-profile Oscar parties in the Hollywood film industry. Since its inception the foundation has raised over £300 million. John, who announced he was bisexual in 1976 and has been openly gay since 1988, entered into a civil partnership with David Furnish on 21 December 2005; they married after same-sex marriage became legal in England and Wales in 2014. Presenting John with France’s highest civilian award, the Legion d'honneur, in 2019, French President Emmanuel Macron called him a "melodic genius" and praised his work on behalf of the LGBT community. In 2018 John embarked on a three-year farewell tour.

Ian McKellen

Sir Ian Murray McKellen (born 25 May 1939) is an English actor. His career spans genres ranging from Shakespearean and modern theatre to popular fantasy and science fiction.

He is the recipient of six Laurence Olivier Awards, a Tony Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a BIF Award, two Saturn Awards, four Drama Desk Awards, and two Critics' Choice Awards. He has also received nominations for two Academy Awards, five Primetime Emmy Awards and four BAFTAs.

He achieved worldwide fame for his film roles, including the titular King in Richard III (1995), James Whale in Gods and Monsters (1998), Magneto in the X-Men films, and Gandalf in The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit trilogies.

The BBC states that his "performances have guaranteed him a place in the canon of English stage and film actors". A recipient of every major theatrical award in the UK, McKellen is regarded as a British cultural icon. He started his professional career in 1961 at the Belgrade Theatre as a member of their highly regarded repertory company. In 1965, McKellen made his first West End appearance. In 1969, he was invited to join the Prospect Theatre Company to play the lead parts in Shakespeare's Richard II and Marlowe's Edward II, and he firmly established himself as one of the country's foremost classical actors. In the 1970s, McKellen became a stalwart of the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre of Great Britain.

McKellen was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1979 Birthday Honours, was knighted in the 1991 New Year Honours for services to the performing arts, and made a Companion of Honour for services to drama and to equality in the 2008 New Year Honours. He has been openly gay since 1988, and continues to be a champion for LGBT social movements worldwide. He was awarded Freedom of the City of London in October 2014.

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity. He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was later confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. His work on light was collected in his highly influential book Opticks, published in 1704. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.

Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1700) and Master (1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).

Logic (rapper)

Sir Robert Bryson Hall II (born January 22, 1990), known professionally as Logic, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer and author.

Raised in Gaithersburg, Maryland, Logic developed an interest in music as a teenager, and ventured into a musical career in early 2009, releasing Logic: The Mixtape and a mixtape titled Young, Broke & Infamous in 2010. He then signed with Visionary Music Group, and subsequently released three additional mixtapes over three years. His fourth mixtape, Young Sinatra: Welcome to Forever (2013), was released to critical acclaim and allowed Logic to secure a recording contract with Def Jam Recordings.

His debut studio album Under Pressure was released in 2014 and peaked at number four on the U.S. Billboard 200, and was eventually certified gold. Alongside its follow-up The Incredible True Story (2015), both albums also received mostly positive reviews from critics. After releasing his debut commercial mixtape Bobby Tarantino in 2016, he released his third studio album Everybody in 2017.

Everybody marked a breakthrough in his career, as it became his first to peak at number one on the Billboard 200, and was his first to become certified platinum. The album also contained the single "1-800-273-8255", which reached number three on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100, and was a top-ten hit internationally. His next two releases— Bobby Tarantino II and his fourth album YSIV— were both released in 2018; each debuted within the top-two on the Billboard 200, and enjoyed generally positive critical reception. In 2019, he released his fifth album Confessions of a Dangerous Mind which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and includes a collaboration with American rapper Eminem titled Homicide which peaked at number 5 on the Billboard Hot 100.Outside of music, Logic has released a novel titled Supermarket (2019), which was accompanied by a soundtrack of the same name. The book became a New York Times Best Seller, but both works received generally mixed to negative critical reception.

Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II. During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command (1943–1946). He was the last Viceroy of India (1947) and the first Governor-General of independent India (1947–1948).

From 1954 to 1959, Mountbatten was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, making him the longest-serving professional head of the British Armed Forces to date. During this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year.

In 1979, Mountbatten, his grandson Nicholas, and two others were killed by a bomb set by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, hidden aboard his fishing boat in Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland.

Michael Caine

Sir Michael Caine, (; born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite Jr., 14 March 1933) is an English actor, producer and author. He has appeared in more than 130 films in a career spanning 70 years and is considered a British film icon. Known for his cockney accent, Caine was born in South London.He made his breakthrough in the 1960s with starring roles in British films, including Zulu (1964), The Ipcress File (1965), Alfie (1966), for which he was nominated for an Academy Award, The Italian Job (1969), and Battle of Britain (1969). His roles in the 1970s included Get Carter (1971), The Last Valley (1971), Sleuth (1972), for which he earned his second Academy Award nomination, The Man Who Would Be King (1975), and A Bridge Too Far (1977). He achieved some of his greatest critical success in the 1980s, with Educating Rita (1983), earning him the BAFTA and Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. In 1986, he received an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Woody Allen's Hannah and Her Sisters.

Caine played Ebenezer Scrooge in The Muppet Christmas Carol (1992). This was his first starring role in several years, which led to a career resurgence in the late 1990s, receiving his second Golden Globe Award for his performance in Little Voice in 1998, and receiving his second Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Cider House Rules, the following year. Caine played Nigel Powers in the 2002 parody Austin Powers in Goldmember, and Alfred Pennyworth in Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy. He appeared in several other of Nolan's films, including The Prestige (2006), Inception (2010), and Interstellar (2014). He also appeared in Alfonso Cuarón's Children of Men and Matthew Vaughn's action comedy film Kingsman: The Secret Service. As of February 2017, films which he has starred in have grossed over $3.5 billion domestically, and over $7.8 billion worldwide. Caine is ranked as the twentieth-highest-grossing box office star.Caine is one of only two actors nominated for an Academy Award for acting in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s, the other one being Jack Nicholson; Laurence Olivier was also nominated for an acting Academy Award in five different decades, beginning in 1939 and ending in 1978. Caine appeared in seven films that featured in the British Film Institute's 100 greatest British films of the 20th century. In 2000, Caine received a BAFTA Fellowship, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his contribution to cinema.

Mick Jagger

Sir Michael Philip Jagger (born 26 July 1943) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, and film producer who gained worldwide fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, and he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll". His distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style, have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, and was often portrayed as a countercultural figure.

Jagger was born and grew up in Dartford, Kent. He studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, and they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films (starting with Performance and Ned Kelly), to a mixed reception. He began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, and joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009. Relationships with the Stones' members, particularly Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects.

In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones. As a member of the Stones, and as a solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music.

Jagger has been married (and divorced) once, and has also had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women. He also has five grandchildren and became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million.

Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations,

and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were originally made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British (Imperial) honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours.

Paul McCartney

Sir James Paul McCartney (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer, songwriter, musician, record and film producer, composer, and businessman. A multi-instrumentalist, he gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer of the Beatles, who are widely considered to be the most popular and influential band in history. McCartney is one of the most successful composers and performers of all time. He has written or co-written 32 songs that have reached No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100, and as of 2009 he had 25.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. His songwriting partnership with John Lennon remains the most successful in history. After the group disbanded in 1970, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife, Linda, and Denny Laine.

More than 2,200 artists have covered McCartney's Beatles song "Yesterday", making it one of the most covered songs in popular music history. Wings' 1977 release "Mull of Kintyre" is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK. McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music. His most recent album, Egypt Station (2018), became his first album in 36 years to top the Billboard 200, and his first to debut at No. 1.A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (as a member of the Beatles in 1988, and as a solo artist in 1999) and an 18-time Grammy Award winner, McCartney (along with Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr) received appointment as a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1965, and he was knighted in 1997 for services to music. He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to such subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism, poverty, and music education. He has married three times and has five children. He is also one of the wealthiest musicians in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$1.2 billion.

Ravindra Jadeja

Ravindrasinh Anirudhsinh Jadeja (born 6 December 1988), commonly known as Ravindra Jadeja, is an Indian international cricketer. He is an all-rounder, who plays as a left-handed middle-order batsman and slow left-arm orthodox bowler. He represents Saurashtra in first-class cricket and the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League.

Jadeja was part of the Indian U-19 cricket team that won the World Cup in Malaysia in 2008 under the captaincy of current Indian Captain Virat Kohli. He made his ODI debut against Sri Lanka on 8 February 2009 and scored an unbeaten 60 off 77 balls in that match. However, his Test debut came almost four years later, on 13 December 2012, against England at Nagpur.

Jadeja was bought for $2 million by the Chennai Super Kings at the 2012 IPL Players Auction. He was bought by the Gujarat Lions in the 2016 IPL Players Auction for ₹9.5 crores after the Chennai Super Kings were banned from the IPL for two seasons. On 22 January 2017, Jadeja became the first Indian left-arm spinner to take 150 One Day International wickets, when he dismissed Sam Billings at Eden Gardens, Kolkata. In March 2017, he became the top ranked bowler in the world leaving behind Ravichandran Ashwin who held that position for a long time.

Richard Branson

Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is a British business magnate, investor, author and philanthropist. He founded the Virgin Group in the 1970s, which controls more than 400 companies in various fields.Branson expressed his desire to become an entrepreneur at a young age. His first business venture, at the age of 16, was a magazine called Student. In 1970, he set up a mail-order record business. He opened a chain of record stores, Virgin Records—later known as Virgin Megastores—in 1972. Branson's Virgin brand grew rapidly during the 1980s, as he started Virgin Atlantic airline and expanded the Virgin Records music label. In 2004, he founded spaceflight corporation Virgin Galactic, based at Mojave Air and Space Port, noted for the SpaceShipTwo suborbital spaceplane designed for space tourism.

In March 2000, Branson was knighted at Buckingham Palace for "services to entrepreneurship". For his work in retail, music and transport (with interests in land, air, sea and space travel), his taste for adventure, and for his humanitarian work, he has become a prominent global figure. In 2007, he was placed in the Time 100 Most Influential People in The World list.

In April 2018, Forbes listed Branson's estimated net worth at US$5.1 billion.

Sean Connery

Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer, who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards, one being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award, and three Golden Globes, including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award.

Connery was the first actor to portray the character James Bond in film, starring in seven Bond films (every film from Dr. No to You Only Live Twice, plus Diamonds Are Forever and Never Say Never Again), between 1962 and 1983. In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables. His films also include Marnie (1964), Murder on the Orient Express (1974), The Man Who Would Be King (1975), The Name of the Rose (1986), Highlander (1986), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), The Hunt for Red October (1990), Dragonheart (1996), The Rock (1996), and Finding Forrester (2000).

Connery has been polled in The Sunday Herald as "The Greatest Living Scot" and in a EuroMillions survey as "Scotland's Greatest Living National Treasure". He was voted by People magazine as both the “Sexiest Man Alive” in 1989 and the “Sexiest Man of the Century” in 1999. Connery was knighted in the 2000 New Year Honours for services to film drama.

Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is currently a Professorial Fellow of Computer Science at the University of Oxford and Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He made a proposal for an information management system on 12 March 1989, and he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the internet in mid-November the same year.Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the continued development of the Web. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In 2011, he was named as a member of the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation. He is a founder and president of the Open Data Institute, and is currently an advisor at social network MeWe.In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work. In April 2009, he was elected a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, Berners-Lee has received a number of other accolades for his invention. He was honoured as the "Inventor of the World Wide Web" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium. He tweeted "This is for everyone", which instantly was spelled out in liquid-crystal display (LCD) lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Berners-Lee received the 2016 Turing Award "for inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale".

Tom Jones (singer)

Sir Thomas John Woodward (born 7 June 1940), known professionally as Tom Jones, is a Welsh singer. His career began with a string of top-ten hits in the mid-1960s. He has toured regularly, with appearances in Las Vegas (1967–2011), and has had several career comebacks, such as his high-profile coaching role on the television talent show The Voice UK from 2012 (with the exception of 2016). Jones's powerful voice has been described as a "full-throated, robust baritone".His performing range has included pop, R&B, show tunes, country, dance, soul and gospel. In 2008, the New York Times called Jones a musical "shape shifter", who could "slide from soulful rasp to pop croon, with a voice as husky as it was pretty". Jones has sold over 100 million records, with thirty-six Top 40 hits in the United Kingdom and nineteen in the United States, including "It's Not Unusual", "What's New Pussycat", the theme song for the 1965 James Bond film Thunderball, "Green, Green Grass of Home", "Delilah", "She's a Lady", "Kiss" and "Sex Bomb".Jones made his acting debut playing the lead role in the 1979 television film Pleasure Cove. He played himself in Tim Burton's 1996 film Mars Attacks! In 1970 he received a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy nomination for hosting the television series This Is Tom Jones. In 2012, he played a dramatic role in an episode of Playhouse Presents.Jones received a Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966, an MTV Video Music Award in 1989, and two Brit Awards: Best British Male in 2000 and the Outstanding Contribution to Music award in 2003. Jones was awarded an OBE in 1999, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to music in 2006.

Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh (; c. 1552 (or 1554) – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era.

Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick. Later, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London. After his release, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.

In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, who was not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618.

West Indies cricket team

The West Indies cricket team is a multi-national men's cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies. As of 24 June 2018, the West Indies cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in One-Day Internationals (ODIs) and seventh in Twenty20 Internationals (T20Is) in the official International Cricket Council (ICC) rankings.From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Alvin Kalicharan,Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice (1975 and 1979), the ICC World Twenty20 twice (2012 and 2016), the ICC Champions Trophy once (2004), the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once (2016), and have also finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup (1983), the Under 19 Cricket World Cup (2004), and the ICC Champions Trophy (2006). The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals (1975, 1979 and 1983), and were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups (1975 and 1979).

The West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. In June 2019, during the 2019 Cricket World Cup, the West Indies played their 800th ODI match.

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, then as Secretary of State for War and Air, and finally for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain's Middle East policy. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.

Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945. His wartime leadership was widely praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy. After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe's liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Also praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.

Feminine
Masculine
Neutral

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.