Sinhala language

Sinhala (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈlə, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/) (සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] also known as Sinhalese, is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][1] Sinhala is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[5] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. Sinhala is written using Sinhala script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script closely related to the Kadamba script.[6]

Sinhala is one of the official and national languages of Sri Lanka. Sinhala, along with Pali, played a major role in the development of Theravada Buddhist literature.[1]

The oldest Sinhalese Prakrit inscriptions found are from the third to second century BCE following the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka,[7][8] the oldest extant literary works date from the ninth century. The closest relative of Sinhala is the Maldivian language.[8] Sinhala has two main varieties – written and spoken. It is a good example of the linguistic phenomenon known as diglossia.[9][10]

Sinhala (Sinhalese)
සිංහල
Siṁhala
සිංහල in Noto Serif Sinhala Black
Native toSri Lanka
EthnicitySinhalese people
Native speakers
17.0 million (2012)[1]
3 million L2 speakers (2012)[1]
Early form
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Sri Lanka
Language codes
ISO 639-1si
ISO 639-2sin
ISO 639-3sin
Glottologsinh1246[2]
Linguasphere59-ABB-a

Etymology

Sinhala (Siṃhāla) is a Sanskrit term; the corresponding Middle Indo-Aryan (Eḷu) word is Sīhala. The name is a derivation from siṃha, the Sanskrit word for "lion"[11] Siṃhāla is attested as a Sanskrit name of the island in the Bhagavata Purana. The name is sometimes glossed as "abode of lions", and attributed to a supposed former abundance of lions on the island.[12]

History

According to the chronicle Mahavamsa, written in Pali, Prince Vijaya and his entourage merged with two exotic tribes of ancient India present in Lanka, the Yakkha and Naga peoples. In the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India (Kalinga, Magadha)[13] which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits.

Stages of historical development

The development of Sinhala is divided into four periods:

  • Sinhalese Prakrit (until 3rd century CE)
  • Proto-Sinhala (3rd–7th century CE)
  • Medieval Sinhala (7th–12th century CE)
  • Modern Sinhala (12th century – present)

Phonetic development

The most important phonetic developments of Sinhala include

  • the loss of the aspiration distinction (e.g. kanavā "to eat" corresponds to Sanskrit khādati, Hindi khānā)
  • the loss of a vowel length distinction; long vowels in the modern language are due to loanwords (e.g. vibāgaya "exam" < Sanskrit vibhāga) and sandhi, either after elision of Intervocalic consonants (e.g. dānavā "to put" < damanavā) or in originally compound words.
  • the simplification of consonant clusters and geminate consonants into geminates and single consonants respectively (e.g. Sanskrit viṣṭā "time" > Sinhalese Prakrit viṭṭa > Modern Sinhala viṭa)
  • development of /j/ to /d/ (e.g. däla "web" corresponds to Sanskrit jāla)

Western vs. Eastern Prakrit features

An example for a Western feature in Sinhala is the retention of initial /v/ which developed into /b/ in the Eastern languages (e.g. Sanskrit viṃśati "twenty", Sinhala visi-, Hindi bīs). An example of an Eastern feature is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular (instead of Western -o) in Sinhalese Prakrit. There are several cases of vocabulary doublets, e.g. the words mässā ("fly") and mäkkā ("flea"), which both correspond to Sanskrit makṣikā but stem from two regionally different Prakrit words macchiā and makkhikā (as in Pali).

Pre-1815 Sinhalese literature

In 1815 the island of Ceylon came under British rule. During the career of Christopher Reynolds (1922–2015) as a Sinhalese lecturer at the SOAS, University of London, he extensively researched the Sinhalese language and its pre-1815 literature: the Sri Lankan government awarded him the Sri Lanka Ranjana medal for this. He wrote the 377-page An anthology of Sinhalese literature up to 1815, selected by the UNESCO National Commission of Ceylon[14]

Substratum influence in Sinhala

According to Wilhelm Geiger, Sinhala has features that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. Some of the differences can be explained by the substrate influence of the parent stock of the Vedda language.[15] Sinhala has many words that are only found in Sinhala, or shared between Sinhala and Vedda and not etymologically derivable from Middle or Old Indo-Aryan. Common examples are kola for leaf in Sinhala and Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhala. Other common words are rera for wild duck, and gala for stones (in toponyms used throughout the island).[16] There are also high frequency words denoting body parts in Sinhala, such as olluva for head, kakula for leg, bella for neck and kalava for thighs, that are derived from pre-Sinhalese languages of Sri Lanka.[17] The author of the oldest Sinhala grammar, Sidatsangarava, written in the 13th century CE, recognised a category of words that exclusively belonged to early Sinhala. The grammar lists naramba (to see) and kolamba (fort or harbour) as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba is the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo.[18][19]

Influences from neighbouring languages

In addition to many Tamil loanwords, several phonetic and grammatical features present in neighbouring Dravidian languages, setting today's spoken Sinhala apart from its Northern Indo-Aryan siblings, bear witness to the close interactions with Dravidian speakers. However, formal Sinhala is more similar to Pali and medieval Sinhala. Some of the features that may be traced to Dravidian influence are –

ඒක අලුත් කියලා මම දන්නවා
ēka aḷut kiyalā mama dannavā
it new having-said I know

"I know that it is new."

ඒක අලුත් ද කියලා මම දන්නේ නැහැ
ēka aḷut-da kiyalā mama dannē nähä
it new-? having-said I know-EMP not

"I do not know whether it is new."

European influence

As a result of centuries of colonial rule, modern Sinhala contains some Portuguese, Dutch and English loanwords.

Influences on other languages

Macanese Patois or Macau Creole (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a creole language derived mainly from Malay, Sinhala, Cantonese, and Portuguese, which was originally spoken by the Macanese people of the Portuguese colony of Macau. It is now spoken by a few families in Macau and in the Macanese diaspora.

The language developed first mainly among the descendants of Portuguese settlers who often married women from Malacca and Sri Lanka rather than from neighbouring China, so the language had strong Malay and Sinhala influence from the beginning.

Accents and dialects

The Sinhala language has different types of variations which are commonly identified as 'dialects and accents'. Among those variations, 'regional variations' are prominent. Some of the well-known regional variations of Sinhala language are:[20]

1. The Uva variation (Monaragala,Badulla).

2. The southern variation (Galle).

3. The up-country variation (Kandy).

4. The Sabaragamu variation (Kegalle).


1. Uva regional variation in relation to grammar

People from Uva province also have a very unique linguistic variation in relation to the pronunciation of words. In general, Sinhala singular words are pluralized by adding suffixes like O, hu, wal or waru. But when it comes to Monaragala, the situation is somewhat different as when nouns are pluralized a nasal sound is added.[20]

General way of pluralizing Sinhala words. The way Uva people pluralize words.
1.KàntawƏ                 Kantàwò

(woman)                    (women)

   Ə                               Ò

.Lindha                           Lindha+n

  (well)                          =Lindhan(wells)                                                 

2.PotƏ                              Pot

(books)                          (book)

  Ø                                     Ə

Oya                                  Oya+n

                                       =oyan

(stream)                          (streams)

3.LindhƏ                  LindhƏ+wal  (Well)                              

  Ə                                   +  wal      

2. Southern variation with regard to the vocabulary used in ‘Kamath language’

The Kamath language (an indigenous language of paddy culture) used by the Southerners is somewhat different to the ‘Kamath language’ used in other parts (Uva, Kandy) of Sri Lanka as it is marked with a systematic variation; ‘boya’ at the end of the majority of nouns as the examples below show.[20]

Crops: ‘Kurakkan boya’ (bran)

           ‘Rambakan boya’ (banana)

Tools: ‘Thattu boya’ (bucket)

Other words: ‘Nivahan boya’ (home)

Here the particular word ‘boya’ means ‘a little’ in the Southern region and at the end of most of nouns, 'boya' is added regularly. This particular word 'boya' is added to most words by the Southern villages as a token of respect towards the things (those things can be crops, tools etc.) they are referring to.

3. The contrast among the regional variations used by Kandy, Kegalle and Galle people in relation to pronunciation[20]

The common Sinhala variation           Different regional                   variations of Sinhala language Notes
Ayye heta wapuranna enwada?

(Brother, Are you coming to sow tomorrow?)

Ayya heta wapuranta enawada? (Kandy)

Ayye heta wapuranda enawada? (Kegalle)        

Ayye heta wapuranna enawai? (Galle)

Here the Kandy people say ‘Ayya’ while the Kegalle and Galle people say ‘Ayye’.

Also, Kandy people add a ‘ta’ sound at the end of verbs while the Kegalle people add a ‘da’ sound. But Galle people’s regional variation is not visible in relation to this particular verb; ‘wapuranawa’ (to sow). Yet their unique regional variation is visible in relation to the second verb which is ‘enawai’ (coming) as they add ‘ai’ at the end of most verbs.

Even though the Kandy, Kegalle and Galle people pronounce words with slight differences, the Sinhalese can understand the majority of the sentences.


Diglossia

In Sinhala there is distinctive diglossia, as in many languages of South Asia. The literary language and the spoken language differ from each other in many aspects. The written language is used for all forms of literary texts but also orally at formal occasions (public speeches, TV and radio news broadcasts, etc.), whereas the spoken language is used as the language of communication in everyday life (see also Sinhala slang and colloquialism). As a rule the literary language uses more Sanskrit-based words.

Sinhala diglossia can also be described in terms of informal and formal varieties. The variety used for formal purposes is closer to the written/literary variety, whereas the variety used for informal purposes is closer to the spoken variety. It is also used in some modern literature (e.g. Liyanage Amarakeerthi's Kurulu Hadawatha).

The most important difference between the two varieties is the lack of inflected verb forms in the spoken language.

The situation is analogous to one where Middle or even Old English would be the written language in Great Britain. The children are taught the written language at school almost like a foreign language.

Sinhala also has diverse slang. Most slang words and terms were regarded as taboo and most were frowned upon as non-scholarly. However, nowadays Sinhala slang words and terms, even the ones with sexual references, are commonly used among younger Sri Lankans.

Writing system

ආයුබෝවන් in Noto Sans Sinhala
ආයුබෝවන් (āyubōvan) means "welcome", literally wishing one a long life

Sinhala script, Sinhala hodiya, is based on the ancient Brahmi script, as are most Indian scripts. Sinhala script is closely related to South Indian Grantha script and Khmer script taken the elements from the related Kadamba script.[21][6]

The writing system for Sinhala is an abugida, where the consonants are written with letters while the vowels are indicated with diacritics (pilla) on those consonants, unlike English where both consonants and vowels are full letters, or Urdu where vowels need not be written at all. Also, when a diacritic is not used, an "inherent vowel", either /a/ or /ə/, is understood, depending on the position of the consonant within the word. For example, the letter ක k on its own indicates ka, either /ka/ or /kə/. The various vowels are written කා /kaː/, කැ /kæ/, කෑ /kæː/ (after the consonant), කි /ki/, කී /kiː/ (above the consonant), කු /ku/, කූ /kuː/ (below the consonant), කෙ /ke/, කේ /keː/ (before the consonant), කො /koː/, කෝ /koː/ (surrounding the consonant). There are also a few diacritics for consonants, such as /r/ in special circumstances, although the tendency nowadays is to spell words with the full letter ර /r/, plus either a preceding or following hal kirima. One word that is still spelt with an "r" diacritic is ශ්‍රී, as in ශ්‍රී ලංකාව (Sri Lankāwa). The "r" diacritic is the curved line under the first letter ("ශ": "ශ්‍ර"). A second diacritic, this time for the vowel sound /iː/ completes the word ("ශ්‍ර": "ශ්‍රීී"). For simple /k/ without a vowel, a vowel-cancelling diacritic (virama) called හල් නිරීම /hal kiriːmə/ is used: ක් /k/. Several of these diacritics occur in two forms, which depend on the shape of the consonant letter. Vowels also have independent letters but these are only used at the beginning of words where there is no preceding consonant to add a diacritic to.

The complete script consists of about 60 letters, 18 for vowels and 42 for consonants. However, only 57 (16 vowels and 41 consonants) are required for writing colloquial spoken Sinhala (suddha Sinhala). The rest indicate sounds that have been merged in the course of linguistic change, such as the aspirates, and are restricted to Sanskrit and Pali loan words. One letter (ඦ), representing the sound /ⁿd͡ʒa/, is attested although no words using this letter are attested.

Sinhala is written from left to right and Sinhala script is mainly used for Sinhala, as well as the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit. The alphabetic sequence is similar to those of other Brahmic scripts:

Phonology

Sinhalese vowel chart
Sinhala vowel chart, from Perera & Jones (1919:5)

Sinhala has so-called prenasalized consonants, or 'half nasal' consonants. A short homorganic nasal occurs before a voiced stop, it is shorter than a sequence of nasal plus stop. The nasal is syllabified with the onset of the following syllable, which means that the moraic weight of the preceding syllable is left unchanged. For example, tam̆ba 'copper' contrasts with tamba 'boil'.

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t ʈ ~ k
voiced b d ɖ ~ ɡ
prenasalised ᵐb ⁿd ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
Fricative (f, ɸ) s (ʃ~ɕ) h
Trill r
Approximant ʋ l j

/f~ɸ/ and /ʃ/ are restricted to loans, typically English or Sanskrit. They are commonly replaced by /p/ and /s/ respectively in colloquial speech. Some speakers use the voiceless labiodental fricative [f], as in English, and some use the voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] due to its similarity to the native voiceless bilabial stop /p/.

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i u
Mid e ə (əː) o
Open æ æː a

Long /əː/ is restricted to English loans. /a/ and /ə/ are allophones in Sinhala and contrast with each other in stressed and unstressed syllables respectively. In writing, /a/ and /ə/ are both spelt without a vowel sign attached to the consonant letter, so the patterns of stress in the language must be used to determine the correct pronunciation. Most Sinhala syllables are of the form CV. The first syllable of each word is stressed, with the exception of the verb කරනවා /kərənəˈwaː/ ("to do") and all of its infected forms where the first syllable is unstressed. Syllables using long vowels are always stressed. The remainder of the syllables are unstressed if they use a short vowel, unless they are immediately followed by one of: a CCV syllable, final /j(i)/ (-යි), final /wu/ (-වු), or a final consonant without a following vowel. The sound /ha/ is always stressed in nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, and so is not pronounced /hə/ except in the word හතලිහ /ˈhat̪əlihə/ ("forty"), where the initial /ha/ is stressed and the final /hə/ is unstressed.[22]

Morphology

Nominal morphology

The main features marked on Sinhala nouns are case, number, definiteness and animacy.

Cases

Sinhala distinguishes several cases. Next to the cross-linguistically rather common nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and ablative, there are also less common cases like the instrumental. The exact number of these cases depends on the exact definition of cases one wishes to employ. For instance, the endings for the animate instrumental and locative cases, atiŋ and laᵑgə, are also independent words meaning "with the hand" and "near" respectively, which is why they are not regarded to be actual case endings by some scholars. Depending on how far an independent word has progressed on a grammaticalisation path, scholars will see it as a case marker or not.

The brackets with most of the vowel length symbols indicate the optional shortening of long vowels in certain unstressed syllables.

animate sg inanimate sg animate pl inanimate pl
NOM miniha(ː) potə minissu pot
ACC miniha(ː)və potə minissu(nvə) pot
INSTR miniha(ː) atiŋ poteŋ minissu(n) atiŋ potvəliŋ
DAT miniha(ː)ʈə potəʈə minissu(ɳ)ʈə potvələʈə
ABL miniha(ː)geŋ poteŋ minissu(n)geŋ potvaliŋ
GEN miniha(ː)ge(ː) pote(ː) minissu(ŋ)ge(ː) potvələ
LOC miniha(ː) laᵑgə pote(ː) minissu(n) laᵑgə potvələ
VOC miniho(ː) - minissuneː -
Gloss man book men books

Number marking

In Sinhala animate nouns, the plural is marked with -o(ː), a long consonant plus -u, or with -la(ː). Most inanimates mark the plural through disfixation. Loanwords from English mark the singular with ekə, and do not mark the plural. This can be interpreted as a singulative number.

SG ammaː deviyaː horaː pothə reddə kanthoːruvə sathiyə bus ekə paːrə
PL amməla(ː) deviyo(ː) horu poth redi kanthoːru sathi bus paːrəval
Gloss mother(s) god(s) thie(f/ves) book(s) cloth(es) office(s) week(s) bu(s/ses) street(s)

On the left hand side of the table, plurals are longer than singulars. On the right hand side, it is the other way round, with the exception of paːrə "street". Note that [+animate] lexemes are mostly in the classes on the left-hand side, while [-animate] lexemes are most often in the classes on the right hand.

Indefinite article

The indefinite article is -ek for animates and -ak for inanimates. The indefinite article exists only in the singular, where its absence marks definiteness. In the plural, (in)definiteness does not receive special marking.

Verbal morphology

Sinhala distinguishes three conjugation classes. Spoken Sinhala does not mark person, number or gender on the verb (literary Sinhala does). In other words, there is no subject–verb agreement.

1st class 2nd class 3rd class
verb verbal adjective verb verbal adjective verb verbal adjective
present (future) kanəvaː kanə arinəvaː arinə pipenəvaː pipenə
past kæːvaː kæːvə æriyaː æriyə pipunaː pipunə
anterior kaːlaː kaːpu ærəlaː ærəpu pipilaː pipicca
simultaneous kanə kanə / ka kaa(spoken) / arinə arinə / æra æra(spoken) / pipenə pipenə/ pipi pipi(spoken) /
infinitive kannə/kanḍə / arinnə/arinḍə / pipennə/pipenḍə /
emphatic form kanneː / arinneː / pipenneː /
gloss eat / open / blossom /

Syntax

  • Left-branching language (see branching), which means that determining elements are usually put in front of what they determine (see example below).
  • An exception to this is formed by statements of quantity which usually stand behind what they define. Example: "the four flowers" translates to මල් හතර /mal hatərə/, literally "flowers four". On the other hand, it can be argued that the numeral is the head in this construction, and the flowers the modifier, so that a better English rendering would be "a floral foursome"
  • SOV (subject–object–verb) word order, common to most left-branching languages.
  • As is common in left-branching languages, it has no prepositions, only postpositions (see Adposition). Example: "under the book" translates to පොත යට /potə jaʈə/, literally "book under".
  • Sinhala has no copula: "I am rich" translates to මම පොහොසත් /mamə poːsat/, literally "I rich". There are two existential verbs, which are used for locative predications, but these verbs are not used for predications of class-membership or property-assignment, unlike English is.
  • There are almost no conjunctions as English that or whether, but only non-finite clauses that are formed by the means of participles and verbal adjectives. Example: "The man who writes books" translates to පොත් ලියන මිනිසා /pot liənə miniha/, literally "books writing man".

Semantics

There is a four-way deictic system (which is rare): There are four demonstrative stems (see demonstrative pronouns) මේ /meː/ "here, close to the speaker", /oː/ "there, close to the person addressed", අර /arə/ "there, close to a third person, visible" and /eː/ "there, close to a third person, not visible".

Discourse

Sinhala is a pro-drop language: Arguments of a sentence can be omitted when they can be inferred from context. This is true for subject—as in Italian, for instance—but also objects and other parts of the sentence can be "dropped" in Sinhala if they can be inferred. In that sense, Sinhala can be called a "super pro-drop language", like Japanese.

Example: The sentence කොහෙද ගියේ [koɦedə ɡie], literally "where went", can mean "where did I/you/he/she/we... go".

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Sinhala". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sinhala". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  4. ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2011". www.statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  5. ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2001" (PDF). Statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  6. ^ a b Jayarajan, Paul M. (1 January 1976). History of the Evolution of the Sinhala Alphabet. Colombo Apothecaries' Company, Limited.
  7. ^ Danesh Jain, George Cardona. Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 847.
  8. ^ a b "Introduction ~ හැඳින්වීම - Wikibooks, open books for an open world". en.wikibooks.org. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  9. ^ Paolillo, John C. (1997). "Sinhala Diglossia: Discrete or Continuous Variation?". Language in Society. 26 (2): 269–296. doi:10.1017/S0047404500020935. ISSN 0047-4045. JSTOR 4168764.
  10. ^ Gair, James W. (1968). "Sinhalese Diglossia". Anthropological Linguistics. 10 (8): 1–15. ISSN 0003-5483. JSTOR 30029181.
  11. ^ Caldwell, Robert (1875). "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages". London: Trübner & Co.: 86.
  12. ^ "Chinese Account of Ceylon". The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia. 20: 30. 1836.
  13. ^ "WWW Virtual Library Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka: A Short History of Sinhala Language". Lankalibrary.com. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  14. ^ "UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, Sinhalese Series". London: George Allen and Unwin Limited. 1970.
  15. ^ Gair 1998, p. 4
  16. ^ Van Driem 2002, p. 230
  17. ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 45
  18. ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 70
  19. ^ Gair 1998, p. 5
  20. ^ a b c d Kahandgamage, Sandya (2011). Gove basa. Nugegoda: Sarasavi.
  21. ^ "Ancient Scripts: Sinhala". www.ancientscripts.com. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  22. ^ Silva, A.W.L. (2008). Teach Yourself Sinhalese. ISBN 978-955-96926-0-7.

Bibliography

  • Gair, James: Sinhala and Other South Asian Languages, New York 1998.
  • Indrapala, Karthigesu (2007). The evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. ISBN 978-955-1266-72-1.
  • Perera, H.S.; Jones, D. (1919). A colloquial Sinhalese reader in phonetic transcription. Manchester: Longmans, Green & Co.
  • Van Driem, George (15 January 2002). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-10390-0.

Further reading

  • Clough, B. (1997). Sinhala English Dictionary (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
  • Gair, James; Paolillo, John C. (1997). Sinhala. Newcastle: München.
  • Gair, James (1998). Studies in South Asian Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509521-0.
  • Geiger, Wilhelm (1938). A Grammar of the Sinhalese Language. Colombo.
  • Karunatillake, W.S. (1992). An Introduction to Spoken Sinhala. Colombo. [several new editions].
  • Zubair, Cala Ann (2015). "Sexual violence and the creation of an empowered female voice". Gender and Language. 9 (2): 279–317. doi:10.1558/genl.v9i2.17909. (Article on the use of slang amongst Sinhalese Raggers.)

External links

Crore

A crore (; abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

Dharmadasa Wanniarachchi

Dharmadasa Wanniarachchi (Sinhala: ධර්මදාස වන්නිආරච්චි) was the seventh Governor of the North Western Province of Sri Lanka.He was also a member of the Sri Lankan Parliament. Wanniarachchi died on 5 October 2007 at the age of 87.

Divaina

Divaina (Sinhala: දිවයින) is a Sinhala language daily newspaper published by the Upali Newspapers in Sri Lanka. A sister newspaper of The Island , Divaina was established in 1981. Its Sunday edition is the Sunday Divaina. The daily newspaper currently has a circulation of 156,000 and its Sunday edition, 340,000 per issue. Upali Wijewardene was its founder.

Kalu Ganga

Kalu Ganga (Sinhala: කළු ගඟ; literally: Black River) is a river in Sri Lanka. Measuring 129 km (80 mi) in length, the river originates from Sri Paadhaya and reach the sea at Kalutara. The Black River flows through the Ratnapura and the Kalutara District and pass the city Ratnapura. The mountainous forests in the Central Province and the Sinharaja Forest Reserve are the main sources of water for the river.

Lakh

A lakh (; abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs; Devanāgarī: लाख) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105). In the Indian convention of digit grouping, it is written as 1,00,000. For example, in India 150,000 rupees becomes 1.5 lakh rupees, written as ₹1,50,000 or INR 1,50,000.

It is widely used both in official and other contexts in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It is often used in Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan English. In Pakistan, the word lakh is used mostly in local languages rather than in English media.

Lists of Sri Lankan films

Films produced in Sri Lanka ordered by the date of release

Ministry of Education (Sri Lanka)

The Ministry Of Education (also known as the Education Ministry) (Sinhala: අධ්‍යාපන අමාත්‍යාංශය Adhyapana Amathyanshaya) is a ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to primary and secondary education in Sri Lanka. The ministry is not responsible for tertiary education which comes under the Ministry of Higher Education however two universities do come under the ministry.

North Central Province, Sri Lanka

North Central Province (Sinhala: උතුරු මැද පළාත Uturumeda Palata, Tamil: வட மத்திய மாகாணம் Wada Maththiya Maakaanam) is a province of Sri Lanka. Its capital is Anuradhapura. The province is not densely populated, and it has a weak economy as the land tends to be dry tropical woodlands. Maithripala Sirisena, the Sri Lankan president, hails from the North Central Province.

Provinces of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, provinces (Sinhala: පළාත, romanized: Paḷāta; Tamil: மாகாணம், romanized: Mākāṇam) are the first level administrative division. They were first established by the British rulers of Ceylon in 1833. Over the next century most of the administrative functions were transferred to the districts, the second level administrative division. By the middle of the 20th century the provinces had become merely ceremonial. This changed in 1987 when, following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization, the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Currently there are nine provinces.

Sabaragamuwa Province

The Sabaragamuwa Province, (Sinhala: සබරගමුව පළාත Sabaragamuwa Palata, Tamil: சபரகமுவ மாகாணம் Sabaragamuwa Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. The Sabaragamuwa Province contains two districts: Ratnapura and Kegalle. It is named after its former indigenous inhabitants, namely the Sabara, an indic term for hunter-gatherer tribes, a term seldom used in ancient Sri Lanka. Sabaragamuwa University is in Belihuloya.

Sinhala Braille

Sinhala Braille is one of the many Bharati braille alphabets. While it largely conforms to the letter values of other Bharati alphabets, it diverges in the values of the letters assigned toward the end of those alphabets.

Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation

The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා ගුවන් විදුලි සංස්ථාව, Shrī Lankā Guvan Viduli Sansthāva, Tamil: இலங்கை ஒலிபரப்புக் கூட்டுத்தாபனம், Ilangkai Oliparappuk Kūṭṭuttāpaṉam) came into existence on 5 January 1967 when Radio Ceylon became a public corporation. Dudley Senanayake who was the Prime Minister of Ceylon in 1967 ceremonially opened the newly established Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation along with Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa and the Director General of the CBC, Neville Jayaweera.The first board of Directors of CBC consisted of Mr. Neville Jayaweera (CCS), Mr.A.L.M.Hashim, Mr.Dharmasiri Kuruppu, Mr. K.A.G. Perera and Mr. Devar Surya Sena. After the first board meeting it was decided unanimously to appoint the chairman, Mr.Jayaweera, as the new Director General.

Sri Lanka Muslim Congress

The Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (Tamil: ஸ்ரீலங்கா முஸ்லீம் காங்கிரஸ், romanized: Srīlaṅkā Muslīm Kāṅkiras; Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා මුස්ලිම් කොංග්‍රසය Sri Lanka Muslim Kongrasaya) is a political party in Sri Lanka.

It is one of the parties that represents the Muslim community of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lankan rupee

The rupee (Sinhala: රුපියල්, Tamil: ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, ரூ, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents. It is issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. The abbreviation is generally Rs., but "LKR" is occasionally used to distinguish it from other currencies also called rupee.

Temple of the Tooth

Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is located in the royal palace complex of the former Kingdom of Kandy, which houses the relic of the tooth of the Buddha. Since ancient times, the relic has played an important role in local politics because it is believed that whoever holds the relic holds the governance of the country. Kandy was the last capital of the Sri Lankan kings and is a World Heritage Site mainly due to the temple.

Bhikkhus of the two chapters of Malwatte and Asgiriya conduct daily worship in the inner chamber of the temple. Rituals are performed three times daily: at dawn, at noon and in the evenings. On Wednesdays, there is a symbolic bathing of the relic with an herbal preparation made from scented water and fragrant flowers called Nanumura Mangallaya. This holy water is believed to contain healing powers and is distributed among those present.

The temple sustained damage from bombings by Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in 1989 and by Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 1998 but was fully restored each time.

The Sri Lanka Gazette

The Sri Lanka Gazette, officially The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජයේ ගැසට් පත්‍රය, romanized: Shrī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajayē Gæsaṭ Patraya; Tamil: இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசின் வர்த்தமானி, romanized: Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Cōcalica Kuṭiyaraciṉ Varttamāṉi) is a public journal of the Government of Sri Lanka. It prints certain statutory notices from the government. Modeled after the Oxford Gazette, the Sri Lanka Gazette is the oldest surviving newspaper in Sri Lanka, having been published continuously since 1802.

Unlike other newspapers, it does not cover general news or have a large circulation. It is printed by the Department of Government Printing.

Upekkha

Upekkhā (in Pali: upekkhā उपेक्खा; Sanskrit: upekṣā उपेक्षा), is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. As one of the Brahma Vihara (meditative states), it is a pure mental state cultivated on the Buddhist path to nirvāna.

Vavuniya

Vavuniya (Tamil: வவுனியா, romanized: Vavuṉiyā, Sinhala: වවුනියාව, romanized: Vavuniyāva) is a city in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council. It is also the main settlement in the Vavuniya District.

The Security Forces Headquarters - Wanni is located in Vavuniya.

Śuddhodana

Śuddhodana (Sanskrit: शुद्धोधन; Pali: Suddhōdana), meaning "he who grows pure rice," was a leader of the Shakya, who lived in an oligarchic republic, with their capital at Kapilavastu. He was also the father of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became known as Buddha.In later renditions of the life of the Buddha, Śuddhodana was often referred to as a king, though that status cannot be established with confidence and is in fact disputed by modern scholarship.

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