Sinop, historically known as Sinope (/sɪˈnoʊpi/), is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey. The city serves as the capital of Sinop Province.
A collage of Sinop, Turkey. Top left: view of Sinop North Wall, nearby Demirci and Bezirci area; top right: Sinop Fortress and Port of Sinop;
middle right: View of Plaj Yolu, nearby Sinop Anadolu Imam Hatip College from Baris Manco Park;
bottom left: Panorama view of downtown Sinop, from Hippodrome Hill; bottom right: Hamsilos resort area
Location of Sinop, Turkey
|• Mayor||Barış AYHAN (Republican People's Party, CHP)|
|• Governor||Köksal ŞAKALAR|
|• District||438.58 km2 (169.34 sq mi)|
|• District density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 368|
Over a period of approximately 2,500 years, Sinope has at various times been settled by Greeks (in the late 7th, late 5th, and 4th–3rd centuries BC), by Romans in the mid-1st century BC, and by Turkic people beginning in the 12th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries it was also settled by the muhacir who immigrated from the Balkans and Caucasus.
Evidence for Hittite Kingdom settlement along the Black Sea's southern shore remains murky. Researchers in the 1940s and 50s debated whether the "Great Sea", mentioned on the Boghazkoy tablets describing war between the Kizzuwatna tribe and the Hittites, could mean the Black Sea. Albrecht Goetze argued that the Hittites had never reached the northern Black Sea shore, instead drawing the northernmost boundary of the Hittite Kingdom to the south of the North Anatolia mountain range. D.S. Hogarth similarly concluded that the northern boundary of the Hittites never reached the shore. Hogarth's boundary was based on the distribution of Hittite monuments. Some objects found at Sinope are believed to be of Hittite origin.
The Greek colony of Sinope (Greek: Σινώπη, romanized: Sinṓpē) was founded by Ionians from the city of Miletus. Sinope issued its own coinage, founded colonies, and gave its name to a red earth pigment called sinopia, which was mined in Cappadocia for use throughout the ancient world. Some scholars have dated the earliest Greek colonization of Sinope to the 7th c. BC, while others have proposed an earlier date in the 8th c. While literary evidence exists supporting earlier settlement, archaeological evidence has been found of Greek settlement around the Black Sea region beginning in the late 7th century.
Sinope was strategically located among the trade routes that were developing on the southern Coast of the Black Sea, but remained relatively isolated from other inland communities until the 4th century BC. There is literary evidence of early links between Colchis and Sinope in mythological tradition. Strabo's writings link the legendary founder of Sinope, Autolycus, with Jason and the Argonauts. Polybius described Sinope as being "on the way to Phasis". The Persian Achaemenid Empire's northward expansion in the 4th century disrupted Sinope's control over its eastern colonies, including Trapezus (present day Trabzon). The satrap Datames briefly occupied the city around 375 BC. There is archaeological evidence of increased economic activity between the port city of Sinope and the surrounding inland areas during between 4th and 1st c. BC. Sinope appears to have maintained its independence from the dominion of Alexander the Great, and with the help of Rhodes turned back an assault led by Mithridates II of Pontus in 220 BC. Sinope eventually fell to Pharnaces I in 183 BC, after which it became the capital of the Pontic Kingdom.
The Roman general Lucullus conquered Sinope in 70 BC, and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 BC. Mithradates Eupator was born and buried at Sinope, and it was the birthplace of Diogenes, of Diphilus, poet and actor of the New Attic comedy, of the historian Baton, and of the Christian heretic of the 2nd century AD, Marcion.
After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Sinope remained with the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. Its history in the early Byzantine period is obscure, except for isolated events: it was used by Justinian II as a base from which to reconnoitre Cherson, participated in the rebellion of the Armeniac Theme in 793, was the site of Theophobos' proclamation as emperor by his Khurramite troops in 838, and suffered its only attack by the Arabs in 858.
In 1081, the city was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who found there a sizeable treasury, but Sinope was soon recovered by Alexios I Komnenos, ushering a period of prosperity under the Komnenian dynasty. After the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, it was captured for the Empire of Trebizond by David Komnenos, until the Seljuk Turks of Rûm successfully captured the city in 1214. The city returned briefly to Trapezuntine rule in 1254, but returned to Turkish control in 1265, where it has remained since.
After 1265, Sinop became home to two successive independent emirates following the fall of the Seljuks: the Pervâne and the Jandarids. The Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II overawed Ismail, the emir of Sinope on his march on Trebizond, and forced him to surrender the city to the Sultan late June 1461 without a fight. The emir was exiled to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv) in northern Thrace.
In November 1853, at the start of the Crimean War, in the Battle of Sinop, the Russians, under the command of Admiral Nakhimov, destroyed an Ottoman frigate squadron in Sinop, leading Britain and France to declare war on Russia.
As of 1920, Sinop was described as populated mainly by Greeks with an approximate population of 8,000. It was also considered the "safest" port "between Bosphorus and Batum", at the time. During this period, the port was exporting wheat, tobacco, seeds, timber and hides. They imported produce, coal and hardware.
Sinop hosted a US military base and radar that was important for intelligence during the cold war era. The US base was closed in 1992.
Greek coins featuring an eagle holding a dolphin or marine animal in its talons have been found in Sinope, Istria and Olbia. Located in present day Turkey, Romania and Ukraine respective, all three were colonies of Miletus. The coins circulated between c. 450 and 325 BC. Coins of the "Sinope type" continued to be issued by Persians under Achaemenid rule in the 4th century BC. At least two Persian issuers of such coins have been studied in some detail: the satrap Datames in Cappadocia and Ariarathes.
Sinope is located on a promontory at the narrowest point of the Black Sea. It has two harbors and is located along the southern shore of the Black Sea, near the shortest crossing to the Crimea. The nearby mountainous terrain is green and noted for its timber.
Sinop has warm and humid summers with an average daytime high of 26 °C (78.8 °F) however temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature for Sinop was 34.4 °C (93.92 °F) on 6 July 2000. The winters are cool and wet, the average for winter ranging around 5 °C (41 °F). The lowest recorded temperature for Sinop was -7.5 °C (18.5 °F) on 21 February 1985. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two.
As of 1920, Sinop was producing embroidered cotton cloth. They also were known for boatbuilding. The British described the boats produced in Sinop as being of "primitive design but sound workmanship."
Sinop is currently slated to be the site of the Sinop Nuclear Power Plant, a $15.8 billion nuclear power plant being developed by Elektrik Üretim, Engie, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Itochu. The plant will consist of four reactors, with construction to begin as early as 2017 and completion by 2028.
Pasha Bastion (Turkish: Paşa Tabyası) is a half-moon coastal bastion, a semi-circular fortification, situated southeast of Sinop Peninsula. It was constructed to protect the city against attacks coming from the Black Sea during the Russo-Turkish War, Crimean War (1853–1856). It features an artillery battery of eleven cannons, an arsenal and basement. Today, it is used as a place for refreshments premise.
Historic Water Tunnel (Turkish: Tarihi Su Kanalı) is an ancient underground water supply channel situated at Sülüklü Göl (literally: Lake of Leeches. Dug in rock, it is about 230 m (750 ft) long and has a clearance of 1.50 m (4.9 ft). There exists a 20–30 m (66–98 ft) high cylindrical ventilation shaft of 1.50 m (4.9 ft) diameter.
Balatlar Church (Turkish: Balatlar Kilisesi) is a ruined church from the Byzantine Empire period. It is partly preserved as only the chapel vault is in undamaged condition while other parts of the church have no roof any more. Fresco paintings on the chapel's ceiling and on the nave walls are still intact.
Pervane Medrese is a former Islamic religious school, which was closed down after the proclamation of the Republic. The 13th-century building was used as a depot for archaeological artifacts and ethnographic items from 1932 on, and served as a museum between 1941 and 1970. It hosts souvenir shops today.
Sinop Fortress (Turkish: Sinop Kalesi) is a fortification surrounding the peninsula and the isthmus of Sinop. It was built initially by migrants from Miletus in the 8th century BC. The fortress underwent reparation and expansion to its current extent during the reign of King Mithridates IV of Pontus in the 2nd century BC after its destruction by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. Some parts of the fortress, especially the north walls, are ruined.
Sinop Fortress Prison (Turkish: Sinop Tarihi Cezaevi) is a defunct state prison situated inside the Sinop Fortress. Served between 1887 and 1997, the prison rose to fame when it featured in many literature works of notable aıthors, who were inmates of the prison for political reasons. It became also a shooting set for many movies and television series. It is a prison museum today.
Sinop Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi) is a 1941-established archaeological museum exhibiting artifacts dating back to Early Bronze Age and from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods as well.
Sinope has given its name to the outermost satellite of Jupiter. A crater on Mars is named after Sinop.
Sinop has ten sister cities:
Ahmet Muhip Dıranas (1909 – June 27, 1980) was a leading Turkish poet and author.Ali Uras
Ali Uras (8 June 1923 – 5 May 2012) was a Turkish basketball player. He competed at the 1952 Summer Olympics. He was also the president of Galatasaray S.K.Aquila of Sinope
Aquila (Hebrew: עֲקִילַס ‘áqīlas, fl. 130 AD) of Sinope (modern-day Sinop, Turkey; Latin: Aquila Ponticus) was a translator of the Old Testament into Greek, a proselyte, and disciple of Rabbi Akiva.Gazi Chelebi
The Gazi Chelebi (Turkish: Gazi Çelebi, "Warrior Gentleman") was the nickname of a Turkish naval commander who controlled the Black Sea port of Sinop in the first decades of the 14th century.
His epitaph in the Pervâne Medrese in Sinop states that he was the son of Mas’ud, probably the Mas’ud Bey kidnapped by the Genoese in 1298-99. The Gazi continued his predecessor's policy of harassing Genoese shipping in the Black Sea, and together with the Grand Komnenos (Emperor) of Trebizond Alexios II, was likely responsible for raids on the Genoese port of Kaffa in the Crimea between 1311 and 1314. When Ibn Battuta visited Sinop in either 1332 or 1334, the town had passed into the hands of the Jandarid Bey Ibrahim, but the memory of the Gazi Chelebi was still vivid. Inhabitants said that he possessed a talent for swimming under water and piercing the hulls of enemy galleys during battle. He did this with such stealth, they said, that the sailors did not know what had happened until their ships started to sink. In one memorable episode, probably in 1324, the Gazi used this method to sink several Genoese ships raiding Sinop’s harbor, capturing their entire crew. The Sinopians also remembered that the Gazi Chelebi enjoyed smoking “an excessive quantity of hashish.”His tomb is in Pervane Medrese in Sinop.Hakan Ünsal
Hakan Ünsal (born 14 May 1973) is a Turkish former international footballer.
Hakan Ünsal is remembered by many for his rocket left foot and his pinpoint passing as well as his ambition. He played most of his career at Galatasaray after joining from Karabükspor in 1993/94. After being a part of the squad that won the UEFA Cup in 2000, Ünsal moved to Blackburn Rovers of the English Premiership in January 2002. Blackburn had hoped to sign him in time for their upcoming appearance in the 2002 League Cup Final, however a work permit delayed his debut and he missed them lifting the cup. His return to Galatasaray was rapid as he was once again in Galatasaray colours for the 2002/03 season. After leaving Galatasaray following the 2004/05 season, he had a brief stint with Çaykur Rizespor before retiring from football.
He played for Turkey national football team and was a participant at the 2002 FIFA World Cup where he collected his third place medal.
He is most famous for an incident during the World Cup when Brazil played Turkey. Rivaldo was about to take a corner and Ünsal kicked the ball at him as he was annoyed about the time Rivaldo was taking, delaying the game, as Brazil was winning 2-1. The ball hit Rivaldo on his legs but he collapsed dramatically holding his face and consequently Ünsal was sent off and Brazil went on to win the match. Rivaldo was fined, but the sanctions were criticized by many as being too lenient.
Ünsal is also remembered for his high level of sportsmanship on the field.Kemal Kayacan
Kemal Kayacan (1915, Sinop, Kastamonu Vilayet - 29 July 1992, Kadıköy) was a Turkish admiral. He was Commander of the Turkish Naval Forces from 1972 to 1974. He was elected to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey at the Turkish general election, 1977, serving until 1980. He was assassinated at his home in 1992.He was a graduate of the Turkish Naval High School.Kemalettin Sami Gökçen
Kemalettin Sami Gökçen (1884; Sinop, Kastamonu Vilayet – 15 April 1934; Berlin) was a Turkish career officer and politician. He was instrumental in establishing diplomatic relations between the Turkish Republic and Nazi Germany.Marcion of Sinope
Marcion of Sinope (; Greek: Μαρκίων Σινώπης; c. 85 – c. 160) was an important figure in early Christianity. His theology rejected the deity described in the Hebrew Scriptures and in distinction affirmed the Father of Christ as the true God. The Church Fathers denounced Marcion, and he was excommunicated. He published his own list of New Testament books, making him a catalyst in the process of the development of the New Testament canon by forcing the early Church to respond to his claims.Maximus V of Constantinople
Maximus V (Greek: Μάξιμος Εʹ; 26 October 1897 – 1 January 1972) was an Orthodox Christian bishop. He was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1946 until 1948.Meliha Ulaş
Ayşe Meliha Ulaş Ekeman (1901 – 17 February 1942) was a Turkish politician.Mustafa Çakır
Mustafa Çakır (born December 15, 1986 in Sinop, Turkey) is a Turkish yacht racer competing in the Laser class. The 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) tall athlete at 85 kg (187 lb) is a member of Heybeliada Aquatics Club in Istanbul, where he is coached by Saruhan Çınay.He qualified for participation at the 2012 Summer Olympics, finishing in 39th place.He won the Laser-Europacup 2012 held in Martigues, France.Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan (29 October 1926 – 27 February 2011) was a Turkish politician, engineer, and academic who was the Prime Minister of Turkey from 1996 to 1997. He was pressured by the military to step down as prime minister and was later banned from politics by the Constitutional Court of Turkey for violating the separation of religion and state as mandated by the constitution.The political ideology and movement founded by Erbakan, Millî Görüş, calls for the strengthening of Islamic values in Turkey and turning away from what Erbakan perceived to be the negative secular influence of the Western world in favor of closer relations to Muslim countries. Erbakan's political views conflicted with the core principle of secularism in Turkey, culminating in his removal from office. With the Millî Görüş ideology, Erbakan was the founder and leader of several prominent Islamic political parties in Turkey from the 1960s to the 2010s, namely the National Order Party (MNP), the National Salvation Party (MSP), the Welfare Party (RP), the Virtue Party (FP), and the Felicity Party (SP).Osman Pamukoğlu
Osman Pamukoğlu (born December 27, 1947) is a retired major general of the Turkish Army, author and politician who founded the Rights and Equality Party on September 4, 2008 in remembrance of the Congress of Sivas.
He holds the title of being the only general in the Turkish Army honored with five medals of "Establishment of Superior Troops". He also received two medals of High Courage and Sacrifice and other less significant awards during his service. He also holds the title of being the only general who fought amongst his soldiers, after Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
On July 28, 2008, he declared a statement on his personal website about the state of the circumstance in which Turkey was, and guiding principles and promised actions of the party. HEPAR was established within the following period of 36 days. His party is distinct from the remaining political parties of Turkey as it is the only political movement that is sponsored by the donations of the public, his supporters and predominantly his readers.Pervane Medrese
Pervane Medrese (Turkish: Pervane Medresesi) is a historic madrasa, a Islamic school, in Sinop, Turkey.
It is situated in the center of the Sinop Peninsula. Another historical building, the Alaaddin Mosque is to the south of the madrasa.Sinan Uzun
Sinan Uzun (born 25 January 1990 in Sinop) is a Turkish professional footballer who currently plays as a forward for Menemen Belediyespor on loan from Balıkesirspor.He wears 57 number of his birth city, Sinop's traffical code.Sinop
Sinop can refer to:
Sinop, Turkey, a city on the Black Sea
Battle of Sinop, 1853 naval battle in the Sinop port
Russian ship Sinop, Russian ships named after the battle
Sinop Province, the province in Turkey of which the above city is the capital
Sinop (electoral district), the province's electoral district
Sinop, Mato Grosso, a city in Mato Grosso state, Brazil
Sinop (insect), a genus of grasshopper in the AcrididaeSinop Fortress Prison
Sinop Fortress Prison, (Turkish: Sinop Kale Cezaevi) was a state prison situated in the inside of the Sinop Fortress in Sinop, Turkey. As one of the oldest prisons of Turkey, it was established in 1887 within the inner fortress of the centuries-old fortification located on the northwestern part of Cape Sinop. The prison was closed down in 1997 and the inmates were transferred to a modern prison newly built in Sinop.Sinop University
Sinop University (Turkish:Sinop Üniversitesi ) is a university located in Sinop, Turkey. It was established in 2007.Sinope
Sinope may refer to:
Sinop, Turkey, a city on the Black Sea, historically known as Sinope
Battle of Sinop, 1853 naval battle in the Sinop port
Sinope, Leicestershire, a hamlet in the Midlands of England
Sinope (mythology), in Greek mythology, daughter of Asopus
Sinope (moon), a moon of the planet Jupiter
Sinope (moth), a moth genus
Sinope Gospels, fragment of a 6th-century illuminated manuscript
|Climate data for Sinop, Turkey (1936–2017)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.8
|Average high °C (°F)||9.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||4.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−6.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||73.0
|Average precipitation days||15.2||13.5||13.6||11.3||10.2||7.7||5.2||6.2||8.9||12.3||12.6||15.5||132.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||68||68||73||75||76||74||74||67||71||71||68||68||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||71.3||84.8||120.9||159.0||207.7||267.0||303.8||275.9||207.0||148.8||99.0||71.3||2,016.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||2.3||3.0||3.9||5.3||6.7||8.9||9.8||8.9||6.9||4.8||3.3||2.3||5.5|
|Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source #2: Weatherbase |
Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.