Sinosaurus (meaning "Chinese lizard") was a tetanuran theropod dinosaur which lived during the Early Jurassic Period. It was a bipedal carnivore approximately 5.6 metres (18 feet) in length. Fossils of the animal were found at the Lufeng Formation, in the Yunnan Province of China.

Temporal range: Early Jurassic, 201–196 Ma
Sinosaurus triassicus
Reconstructed skeleton at Museo delle Scienze di Trento
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Clade: Tetanurae
Genus: Sinosaurus
Young, 1940
Type species
Sinosaurus triassicus
Young, 1940
Other species
  •  ?Sinosaurus sinensis (Hu, 1993)


Dilophosaurus sinensis (head)
Restored head

According to Carrano et al. (2012) D. sinensis, now considered to be at least congeneric with Sinosaurus triassicus, can be distinguished based on the fact that a vertical groove is present on the lateral premaxilla adjacent to contact with the maxilla.

Sinosaurus is the only "dilophosaurid" known from a complete braincase. Cryolophosaurus, Dilophosaurus, Zupaysaurus and Coelophysis kayentakatae are all known from partial braincases. Two partial braincases were found before 2012, and are probably mostly complete, except that large sections are obscured by sediments. In 2011, an exceptionally well-preserved braincase was found, only missing the frontal bones and orbitosphenoid.[3]

Discovery and naming

KMV 8701 was originally discovered in 1987. The specimen was identified as a new species, and was named Dilophosaurus sinensis. Then in 1994, during a field expedition, a more complete specimen was found, and was assigned to the same species. In 2003, Dong Zhiming studied the material of Sinosaurus, finding it to be quite similar to Dilophosaurus sinensis. As Sinosaurus was named earlier, by Young in 1948, "Dilophosaurus" sinensis became its junior synonym.[1] The composite term Sinosaurus comes from Sinae, the Latin word for the Chinese, and the Greek word sauros (σαυρος) meaning "lizard"; thus "Chinese lizard". The specific name, triassicus, refers to the Triassic, the period that the fossils were originally thought to date from. Sinosaurus was described and named by Chung Chien Young, who is known as the 'Father of Chinese Vertebrate Paleontology', in 1948.[4]

Sinosaurus maxilla
Maxilla of specimen ZLJT01

Over the years, paleontologists referred additional specimens to D. sinensis which are now assigned to Sinosaurus. Dong (2003) referred specimen LDM-LCA10 which consists of a skull and an incomplete skeleton.[1] In 2012, Xing referred two individuals, ZLJ0003 which consists of a partial skull and an incomplete skeleton, and ZLJT01 which is a juvenile individual that consists of a premaxillary fragment, an incomplete maxilla, a maxillary fragment, a lacrimal, both frontals, both parietals, an incomplete braincase, an incomplete dentary, an atlantal intercentrum, two dorsal rib fragments, and a partial proximal caudal neural arch, to Sinosaurus.[3]

The holotype, IVPP V34, was found in the Lower Lufeng Formation, and consists of two maxillary (upper jaw) fragments, four maxillary teeth, and a lower jaw fragment with three teeth. The teeth are laterally compressed, and feature fine serrations both at their anterior and posterior edges. The teeth are also variable in size and are curved backwards. This material is too fragmentary to determine the length and weight of this dinosaur. Over the years, other fossils were referred to Sinosaurus, some of which were material that was shown to belong to two sauropodomorphs.[5][6] The fossils include a postcrania,[7] with a sacrum with three preserved sacral vertebrae. The material assigned to "Sinosaurus postcrania" includes a mix of plateosaurid and melanorosaurid elements. All the material from the Red Beds block has now been reassigned to Jingshanosaurus[8]

Sinosaurus triassicus 2
Frontal view of mounted skeleton cast.

Shaojin Hu (1993) assigned specimen KMV 8701 to Dilophosaurus sinensis.[9] In 2013, a study by Currie et al., confirmed that D. sinensis was the same animal as Sinosaurus triassicus[10] On the other hand, Wang et al. (2017) stated that it needs to be further investigated whether D. sinensis is indeed a junior synonym of S. triassicus, and noted that the two species are different at least in the anatomy of the premaxilla. The authors tentatively assigned D. sinensis to the genus Sinosaurus, but retained it as a species distinct from Sinosaurus triassicus.[11] Specimen KMV 8701 consists of a skull (measuring 525 mm), and is nearly complete. The specimen KMV 8701 is about 5.6 m (18 ft) long, meaning Sinosaurus was about that length.[1] KMV 8701 has been assigned now to Sinosaurus, but the specimen still lacks sufficient description and preparation.[3] In 2012, a new specimen of Sinosaurus was described, and was found to represent a new species.[3]


Originally thought to be a coelophysoid related to Dilophosaurus and Cryolophosaurus, Oliver Rauhut in 2003 showed Sinosaurus to be a more advanced theropod, related to Cryolophosaurus and "Dilophosaurus" sinensis.[12] In 2013, in an unpublished work, Carano agreed that Sinosaurus is a theropod.[13] Sinosaurus has been considered a nomen dubium in a few works,[9][14][15] although now that "Dilophosaurus" sinensis is referred to it, it is considered valid.[1][2]

Dilophosaurus sinensis was shown to be a junior synonym of Sinosaurus in 2003.[1] It is possibly closer to the Antarctic theropod Cryolophosaurus, based on the fact that the anterior end of the jugal does not participate in the internal antorbital fenestra and that the maxillary tooth row is completely in front of the eye socket. D. sinensis was exhibited in 1998 at Dinofest in Philadelphia.[16] Although the skull of D. sinensis sports large nasolacrimal crests superficially like those reconstructed in D. wetherilli, features elsewhere in the skeleton suggest it is closer to tetanuran theropods.[8] Rauhut (2003) regarded D. sinensis as a basal tetanuran most closely related to Sinosaurus and Cryolophosaurus.[12] Lamanna et al. (1998b) examined the material ascribed to D. sinensis and found it to be synonymous with Sinosaurus triassicus.[17] This cladistic finding was confirmed in 2003 by Dong.[1][2][10]

Sinosaurus triassicus skull
Skull showing notch.

The Lufeng Dinosaurian Museum discovered a new specimen of Sinosaurus (ZLJT01) in 2007 from the Lufeng Basin. It consists of an incomplete skull and other postcranial fragments. Phylogenetic analysis of this specimen, demonstrates that Sinosaurus is a more derived theropod, and is not the most basal dilophosaurid, as held by Smith et al.[2] A cladogram was identified by Christophe Hendrickx and Octávio Mateus. It placed Sinosaurus as the sister taxon to Cryolophosaurus, and together they were the most basal tetanurans.[18]






Coelophysis bauri

Coelophysis rhodesiensis
















Restoration showing dental abnormality based on ZLJT01.

Crest function

Sinosaurus and Dilophosaurus both possess dual crests. However, it was found that the crests could not be used in combat.[3]


The skull of Sinosaurus has a deep notch between the premaxilla and maxilla. Dong (2003) proposed that the notch was used to house jaw muscles, giving Sinosaurus a powerful bite. Based on the estimated power of its jaws, Sinosaurus might have either been a carnivore or a scavenger. Dong suspected that the premaxilla was covered in a narrow, hooked beak, that was used to rip open skin and abdominal flesh. He also thought that the crest would have been used to hold open the abdominal cavity while feeding. Dong studied the feet of Sinosaurus as well, finding a resemblance with the feet of modern vultures. The feet of Sinosaurus were probably adapted to help it feed on large-bodied animals, such as prosauropods.[1]


A study by Xing et al. (2013) examined the effect of the traumatic loss of teeth on the dental alveolus (the socket in the jaw where the roots of teeth are held) in dinosaurs. Sinosaurus is the first dinosaur where remodeling of the alveolus in the jaw was observed.[2] The authors concluded that this finding "contributes to mounting evidence suggesting theropods were highly resilient to a broad spectrum of traumas and diseases."[2] The dental alveolus found on Sinosaurus is the first documented dental pathology found on a dinosaur.[3]


Provenance and occurrence

Diloph sin DB1
Drawing of a Sinosaurus feeding on a Yunnanosaurus

The type specimen of Sinosaurus triassicus IVPP V34 was recovered in the Zhangjiawa Member of the Lufeng Formation, in Yunnan, China. These remains were discovered at the Dark Red Beds that were deposited during the Sinemurian stage of the Jurassic period, approximately 196-183 million years ago. Several other discoveries referred to Sinosaurus were made in the Zhangjiawa Member: specimens IVPP V97 (postcrania), IVPP V36 (teeth), IVPP 37 (teeth), IVPP V88 (ilium), IVPP V35 (teeth and postcranial bones), IVPP V100 and IVPP V48 (teeth and postcranial bones) discovered in 1938 by M. Bien & C.C. Young,[19] FMNH CUP 2001–2003 discovered by E. Oehler and Hu.[20] Specimens FMNH CUP 2097, FMNH CUP 2098, FMNH CUP 2004, FMNH CUP 2005 were discovered in 1948 by M. Bien & C.C. Young at Zhangjiawa Member, as well.[21] Sinosaurus sp. fossils have been found in the Zhenzhuchong Formation, and were previously thought to be a poposaur, although they might have only been from the equivalent Lufeng Formation.[22]

Specimen IVPP V504, referred to Sinosaurus, a maxilla with four teeth, was collected by Lee in the 1940s, in the Dull Purplish Beds of Shawan Member of the Lufeng Formation, that were deposited during the Hettangian stage of the Jurassic period, approximately 201-199 million years ago. Several other discoveries were made in the Shawan Member: parts of two skeletons attributed to Sinosaurus were discovered by Sou in 1956,[23] specimen IVPP V279 (tooth) was discovered by C.C. Young in 1938, in dark red clayish sandstone, and specimen IVPP V381 (several teeth) was discovered by C.C. Young, in blue mudstone.[19] The D. sinensis remains, KMV 8701, a nearly complete skeleton, now referred to Sinosaurus, were recovered in the Shawan Member of Lufeng Formation. This material was discovered in 1987 in the Dull Purplish Beds that were deposited during the Hettangian stage of the Early Jurassic, approximately 201-199 million years ago.

Fauna and habitat

In the Lufeng Formation, Sinosaurus shared its paleoenvironment with therapsids like Morganucodon, Oligokyphus, and Bienotherium; archosaurs like Pachysuchus; diapsids like Strigosuchus; crocodylomorphs like Platyognathus and Microchampsa; the early mammal Hadrocodium; and other early reptiles.[24] Contemporary dinosaurs include indeterminate sauropods; the early thyreophorans Bienosaurus lufengensis and Tatisaurus oehleri; the supposed chimeric ornithopod "Dianchungosaurus lufengensis"; the prosauropods Gyposaurus sinensis, Lufengosaurus huenei, L. magnus, Jingshanosaurus xinwaiensis,[24] Kunmingosaurus wudingensis, Chinshakiangosaurus chunghoensis, Yunnanosaurus huangi, "Y." robustus, and an unnamed taxon; and the theropods Lukousaurus, Eshanosaurus, and Coelophysis sp.

Changpeipus footprints have been found in the Lufeng Formation.[3] In 2009, a study led by Li-Da Xing found that footprints from the Lufeng Formation were unique among ichnogenera, and named the footprints Changpeipus pareschequier. The study hypothesized that they were produced by a coelophysoid; there are many possible trackmakers, however, including both Sinosaurus and Coelophysis sp.[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Dong, Z.M. (2003). "Contribution of New Dinosaur Materials from China to Dinosaurology" (PDF). Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 2: 123–131.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Xing, L.D.; Bell, P.R.; Rothschild, B.M.; Ran, H.; Zhang, J.P.; Dong, Z.M.; Zhang, W.; Currie, P.J. (2013). "Tooth loss and alveolar remodeling in Sinosaurus triassicus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Jurassic strata of the Lufeng Basin, China". Chinese Science Bulletin. 58 (16): 1931–1935. doi:10.1007/s11434-013-5765-7. ISSN 1861-9541.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Xing, L.D. (2012). "Sinosaurus from Southwestern China". Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: 1–286. hdl:10402/era.28454.
  4. ^ Young, C.C. (1948). "On two new saurischians from Lufeng, Yunnan". Bulletin of the Geological Society of China. 28 (1–2): 75–90. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.1948.mp281-2007.x.
  5. ^ Walker, A.D. (1964). "Triassic Reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of Carnosaurs". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 248 (744): 53–134. doi:10.1098/rstb.1964.0009. JSTOR 2416617.
  6. ^ Young, C.C. (1951). "The Lufeng saurischian fauna in China". Palaeontologica Sinica. C (13): 1–96.
  7. ^ Glut, D.F. (2003). Dinosaurs, The Encyclopedia: Supplement 3. McFarland & Company. p. 495. ISBN 978-0-7864-1166-5.
  8. ^ a b Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P.; Osmolska, H. (2004). The Dinosauria (Second ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 244–252. ISBN 978-0-520-24209-8.
  9. ^ a b Irmis, Randall (2004-12-22). "First Report of Megapnosaurus from China" (PDF). PaleoBios. 24 (3): 11–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17.
  10. ^ a b Currie, Xing, Wu and Dong, in prep. "Anatomy and relationships of Sinosaurus triassicus (“Dilophosaurus sinensis”) from the Lufeng Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Yunnan, China".
  11. ^ Guo-Fu Wang; Hai-Lu You; Shi-Gang Pan; Tao Wang (2017). "A new crested theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 55 (2): 177–186.
  12. ^ a b Rauhut, O.W.M. (2003). "The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69: 215.
  13. ^ M. T. Carrano. 2013. Taxonomic opinions on the Dinosauria.
  14. ^ Glut, D.F. (2006). Dinosaurs, The Encyclopedia: Supplement 4 (4 ed.). McFarland & Company. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7864-2295-1.
  15. ^ a b Xing, L.D.; Harris, J.D.; Toru, S.; Masato, T.; Dong, Z.M. (2009). "Discovery of Dinosaur Footprints from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, and new observations on Changpeipus" (PDF). Geological Bulletin of China. 28 (1): 16–29. ISSN 1671-2552.
  16. ^ Glut, D. F. (1999). Dinosaurs, the Encyclopedia, Supplement 1: McFarland & Company, Inc., 442pp.
  17. ^ Lamanna, M. C., Holtz, T. R. Jr, and Dodson, P., 1998, A reassessment of the Chinese Theropod Dinosaur Dilophosaurus sinensis: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Volume 18, Supplement to Number 3. Abstracts of papers. Fifty-eighth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Snowbird Ski and Summer Resort, Snowbird, Utah, September 30 – October 3, 1998, p. 57a.
  18. ^ Hendrickx, C.; Mateus, O.V. (2014). Evans, Alistair Robert (ed.). "Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the Largest Terrestrial Predator from Europe, and a Proposed Terminology of the Maxilla Anatomy in Nonavian Theropods". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e88905. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088905. PMC 3943790. PMID 24598585.
  19. ^ a b M. N. Bien. 1940. Discovery of Triassic saurischian and primitive mammalian remains at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 20(3/4):225-234
  20. ^ D. J. Simmons. 1965. The non-therapsid reptiles of the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan, China. Fieldiana: Geology 15(1):1–93
  21. ^ B. Patterson and E. C. Olson. 1961. A triconodont mammal from the Triassic of Yunnan. In G. Vandebroek (ed.), International Colloquium on the Evolution of Lower and Non Specialized Mammals. Koninklijke Vlaamse Academir voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten can Belgie 129–191
  22. ^ Xing, L.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Chen, W.; Gierlinski, G.D.; Li, J.J.; Persons IV, W.S.; Matsukawa, M.; Ye, Y.; Gingras, M.K.; Wang, C.W. (2013). "Two theropod track assemblages from the Jurassic of Chongqing, China, and the Jurassic Stratigraphy of Sichuan Basin" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 51 (2): 107–130. ISSN 1000-3118.
  23. ^ C.-C. Young. 1966. On a new locality of the Lufengosaurus of Yunnan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 10(1):64–67
  24. ^ a b Y. Zhang, and Z. Yang. (1995). A new complete osteology of Prosauropoda in Lufeng Basin, Yunnan, China. Yunnan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Kunming, China 1–100. [Chinese]
1948 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1948.


Averostra, or "bird snouts", is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs that have a promaxillary fenestra (fenestra promaxillaris), an extra opening in the front outer side of the maxilla, the bone that makes up the upper jaw. Two groups of averostrans, the Ceratosauria and the Orionides, survived into the Cretaceous period. When the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred, ceratosaurians and two groups of orionideans within the clade Coelurosauria, the Tyrannosauroidea and Maniraptoriformes, were still extant. Only one subgroup of maniraptoriformes, Aves, survived the extinction event and persisted to the present day.


Avetheropoda, or "bird theropods", is a clade that includes carnosaurians and coelurosaurs to the exclusion of other dinosaurs.


Cerapoda ("ceratopsians and ornithopods") is a clade of the dinosaur order Ornithischia.


Dilophosauridae is a family of medium to large sized theropod dinosaurs. The name Dilophosauridae is derived from Greek, with “di” meaning “two,” “lophos” meaning “crest,” “sauros” meaning “lizard,” and “idae” meaning “family”. While the name suggests that all dilophosaurids have two crests, this is not applicable to all dilophosaurids. The Dilophosauridae is anchored by the genus Dilophosaurus, and therefore the name comes from the distinctive two crests of the genus.


Dilophosaurus ( dy-LOHF-o-SOR-əs) is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now North America during the Early Jurassic, about 193 million years ago. Three skeletons were discovered in northern Arizona in 1940, and the two best preserved were collected in 1942. The most complete specimen became the holotype of a new species in the genus Megalosaurus, named M. wetherilli by Samuel P. Welles in 1954. Welles found a larger skeleton belonging to the same species in 1964. Realizing it bore crests on its skull, he assigned the species to the new genus Dilophosaurus in 1970, as Dilophosaurus wetherilli. The genus name means "two-crested lizard", and the species name honors John Wetherill, a Navajo councilor. Further specimens have since been found, including an infant. Footprints have also been attributed to the animal, including resting traces. Another species, Dilophosaurus sinensis from China, was named in 1993, but was later found to belong to the genus Sinosaurus.

At about 7 meters (23 ft) in length, with a weight of about 400 kilograms (880 lb), Dilophosaurus was one of the earliest large predatory dinosaurs, though it was smaller than some later theropods. It was slender and lightly built, and the skull was proportionally large, but delicate. The snout was narrow, and the upper jaw had a gap or kink below the nostril. It had a pair of longitudinal, plate-shaped crests on its skull, similar to a cassowary with two crests. The mandible was slender and delicate at the front, but deep at the back. The teeth were long, curved, thin, and compressed sideways. Those in the lower jaw were much smaller than those of the upper jaw. Most of the teeth had serrations at their front and back edges. The neck was long, and its vertebrae were hollow, and very light. The arms were powerful, with a long and slender upper arm bone. The hands had four fingers: the first was short but strong and bore a large claw, the two following fingers were longer and slenderer with smaller claws, and the fourth was vestigial. The thigh bone was massive, the feet were stout, and the toes bore large claws.

Dilophosaurus is a member of the family Dilophosauridae along with Dracovenator, a group placed between the Coelophysidae and later theropods. Dilophosaurus would have been active and bipedal, and may have hunted large animals; it could also have fed on smaller animals and fish. Due to the limited range of movement and shortness of the forelimbs, the mouth may instead have made first contact with prey. The function of the crests is unknown; they were too weak for battle, but may have been used in visual display, such as species recognition and sexual selection. It may have grown rapidly, attaining a growth rate of 30 to 35 kilograms (66 to 77 lb) per year early in life. The holotype specimen had multiple paleopathologies, including healed injuries and signs of a developmental anomaly. Dilophosaurus is known from the Kayenta Formation, and lived alongside dinosaurs such as Megapnosaurus and Sarahsaurus. Dilophosaurus was featured in the novel Jurassic Park and its movie adaptation, wherein it was given the fictional abilities to spit venom and expand a cowl on its neck, as well as being smaller than the real animal. It was designated as the state dinosaur of Connecticut in 2017.


Dinosauriformes is a clade of archosaurian reptiles that include the dinosaurs and their most immediate relatives. All dinosauriformes are distinguished by several features, such as shortened forelimbs and a partially to fully perforated acetabulum, the hole in the hip socket traditionally used to define dinosaurs. The oldest known member is Asilisaurus, dating to about 245 million years ago in the Anisian age of the middle Triassic period.


Dracovenator () is a genus of dilophosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 201 to 199 million years ago during the early part of the Jurassic Period in what is now South Africa. Dracovenator was a medium-sized, moderately-built, ground-dwelling, bipedal carnivore, that could grow up to an estimated 7 m (23.0 ft) long. Its type specimen was based on only a partial skull that was recovered.


Jeholosaurids were herbivorous neornithischian dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period (Aptian - Santonian, with a possible Campanian record) of Asia. The family was first proposed by Han et al. in 2012. The jeholosaurids were defined as those ornithischians more closely related to Jeholosaurus shangyuanensis than to Hypsilophodon foxii, Iguanodon bernissartensis, Protoceratops andrewsi, Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, or Thescelosaurus neglectus. The Jeholosauridae includes the type genus Jeholosaurus and Yueosaurus.


Jingshanosaurus (meaning "Jingshan lizard") is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaurs from the early Jurassic period.


Liliensternus is an extinct genus of basal Neotheropod dinosaur that lived approximately 210 million years ago during the latter part of the Triassic Period in what is now Germany. Liliensternus was a moderate-sized, bipedal, ground-dwelling carnivore, that could grow up to 5.15 m (16.9 ft) long. It is the best represented Triassic theropod from Europe and one of the largest known.

Lower Lufeng Series

The Lower Lufeng Series (or Lower Lufeng Formation) is a Lower Jurassic sedimentary rock formation found in Yunnan, China. It has two units: the lower Dull Purplish Beds/Shawan Member are of Hettangian age, and Dark Red Beds/Zhangjia'ao Member are of Sinemurian age. It is known for its fossils of early dinosaurs. The Dull Purplish Beds have yielded the possible therizinosaur Eshanosaurus, the possible theropod Lukousaurus, and the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus" sinensis, Lufengosaurus, Jingshanosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus. Dinosaurs discovered in the Dark Red Beds include the theropod Sinosaurus triassicus, the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus", Lufengosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus, indeterminate remains of sauropods, and the early armored dinosaurs Bienosaurus and Tatisaurus.


Neotheropoda (meaning "new theropods") is a clade that includes coelophysoids and more advanced theropod dinosaurs, and the only group of theropods who survived the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Yet all of the neotheropods became extinct during the early Jurassic period except for Averostra.


Orionides is a clade of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Present. The clade includes most theropod dinosaurs, including birds.


Panguraptor ("Pangu [a Chinese god] plunderer") is a genus of coelophysid theropod dinosaur known from fossils discovered in Lower Jurassic rocks of southern China. The type and only known species is Panguraptor lufengensis. The generic name refers to the deity Pangu but also to the supercontinent Pangaea for which in a geological context the same characters are used: 盘古. Raptor means "seizer", "robber" in Latin. The specific name is a reference to the Lufeng Formation.The holotype specimen was recovered on 12 October 2007 from the Lufeng Formation of Yunnan, which is noted for sauropodomorph fossils. It was described in 2014 by You Hai-Lu and colleagues.


Riojasauridae is a family of sauropod-like dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic. It is known primarily from the genera Riojasaurus and Eucnemesaurus. Sites containing Riojasauridae include the Lower Elliot Formation of Orange Free State, South Africa (where fossils of Eucnemesaurus have been found), and Ischigualasto, in La Rioja Province, Argentina ( where fossils of Riojasaurus have been recovered).


Shuangbaisaurus (meaning "Shuangbai reptile") is an extinct genus of theropod dinosaur, possibly a dilophosaurid, that lived in the Early Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China. It contains a single species, S. anlongbaoensis, represented by a partial skull. Like the theropods Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus, the latter of which was its contemporary, Shuangbaisaurus bore a pair of thin, midline crests on its skull. Unusually, these crests extended backwards over the level of the eyes, which, along with the unusual orientation of the jugal bone, led the describers to name it as a new genus. However, Shuangbaisaurus also possesses a groove between its premaxilla and maxilla, a characteristic which has been used to characterize Sinosaurus as a genus. Among the two morphotypes present within the genus Sinosaurus, Shuangbaisaurus more closely resembles the morphotype that is variably treated as a distinct species, S. sinensis, in its relatively tall skull.


In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 199.3 ± 2 Ma and 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago). The Sinemurian is preceded by the Hettangian and is followed by the Pliensbachian.In Europe the Sinemurian age, together with the Hettangian age, saw the deposition of the lower Lias, in Great Britain known as the Blue Lias.


Tetanurae (/ˌtɛtəˈnjuːriː/ or "stiff tails") is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs, including megalosauroids, allosauroids, tyrannosauroids, ornithomimosaurs, maniraptorans, and birds. Tetanurans are defined as all theropods more closely related to modern birds than to Ceratosaurus and contain the majority of predatory dinosaur diversity. Tetanurae likely diverged from its sister group, Ceratosauria, during the late Triassic. Tetanurae first appeared in the fossil record by the Early Jurassic about 190 mya and by the Middle Jurassic had become globally distributed.The group was named by Jacques Gauthier in 1986 and originally had two main subgroups: Carnosauria and Coelurosauria, the clade containing birds and related dinosaurs such as compsognathids, tyrannosaurids, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans. The original Carnosauria was a polyphyletic group including any large carnivorous theropod. Many of Gauthier's carnosaurs, such as tyrannosaurids, have since been re-classified as coelurosaurs or primitive tetanurans. Carnosauria has been reclassified as a group containing allosaurids that split from the Coelurosauria at the Neotetanurae/Avetheropoda node. Members of Spinosauroidea are believed to represent basal tetanurans.Tetanuran evolution was characterized by parallel diversification of multiple lineages, repeatedly attaining large body size and similar locomotor morphology. Cryolophosaurus has been claimed as the first true member of the group, but subsequent studies have disagreed on whether it is a dilophosaurid or tetanuran. Arcucci and Coria (2003) classified Zupaysaurus as an early tetanuran, but it was later placed as a sister taxon to the clade containing dilophosaurids, ceratosaurs, and tetanurans.Shared tetanuran features include a ribcage indicating a sophisticated air-sac-ventilated lung system similar to that in modern birds. This character would have been accompanied by an advanced circulatory system. Other tetanuran characterizing features include the absence of the fourth digit of the hand, placement of the maxillary teeth anterior to the orbit, a strap-like scapula, maxillary fenestrae, and stiffened tails. During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, large spinosaurids and allosaurs flourished but possibly died out in the northern hemisphere before the end of the Cretaceous, and were replaced as apex predators by tyrannosauroid coelurosaurs. At least in South America, carcharodontosaurid allosaurs persisted until the end of the Mesozoic Era, and died out at the same time the non-avian coelurosaurs.


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