Sinjar District

The Sinjar District (Kurmanji: Şengal/Şingal/Şingar) is a district of the Nineveh Governorate. The district seat is the town of Shingal. The district has two subdistricts, al-Shemal and al-Qayrawan. The district is one of two major population centers for Yazidis, the other being Shekhan District.[1]

Sinjar District

Yezidi Temple on Sinjar, 2004.
Yezidi Temple on Sinjar, 2004.
Sinjar district (orange) in Ninawa
Sinjar district (orange) in Ninawa
Coordinates: 36°19′21″N 41°51′51″E / 36.32250°N 41.86417°ECoordinates: 36°19′21″N 41°51′51″E / 36.32250°N 41.86417°E
Country Iraq
GovernorateNineveh
Royal Decree 41934
SeatShingal
Area
 • Total2,928 km2 (1,131 sq mi)
Population
 (2003)
 • Total166,466
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)

History

Sinjar District was created in 1934 by Royal decree.[2] After the 1935 Yazidi revolt, the district was placed under military control.[3][4]

The al-Shamal district, originally formed in 1936, was abolished in 1987, and its area was added to Sinjar. Qayrawan was formed as a district in 1977, was also abolished in 1987, and was added to the district.[2] In 1994, al-Shamal and Qayrawan were reformed as a sub-districts.[2]

In 2007, several explosions set off by al-Qaeda in Iraq killed hundreds of Yazidis in Shengal.[1]

In August 2014, the Siege of Mount Sinjar raged between Sunni militants of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Kurdish Peshmerga, leading to a mass exodus of residents, especially from the Yazidi community, branded by the Islamic State as "devil worshipers", after the Peshmerga was defeated.[5] The New York Times reported that ISIL killed dozens of Yazidi men and forced their women to marry jihadi fighters."[6]

A Kurdish Peshmerga-led Sinjar offensive occurred from December 17 to 21, 2014, which included the ending of the siege of Mount Sinjar and freeing the district from ISIL control.

According to Kurdish sources, nine Yazidi mass graves had been found by the end of the offensive. Eighteen Yazidi shrines have also been destroyed by ISIL militants since June 2014.[7] As additional graves were found, masked Yazidis retaliated against assumed ISIL collaborators in four Muslim villages in late January 2015 with Sibaya and Chiri attacked on January 25 and Khazuga and Sayer on January 26. PKK and YPG/YPJ joint forces were able to stop additional attacks on two more villages after Peshmerga fled the area.[8]

It was announced on October 17, 2017 that the area had returned to Iraqi government control.[9]

Geography

The district borders and is a crossing point with Syria.[10] The district is 136 km from Mosul city, the capital of the Nineveh Governorate.[2] The Sinjar Mountains are located in the district.

Economy

The district's economy is primarily based on agriculture with the main crops being barley, figs, wheat, and tobacco. In the villages of Ain al-Ghazal and Hayali exist oil fields, which were closed because of the Iraq war. Natural gas and heavy minerals exist in the Sinjar Mountains.[2]

Settlements

  • Ain al-Ghazal, Sunni[8]
  • Bahrava, Yezidi
  • Bare, Yezidi
  • Borek, Yezidi
  • Chiri Yezidi [8]
  • Dohula, Yezidi
  • Duguri, Yezidi
  • Gir Azêr (also Til Ezer), Yezidi
  • Gohbal, Yezidi[8]
  • Hayali Yezidi [2]
  • Khana Sor, Yezidi
  • Khazuga, Sunni [8]
  • Majnuniyê, Yezidi
  • Qayrawan or Qairouan, also called Balij or Bulayj, Sunni
  • Sayer, Sunni[8]
  • Sîba Şêx Xidir, Yezidi
  • Shingal, Yezidi, seat of the district
  • Sinone (also Sinuni), Yezidi, seat of Al-Shamal subdistrict
  • Sibaya, Sunni[8]
  • Solagh, Yezidi
  • Wardiyê/Zirafki, Yezidi
  • Zorava, Yezidi
  • Hardan, Yezidi

others:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Shefler, Gil (August 7, 2014). "Islamic State accused of capturing Yazidi women and forcing them to convert, or else". Washington Post. Religion News Service. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Report on the Administrative Changes in Kirkuk and the Disputed Regions" (PDF). perleman.org. Kurdistan Regional Government. December 2007. p. 42. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  3. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA405080
  4. ^ Fuccaro, Nelinda. Ethnicity, State Formation, and Conscription in Postcolonial Iraq: The Case of the Yazidi Kurds of Jabal Sinjar. International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. 29, No. 4 (November 1997), pp. 559–580.
  5. ^ Loveday Morris (3 August 2014). "Islamic State seizes town of Sinjar, pushing out Kurds and sending Yazidis fleeing". Washington Post. WP website. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  6. ^ Jihadists Rout Kurds in North and Seize Strategic Iraqi Dam. By Tim Arango. August 7, 2014
  7. ^ "Nine mass graves of Iraq's Yezidis found in Sinjar, official says". DPA News. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Coles, Isabel (February 10, 2015). "Iraqi Yazidis take revenge as Islamic State atrocities unearthed". Reuters. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  9. ^ http://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/e9d66677-c64c-4151-addb-682bd1006b77
  10. ^ A map of its borders is to be found on page 36 of: "Report on the Administrative Changes in Kirkuk and the Disputed Regions" (PDF). perleman.org. Kurdistan Regional Government. December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
Borek (Iraq)

Borek (also written Burke or Borik, Arabic: بورك‎, also known in Arabic as al-Yarmouk) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Borek has exclusively Yazidi population.

Dohula

Dohula (also written Duhola, Dohola, Dhola or Dohla, Arabic: دهولا‎, also known in Arabic as Qadisiyah) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Dohula has exclusively Yazidi population.

Dugure

Dugure (also written Duguri, Dkory or Dkora Arabic: دوكوري‎, Kurmanji: Dugurê, also known in Arabic as Hiteen) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Dugure has exclusively Yazidi population.

Gir Zerk

Gir Zerk (also written Girzerk or Krzrk, Arabic: العدنانية‎, also known in Arabic as al-Adnaniyah) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Gir Zerk has exclusively Yazidi population.

Gohbal

Gohbal (Arabic: كوهبل‎, also known in Arabic as al-Andalus) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Gohbal has exclusively Yazidi population.

Hardan (Iraq)

Hardan (Arabic: حردان‎) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Hardan has exclusively Yazidi population.

Khana Sor

Khana Sor (also written Khanasor, Arabic: خانصور‎, Kurmanji: Xanasor, meaning: „red house“, also known in Arabic as al-Tam’eem) is a Yazidi town located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The town is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Khana Sor has exclusively Yazidi population.

Kocho (Iraq)

Kocho (or Kojo, Kurmanji: Koço, Arabic: كوجو‎) is a Yazidi village in the Sinjar District, southern of the Sinjar Mountains in the Nineveh Governorate of northern Iraq. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. The village gained international fame in 2014 through the genocide of the Islamic State on the Yazidis.

Qiniyeh (Iraq)

Qiniyeh (Kurmanji: Qînîçê, German: Kinije) is a Yazidi village in the Sinjar District, southern of the Sinjar Mountains in the Nineveh Governorate in northern Iraq. The village gained international fame in 2014 through the genocide of the Islamic State on the Yazidis.

Siba Sheikh Khidir

Siba Sheikh Khidir (Kurmanji: Siba Şêx Xidir, also known in Arabic: الجزيرة‎, romanized: al-Jazirah, also Jazira or Jazeera) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. It was one of two villages targeted in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings against the local Yazidi community.Siba Sheikh Khidir has exclusively Yazidi population.

Sinjar

Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Arabic: سنجار‎, Kurdish: Shingal‎, Ancient Greek: Singara) is a town in the Sinjar District of the Nineveh Governorate in northern Iraq. It is located near the Sinjar Mountain. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 88,023. The town is inhabited by Yazidis and is one of the main settlement areas of the Yazidis.

Sinjar massacre

The Sinjar massacre was the genocidal killing and abduction of thousands of Yazidi men, women and children in Sinjar (Kurmanji: شنگال Şingal) city and Sinjar District in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate by the Islamic terror group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in August 2014. This event started with ISIL attacking and capturing Sinjar and neighboring towns on 3 August, during ISIL's offensive in early August 2014.

Dr Noori Abdulrahman, head of the Department of Coordination and Follow-up of the Iraqi Kurdistan Regional Government, stated that ISIL's 3 August campaign against Sinjar was more about demography and strategy than about religion. According to Abdulrahman, ISIL wanted to push most of the Kurds out of strategic Yazidi areas and bring in Arabs, obedient to ISIL.On 8 August 2014, the United States reacted with airstrikes on ISIL units and convoys in northern Iraq, which led to a war of several countries against ISIL. The assistance of PKK and YPG enabled the majority of the 50,000 Yazidis who fled into the Sinjar Mountains to be evacuated.

On 17 December 2014, the Kurdish Peshmerga, PKK and YPG forces started the December 2014 Sinjar offensive with the support of US airstrikes. This offensive broke ISIL's troop transport routes and supply lines between Mosul and Raqqa, the largest ISIL-controlled cities in Iraq and Syria at the time.

Sinun

Sinun (also written Sinuni, Sinooni or Snuny, Arabic: سنوني‎, Kurmanji: Sinunê) is a Yazidi town located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The town is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Sinun has exclusively Yazidi population.

Tal Banat

Tal Banat (also written Tel Benat, Arabic: تل بنات‎, also known in Arabic as al-Waleed) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Tal Banat has mainly Yazidi population. There are also a minority of about 1,400 Shia Turkmens in the village.In August 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant abducted more than 200 women and children from Tal Banat.

Tal Qasab

Tal Qasab (also written Tal Qassab, Tel Qasab or Tel Kassab, Arabic: تل قصب‎, also known in Arabic as Baath) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Tal Qasab has exclusively Yazidi population.

Tel Afar District

Tel Afar District (Turkish: Telafer) is a district in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. Its administrative center is the city of Tal Afar. Other towns include Rabia, Zummar, and al-Ayadia. It has a mixed population of Iraqi Turkmens and Arabs.

Til Ezer

Til Ezer (Kurmanji: Til Êzêr, Arabic: القحطانية‎, also known in Arabic as al-Qaḥṭānīya or Qahtaniyah, also spelled Giruzer, Kar Izir, Kahtaniya) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. It was one of two villages targeted in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings against the local Yazidi community.Til Ezer has exclusively Yazidi population.

Zorava

Zorava (Arabic: زورافا‎, also known in Arabic as al-Aroba) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located north of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq.Zorava has exclusively Yazidi population.

Districts of Iraq and their capitals
al-Anbar Governorate
Babil Governorate
Baghdad Governorate
Basra Governorate
Dhi Qar Governorate
Diyala Governorate
Dohuk Governorate
Erbil Governorate
Halabja Governorate
Karbala Governorate
Kirkuk Governorate
Maysan Governorate
Muthanna Governorate
Najaf Governorate
Nineveh Governorate
al-Qādisiyyah Governorate
Saladin Governorate
Sulaymaniyah Governorate
Wasit Governorate

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