Sinugra

Sinugra (also spelled Shinoogra / Sinogra / Sinougra) is a village 7 km from the town of Anjar, in the Anjar taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

Sinugra
village
Chabutro at Sinugra Village entrance built by Seth Khora Ramji in 1900
Chabutro at Sinugra Village entrance built by Seth Khora Ramji in 1900
Sinugra is located in Gujarat
Sinugra
Sinugra
Location in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 23°05′47″N 69°58′08″E / 23.096273°N 69.968877°ECoordinates: 23°05′47″N 69°58′08″E / 23.096273°N 69.968877°E
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictKachchh
PanchayatGram Panchayat
Elevation
27 m (89 ft)
Languages
 • OfficialGujarati, Hindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
370110
Telephone code02836
Vehicle registrationGJ-12
Sex ratio0.894 /
Distance from Bhuj60 kilometres (37 mi)
Distance from Ahmedabad350 kilometres (220 mi)

History

The village is one of the eighteen villages founded by Mistris of Kutch in late 12th century.[1][2][3] [4][5][6] The Mistris of these villages have built and developed the infrastructure around the villages in late 1890.

Geology

There is a limestone mine which located across the hill named Topi dungar behind the Sinugra village. Also the Sang river, which rises from this hill behind village serves the water needs of village. The river flows through other parts of Anjar taluka.[7]

Heritage

The village boasted of 200 odd houses made by rich Mistri families, ornate facades, intricate door carvings and metal grill windows and verandah depicting life of Queen Victoria. There were also huge wall and Ceiling paintings depicting scenes from Mahabharata & Ramayana. The village like other Mistri Village was well planned by Mistris, who were master-planners themselves, having wide main roads and streets and other infrastructure, temples, ponds, wells and was unique in its heritage. Sinugra was known as Pride of Kutch for its unique artistic heritage.[8] [9]

However, most of it was destroyed in the earthquake of 2000. Sinugra Village being very near to Anjar also bore the heavy brunt of the quake and almost all old majestic houses built around 100 years ago were completely destroyed. There was also a good number of human casualty. Some of the old buildings, temples, Chabutro have been since re-constructed but the majestic houses with fine workmanship have been lost.

Notable persons

Seth Khora Ramji Chawda and Jethabhai Lira Jethwa of village, a railway contractor and miner, was noted by British as first Indian to break monopoly of Europeans in Jharia coalfields belt.[10][11]

School

The village has primary co-educational school named Seth Khora Ramji Prathmik Shala built by Seth Khora Ramji and brothers in 1910 and therefore, has been named after him.

Temples

Kuldevi Temples of many clans of these Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya community are also there in this village. For example, Tank clan Mistri community have their Kuldevi Chamunda.

The Thakor Mandir of Sinugra built by Seth Khora Ramji Chawda, Pachhan Ramji Chawda, Teja Ramji Chawda, Akhai Ramji Chawda, Jetha Lira Jethwa and Khoda Ratna Tank in 1900. It is a remarkable piece of architect with beautiful and colorful carvings of Gods and idols. Further, Jadeshwar Mahadev temple also built by Seth Khora Ramji is worth seeing. The Swaminarayan Temple and Dharamshala are also in the village. A small temple of Ramdev Pir is also there in village. After the earthquake of 26 January 2001 all the temples and Chabutro have been rehabilitated to their past glory by donations from the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya community.

Further, a mosque belonging to Mohammedan community is also there.

Present status

Villagers enjoy a good drinking water supply, and a steady electricity supply with few power shortages. Telephones are common, and nearly all of the houses have televisions and cable.

The village entrance has a big Chabutro and welcome gate.

Economy

Most of villagers are involved in agriculture, others go to nearby Anjar for their jobs and businesses.

Sarpanch

Dhamubhai Vadher, was former Sarpanch of this village. Newly elected Sarpanch, is Induben Umakant Vadher.[12]

Census 2011

Sinugra is a large village located in Anjar of Kachchh district, Gujarat with total 694 families residing. The Sinugra village has population of 3077 of which 1577 are males while 1500 are females as per Population Census 2011.[13]

In Sinugra village population of children with age 0-6 is 481 which makes up 15.63% of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Sinugra village is 951 which is higher than Gujarat state average of 919. Child Sex Ratio for the Sinugra as per census is 822, lower than Gujarat average of 890.

Sinugra village has lower literacy rate compared to Gujarat. In 2011, literacy rate of Sinugra village was 74.08% compared to 78.03% of Gujarat. In Sinugra Male literacy stands at 80.12% while female literacy rate was 67.89%.

As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raaj Act, Sinugra village is administrated by Sarpanch (Head of Village) who is elected representative of village.

References

  1. ^ History of Kutch Gurjar Kshatiryas, migration from Saurashtra - Dhaneti founded, their Villages, Madhapar founded, Surnames, etc
  2. ^ Gurjar Kshatriyas, also known as Mistris, came to Kutch from Rajasthan. They are skilled in building and construction. They first established themselves at Dhaneti and were granted 18 villages by the rulers of Kutch. They are famous designers and developers of buildings and bridges.
  3. ^ Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya & other communities of Kutch Archived 2011-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Community website giving brief history and social activities
  5. ^ Gurjar Kshatriya website giving details of Settlements Archived 2007-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj History Archived 2011-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Gujarat State Gazetteers: Junagadh — Page 15, 1971:: pp 15.
  8. ^ Sinougra houses no longer live-up to their claim to fame : Indian Press Report after earthquake giving details of Mistri of Kutch - Migration to Fiji, Africa & details of artistic houses in their village of Sinougra, Kookma & Pramod Jethi, curator of the Aina Mahal Trust Museum, Bhuj and an authority on Kutchi art says, People from Sinougra were working in the construction of the Howrah Bridge. In fact, many Victorian buildings in Kolkata have been built by the karigars (artisans) of the region. After earthquake, Sinugra the village, one of the 18 of the ‘mistry gams’ or craftsmen villages scattered in Anjar and Mundra Talukas, has now nothing to show that it was once the home to some of Kutch’s finest artisans. The scenario is no different in Kookma, Madhapar, Deoria, Khamara and the other craftsmen villages of the region. When the 1948 earthquake destroyed the village, its residents from East Africa to Kolkata rebuilt it with care, making the walls, facades, the jharokhas of the houses — the entire architecture was some of the finest repository of their ancestral skills. But the post-2001 quake years did not witness any such painstaking effort.
  9. ^ In shambles lies Pride of Kutch : Indian Press Report after earthquake giving details of Sinogra & other villages of Mistris of Kutch - Rare painting from Mahabharata, Ramayana, Queen Victoria, floors adorned with specially designed tiles of British firm Garlicks & Co. The ceilings of each room in these majestic buildings had been painstakingly hand-painted -- some of which were as big as 30 feet X 30 feet. There were rare paintings of Queen Victoria, Lord Krishna with gopis, floral murals, intricate carving in iron grills and wooden jaalies, besides the exquisite `jharokhas' which made each of these buildings a masterpiece. According to curators of the Kutch Museum in Bhuj, these paintings, jaalis and jharokhas are worth preserving for their uniqueness and rarity. The century-old art and interior design was unique to Sinogra because they have never been painted or created again anywhere else. The entire village belongs to `mistris' and kadias or masons who designed the buildings and the village layout themselves. Archived 2012-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Nanji Bapa ni Nondh Pothi, 1999: Life Sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawra. Khoda Ratna Tank. Rai Sahib Devraj Dahya Chawda.
  11. ^ Diary of Golden Days at Jharia — A Memoir & History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia — written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa of Calcutta/Sinugra compiled by Raja Pawan Jethwa (in English) in 1998
  12. ^ Sarpanch Election result: "Kutch District" Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine by kutchmitradaily.com, Kutchmitra Newspaper
  13. ^ population Chart as per census 2011
Chabutro

Chabutro or Chabutaro or Chabutra is a structure mostly found in the villages of Gujarat in India. They are a tower-like structure with octagonal or pentagonal shaped enclosures at the top. In the upper enclosure are several holes, wherein birds can make their nests. In Gujarat these are constructed at the entrances villages, especially for use and breeding of pigeons. Inside this structure mostly pigeons reside and breed. Mostly such monuments are found in village centers or at village entrances in the Gujarat & Kutch in India. At the base of the structure a sitting platform is usually made. The base and the surrounding area of this structure serves as a gathering place for villagers and as a playing area for children.

Another type of Chabutro, which can be seen in Gujarat & Rajasthan have different design and are built only for feeding & resting place for birds & not for breeding purpose. The upper enclosure of such Chabutra are artistically craved and designed like a window of house with conical dome or Chhatri.

In English it can vaguely be defined as "Pigeon-Tower" or "Pigeon-hole-tower". Actually, Chabutaro is a word of Gujarati language. In Gujarati language Pigeon is called Kabutar. The word Chabutro has arrived from word Kabutar, since Chabutaro is specially constructed for use and breeding of Pigeons only in Gujarat, especially Kutch. People and specially ladies of Gujarat, belonging to Hindu faith, consider it auspicious to feed Pigeons. Therefore, this structure is made in villages, where pigeons can live. In early morning, you can find ladies, children and gents alike feeding grains to Pigeons below Chabutro. The Chabutaro is, therefore, usually found in villages dominated or established by Hindu, Kshatriya & Brahmin communities of Gujarat.

For example, In Kutch district of Gujarat, Chabutro can be normally found in almost all villages of Mistris, a Hindu & Kshatriya clan, who were themselves master-craftsman and specialized in such construction. For example, Chabutro at Sinugra in Kutch, the image is shown here.A famous example of Chabutro found outside Gujarat is in Chhattisgarh. Just outside Raigarh Railway Station in Chhattisgarh a huge white colored Chabutro is standing as a landmark of the town. The erection of which was done by one Shyamji Gangji Sawaria of town in 1900. He was a famous railway contractor & entrepreneur of Raigarh, founder of Shyam Talkies, who hailed from Mistri community of Kumbharia, Kutch.Chabutro can also be seen in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Here is it called Chabutra. Chabutra is Hindi language word for Chabutro. In these States of India, it is normally found within Royal Palaces or Temples. But in States other than Gujarat, the Chabutra is not made exclusively for Pigeon but used for all type of birds. Although, in Hindi a pigeon is also called Kabutar.

The word Chabutra or Chabutro is also sometimes used to indicate a sitting platform, usually under a tree or beside any water-body like lake, pond, etc. But commonly it is used to indicate the tower-like structure explained above.

Chandiya

Chandiya or Chandia is a village near the town Anjar, the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

Village is located 21 km from nearest town Anjar.

Coal mining in India

Coal mining in India began in 1774 when John Sumner and Suetonius Grant Heatly of the East India Company commenced commercial exploitation in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar river. Growth remained slow for nearly a century due to low demand. The introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 boosted demand, and coal production rose to an annual average of 1 million metric tons (1.1 million short tons). India produced 6.12 million metric tons (6.75 million short tons) of coal per year by 1900 and 18 million metric tons (20 million short tons) per year by 1920. Coal production rose steadily over the next few decades, and was boosted by demand caused by World War I. Production slumped in the interwar period, but rose to 30 million metric tons (33 million short tons) by 1946 largely as a result of World War II.

In the regions of British India known as Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, the Indians pioneered Indian involvement in coal mining from 1894. They broke the previous monopolies held by British and other Europeans, establishing many collieries. Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra was the first Indian to break the British monopoly in the Jharia Coalfields. Other Indian communities followed the example of the Kshatriyas in the Dhanbad-Jharia-Bokaro fields after the 1930s. These included the Punjabis, Kutchis, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Bengalis and Hindustanis. Following independence, the Government of India introduced several 5-year development plans. Annual production rose to 33 million metric tons (36 million short tons) at the beginning of the First Five Year Plan. The National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC) was established in 1956 with the aim of increasing coal production efficiently by systematic and scientific development of the coal industry.

The Indira Gandhi administration nationalized coal mining in phases - coking coal mines in 1971-72 and non-coking coal mines in 1973. With the enactment of the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized on 1 May 1973. This policy was reversed by the Narendra Modi administration four decades later. In March 2015, the government permitted private companies to mine coal for use in their own cement, steel, power or aluminium plants. The Coking Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1972 and the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973 were repealed on 8 January 2018. In the final step toward denationalization, on 20 February 2018, the government permitted private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry. Under the new policy, mines will be auctioned to the firm offering the highest per tonne price. The move broke the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India has enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973.

India has the fifth largest coal reserves in the world, and is the fourth largest producer of coal in the world, producing 662.79 million metric tons (730.60 million short tons) in 2016-17. As on 31 March 2017, India had 315.14 billion metric tons (347.38 billion short tons) of the resource. The estimated total reserves of lignite coal as on 31 March 2017 was 44.70 billion metric tons (49.27 billion short tons). Due to high demand and poor average quality, India is forced to import high quality coal to meet the requirements of steel plants. India's coal imports have risen from 49.79 million metric tons (0.05488 billion short tons) in 2007-08 to 190.95 million metric tons (0.21049 billion short tons) in 2016-17. India's coal exports rose from 1.63 million metric tons (1.80 million short tons) in 2007-08 to 2.44 million metric tons (2.69 million short tons) in 2012-13, but subsequently declined to 1.77 million metric tons (1.95 million short tons) in 2016-17. Dhanbad city is the largest coal producing city

Devaria, Kachchh

Devaria or Devaliya or Deoria is a village in Anjar Taluka of Kutch at a distance of about 3 km from Anjar town of Kachchh District of Gujarat in India.

Hajapar

Hajapar is a village in Bhuj Taluka of Kachchh District of Gujarat State of India. It is located at a distance of about 18 km from Bhuj. One nearby village is Reha. As per some old records & books of Mistris community Hajapar was also known as Rajapar in olden days.

Jairamnagar

Jairamnagar is a village and a railway station at a distance of about 14 km from Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. It is one of the villages of Masturi tehsil of Bilaspur District. It is located at distance of 4.9 km from Masturi. It was known as Paragaht before 1939.It is a small railway station and village. The station code is JMRG. The station was named Jairamnagar after Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan, a noted Kutchi railway contractor on 1 September 1939 by Bengal Nagpur Railway authorities being the only Railway Station in the whole of India to have been named after an individual businessman. He at one time used to be sole proprietor of Jairamnagar village land and also used to own mines of dolomite, manganese and limestone.The village has a huge and deep pond, which was once a limestone quarry belonging to Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji. People of Jairamnagar use its water for their needs. Beside the pond there is a beautiful Shiva temple built in 1922 by Jairam Valji Chauhan.

Jambudi

Jambudi is a village near the Bhuj, the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is located at a distance of about 20 km from Bhuj Taluka and district headquarters of Kutch.

Khedoi

Khedoi is large village located 14 km from the town of Anjar and the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The village is sub-divided into Nani-Khedoi and Moti-Khedoi. It has a primary health centre and a major electricity processing plant. The main occupation of the villagers is agriculture.

Khora Ramji Chawda

Khora Ramji Chawda (1860–1923), better known as Seth Khora Ramji, was a reputed railway contractor, coal mines owner, banker and philanthropist of the early 20th century in India, who worked from Dhanbad and Jharia.

Kukma

Kukma or Kookma is a village near the Bhuj town, taluka in Kachchh District of Indian State of Gujarat. It is located at a distance of 16 kilometers from Bhuj, the headquarters of Kachchh District.

Kumbharia

Kumbharia or Kumbhariya is a village in Anjar Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat State of India. It is situated at a distance of 14 km from Anjar town, the taluka headquarters.

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya (also known as Mistri or Mestri) are a minority Hindu and one of the Socially and Educationally rich community of Gujarat in India, whom claim to be Kshatriyas. They are an artisan community related with Kadia works.They are also known as the Mistri a.k.a. Mistris of Kutch.

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas contributions to the Indian railways

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas (KGK) contributions to the Indian railways were widespread from the late 1850s to the latest reorganization of the Indian Railways infrastructure in 2003–2006. The community also widely known as Mistris of Kutch (or Mistry) migrated from Kutch to perform the work and were involved in the laying down of railway tracks and construction of rail bridges in almost all railway routes of undivided British India.

Lovariya

Lovariya is a village near the town Anjar, the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

Meghpar, Anjar

Meghpar is a village in Anjar Taluka in Kutch District of Gujarat of India. It is located on Anjar to Galpadar Road. About the history of Meghpar it is one of the 18 villages founded by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris of Kutch. It is located at a distance of about 4 km from Taluka Headquarters Anjar. The famous Malkeshwar Mahadev Temple is located nearby. It is also known as Meghpar-Borichi.

These Mistris first moved into Saurashtra in early 7th century and later a major group entered Kutch in 12th Century & established themselves at Dhaneti. Later from 12th century onwards they moved between Anjar and Bhuj and founded the villages of Anjar, Sinugra, Khambhra, Nagalpar, Khedoi, Madhapar, Hajapar, Kukma, Galpadar, Reha, Vidi, Ratnal, Jambudi, Devariya, Lovaria, Nagor, Chandiya, Meghpar and Kumbharia.These group of warriors were also talented architects and have contributed in erection of most of the historical architect of Kutch The Mistris of these villages have built and developed the infrastructure, temples, community halls around the villages till late 19th century. Many members of Mistri community migrated out of village during the years 1850 to 1940, the early years of laying of Railway lines in British India and have now settled in various parts of India and East Africa. However, majority of old houses of Mistris with unique architect were destroyed in the earthquake of 26 January 2001.

Nagalpar, Anjar

Nagalpur or Nagalpar is a small village in Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India. It comes under Anjar taluka.

Pantiya

Pantiya is a village near the town Anjar, the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

This village is adopted by IFFCO Kandla.

Village is located 10 KM from nearest town Anjar. Villagers enjoy very good dinking water supply,

and electricity supply with very less power shortages.

Village has good amount Telephone penetration, and nearly most of the houses has televisions and Cable supply.

Village Entrance greets welcome gate.

Sang River

The Sang river is the name of river which drains through Anjar taluka of Kutch, Gujarat, India.It rises from the hills behind a small village named Sinugra near Anjar. It flows by villages like Nagalpur, Anjar, Galpadar and Kharirohar. At village Shinai a dam has been built across it, which provides water to Kandla. The total length of river is 29 km. The river drains into Arabian Sea at Nakti Creek in the Gulf of Kutch.

Vidi

Vidi can also refer to Vidi, Prince of Albania.

Vidi can also refer to Hungarian Football Team MOL Vidi FC.

Vidi or Videe or Virdee is a village near the town Anjar, the taluka of Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is at a distance of about 4 km from Anjar, the Taluka headquarters.

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