In the music industry, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.
Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play (EP) or, if over six tracks long, an album.
Historically, when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided. That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, traditionally, only the most popular songs from a previously released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles.
The basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the disc record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Discs were manufactured with a range of playback speeds (from 16 rpm to 78 rpm) and in several sizes (including 12-inch/30 cm). By about 1910, however, the 10-inch (25 cm), 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format.
The inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The relatively crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, and a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity. 78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm.
With these factors applied to the 10-inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium. The 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although Columbia Records tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, and separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, and that radio stations play the song in its entirety.
As digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more heavily promoted or more popular song (or group of songs) within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store (then called iTunes Music Store) in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod.
In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Previously, Geffen Records also released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification.
Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download. Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", which was released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads (including unbundled album tracks) became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales gradually improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011.
Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch (18 cm), 10-inch (25 cm), and 12-inch (30 cm) vinyl discs (usually playing at 45 rpm); 10-inch (25-cm) shellac discs (playing at 78 rpm); cassette, 8 and 12 cm (3- and 5-inch) CD singles and 7-inch (18 cm) plastic flexi discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc (5-inch/12 cm, 8-inch/20 cm, etc.).
The most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, and the standard diameter, 7 inches (18 cm).
The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs. The first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s. Columbia Records, which had released the 33 1⁄3 rpm 12-inch vinyl LP in June 1948, also released 33 1⁄3 rpm 7-inch vinyl singles in March 1949, but they were soon eclipsed by the RCA Victor 45. The first regular production 45 rpm record pressed was "PeeWee the Piccolo" RCA Victor 47-0146 pressed 7 December 1948 at the Sherman Avenue plant in Indianapolis, R.O. Price, plant manager. The claim made that 48-0001 by Eddy Arnold was the first 45 is evidently incorrect (even though as of this writing 48-0000 has not turned up) since all 45s were released simultaneously with the 45 player on the 29 March date. There was plenty of information 'leaked' to the public about the new 45 rpm system through front-page articles in Billboard magazine on 4 December 1948 and again on 8 January 1949. RCA was trying to blunt the lead Columbia had established in releasing their 33 1⁄3 LP system back in June 1948.
Although 7 inches remained the standard size for vinyl singles, 12-inch singles were introduced for use by DJs in discos in the 1970s. The longer playing time of these singles allowed the inclusion of extended dance mixes of tracks. In addition, the larger surface area of the 12-inch discs allowed for wider grooves (larger amplitude) and greater separation between grooves, the latter of which results in less cross-talk. Consequently, they are less susceptible to wear and scratches. The 12-inch single is still considered a standard format for dance music, though its popularity has declined in recent years.
The sales of singles are recorded in record charts in most countries in a Top 40 format. These charts are often published in magazines and numerous television shows and radio programs count down the list. In order to be eligible for inclusion in the charts the single must meet the requirements set by the charting company, usually governing the number of songs and the total playing time of the single.
In popular music, the commercial and artistic importance of the single (as compared to the EP or album) has varied over time, technological development, and according to the audience of particular artists and genres. Singles have generally been more important to artists who sell to the youngest purchasers of music (younger teenagers and pre-teens), who tend to have more limited financial resources.  Starting in the mid-sixties, albums became a greater focus and more important as artists created albums of uniformly high quality and coherent themes, a trend which reached its apex in the development of the concept album. Over the 1990s and early 2000s, the single generally received less and less attention in the United States as albums, which on compact disc had virtually identical production and distribution costs but could be sold at a higher price, became most retailers' primary method of selling music. Singles continued to be produced in the UK and Australia, surviving the transition from compact disc to digital download.
The discontinuation of the single has been cited as a major marketing mistake by the record companies considering it eliminated an inexpensive recording format for young fans to use to become accustomed to purchasing music. In its place was the predominance of the album which alienated customers by the expense of purchasing an expensive format for only one or two songs of interest. This in turn encouraged interest in file sharing software on the internet like Napster for single recordings initially which began to seriously undercut the music recording market.
Dance music, however, has followed a different commercial pattern, and the single, especially the 12-inch vinyl single, remains a major method by which dance music is distributed.
A curious development has been the popularity of mobile phone ringtones based on pop singles (on some modern phones, the actual single can be used as a ringtone). In September 2007, Sony BMG announced they would introduce a new type of CD single, called "ringles", for the 2007 holiday season. The format included three songs by an artist, plus a ringtone accessible from the user's computer. Sony announced plans to release 50 ringles in October and November, while Universal Music Group expected to release somewhere between 10 and 20 titles.
In a reversal of this trend, a single has been released based on a ringtone itself. The Crazy Frog ringtone, which was a cult hit in Europe in 2004, was released as a mashup with "Axel F" in June 2005 amid a massive publicity campaign and subsequently hit #1 on the UK charts.
The term single is sometimes regarded as a misnomer, since one record usually contains two songs: the A-side and B-side. In 1982, CBS marketed one-sided singles at a lower price than two-sided singles.
In South Korean music, the terminology for "albums" and "singles" is unique and includes an additional term, the "single album", a category of releases that is not found outside of Korea. In English, the word "album" in ordinary usage refers to an LP-length music release. By contrast, the Korean word for "album" (Hangul: 음반; RR: eumban) denotes a musical recording of any length released on physical media; it is closer in meaning to the English word "record".
Today, the music marketplace in South Korea recognizes a release type called the "single album" (Hangul: 싱글 음반; RR: singgeul eumban). Although the terms "single albums" and "singles" are similar and sometimes may even overlap in meaning, depending on context, they are considered two distinct release types in South Korea. A "single album" refers to a physical release (like CD, LP, or some other media) collecting one or more singles, while a "single" is only a song itself, typically as a downloaded file or streamable song. The Gaon Album Chart tracks sales of all "offline" albums released as physical media, meaning that single albums compete alongside full-length studio albums (and all other albums). The Gaon Digital Chart, which tracks downloads and streams, is regarded as the official "singles" chart.
As a distinct release type, the single album developed during the CD era in the 1990s. Single albums, typically including about two or three songs, were marketed as a more affordable alternative to a full-length CD album. The term "single album" is sometimes used to refer to a release that would simply be called a "single" in western contexts, such as a 7-inch 45 rpm record released before the advent of downloadable music.
To give an example of the differences between full-length albums, single albums, and singles: the K-pop boy band Big Bang has a full-length studio album, titled MADE, which was originally released as a series of four single albums: M, A, D, and E. Two singles were included on each of these single albums; the first in the series, M, contains the singles "Loser" and "Bae Bae".
A single album is distinct from a single even if it only includes one song. The single "Gotta Go" by Chungha was released on a single album titled XII, which was a one-track CD. Even though "Gotta Go" was the only song on XII, the two releases carry different titles and charted separately: XII reached No. 4 on the Gaon Album Chart, while "Gotta Go" reached No. 2 on the Gaon Digital Chart.
CD Video (also known as CDV, CD-V, or CD+V) is a format of optical media disc that was introduced in 1987 that combines the technologies of standard compact disc and LaserDisc. CD-V discs are the same size as a standard 12-cm audio CD, and contain up to 20 minutes' worth of CD Audio that can be played on any audio CD player. It also contains up to 5 minutes of LaserDisc video information with digital CD-quality sound, which can be played back on a newer LaserDisc player capable of playing CD-V discs. One of the first LaserDisc players that can play CD-V discs is the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987. Though it is a CD-based format, CD Video was never given a rainbow book designation; the idea of encoding analogue video, which is incompatible between different regions, was poorly received by CD stakeholders other than Philips, who had not consulted them prior to demonstrating the format to the music industry.CD Video discs have a distinctive gold color, to differentiate them from regular silver-colored audio CDs. This is a characteristic that would later be replicated in HVD, a more advanced disc format.
A similar version of CD Video called Video Single Disc (VSD) was also released. It is basically the same as CD Video, but it only has the analog video track (occupying the whole storage space of the disc), so it is in effect a small LaserDisc.
CD Video was targeted toward teenagers who watched music videos on MTV. However, few of them were familiar with LaserDiscs, and far fewer owned CDV-compatible players at the time. Buying a costly new player was not an option just for the minor use of playing a single music video more easily accessible through a VHS videocassette, either purchased pre-recorded or recorded off a television programme with a VCR.
The term "CD Video" and its logo were also used on some full-size (8- and 12-inch) LaserDiscs with digital audio (for movies as well as for music titles), to distinguish them from the previous LaserVision format with analog audio and, presumably, to leverage the consumer recognition of the successful CD-Audio format.
Though CD Video lasted only a few years in the marketplace and began disappearing by 1991, its legacy would live on with the all-digital MPEG-based Video CD format, which came out a few years later in 1993.Evangeline (Emmylou Harris album)
Evangeline is a 1981 album by Emmylou Harris that was composed mostly of leftover material from past recording sessions and which did not fit into any of her other albums. Songs included a remake of "Mister Sandman" (from the much-lauded Trio sessions with Dolly Parton and Linda Ronstadt), "Evangeline" (also featuring vocals by Parton and Ronstadt), which she had previously performed with The Band, Rodney Crowell's "Ashes By Now", and a cover of John Fogerty's "Bad Moon Rising". Though it received mixed reviews upon its release, the album was yet another commercial success for Harris. It was certified Gold in less than a year after its release. A single release of "Mister Sandman" (Top 10 country/Top 40 pop) did well on the charts, though neither Ronstadt's nor Parton's record companies would allow their artists' vocals to be used on the single, so Harris rerecorded the song, singing all three parts for the single release. Rodney Crowell's "I Don't Have to Crawl" was released as the album's second single. (Music videos were produced for both "Mister Sandman" and "I Don't Have to Crawl".)
The album is one of two Harris albums that have never been issued separately on CD (though in 2011 the album's tracks became available for digital download on iTunes). The album is now available as a CD in a collection issued in 2013 entitled Emmylou Harris Original Album Series Vol. 2.Fly on the Wall (video)
Fly on the Wall is a video by AC/DC, released in 1985. It is named after their album with the same name. The tape consisted of a single music video of five of the songs from Fly on the Wall, back to back. The visuals involved AC/DC playing at a bar while various shady characters interacted with an animated fly, much like the one on the cover of the album. The track listing is as follows:
"Fly on the Wall"
"Sink the Pink"
"Shake Your Foundations"Harbhajan Mann
Harbhajan Mann (born 30 December 1965) is a Punjabi singer, actor and film producer. His movies include Jee Aayan Nu, Asa Nu Mann Watnan Da, Heer Ranjha and Jag Jeondeyan De Mele.Heavy Metal Poisoning
"Heavy Metal Poisoning" is a song by American rock band Styx. It was included as the fifth track on their 1983 studio album Kilroy Was Here.
The song in the story of Kilroy Was Here has the character of Dr Righteous (portrayed by James "JY" Young) preaching the "evils" of rock and roll. Although the song got only minor airplay on FM rock radio, its music video received significant airplay on MTV.
It would be released as a B-side to the single "Music Time" (from the band's 1984 double live album Caught in the Act) in 1984.Hyuna
Kim Hyun-ah (born June 6, 1992), better known by the mononym Hyuna, is a South Korean singer-songwriter, rapper and model. She debuted as a member of the girl group Wonder Girls in February 2007. After leaving the ensemble shortly after, Hyuna subsequently left JYP Entertainment and joined the girl group 4Minute, under Cube Entertainment. 4Minute debuted in June 2009 and went on to become one of the most popular girl groups in the country.
In 2010, Hyuna began a solo career with a style she described as "performance-oriented music". Her debut single "Change" charted at number two on South Korea's Gaon Digital Chart. In 2011, Hyuna earned wider public recognition with the release of her first extended play Bubble Pop!. The title track sold more than three million digital copies and she became the first female K-pop solo artist to reach 100 million views on a single music video on YouTube. In 2012, she appeared in a successful duet rendition of Psy's worldwide hit "Gangnam Style" and later released her second extended play Melting, which spawned her first number one single "Ice Cream". Following 4Minute's disbandment in mid 2016, she released her fifth extended play A'wesome, which was supported by her first concert tour The Queen's Back.
Hyuna has released six extended plays since her professional solo debut and has collaborated with several artists under Cube Entertainment. In 2011, she formed the duo Trouble Maker with former Beast member Hyunseung, which spawned two number one singles, including "Trouble Maker". In 2017, she was involved in the trio Triple H with Pentagon members Hui and E'Dawn.
In 2018, Hyuna ended her contract with Cube Entertainment after several internal conflicts, and signed with Psy's P-Nation the following year.John Miles (musician)
John Miles (born John Errington, 23 April 1949, Jarrow, County Durham, England) is a British rock music vocalist, songwriter, guitarist and keyboard player, best known for his 1976 Top 3 UK hit single, "Music". He won the "Outstanding Musical Achievement" award at the 2017 Progressive Music Awards.Kanashimi Twilight
"Kanashimi Twilight" (悲しみトワイライト, Kanashimi Towairaito, "Sorrowful Twilight") is the thirty-third single of idol group Morning Musume. It was released on April 25, 2007 and was the last single for Hitomi Yoshizawa as well as Miki Fujimoto.
There are three different versions of the single. Limited edition A includes a bonus DVD with an alternate edit of the single music video, comments from Morning Musume, and a serial-numbered card and has catalog number EPCE-5465~6. Limited edition B features special package and 40-page booklet plus serial-numbered card and has catalog number EPCE-5467. The regular edition has catalog number EPCE-5468.Music download
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year.Music recording certification
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by type (such as album, single, music video) and by nation or territory (see List of music recording certifications).
Almost all countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials (gold, platinum and diamond).
The threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. Typically, they are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some perhaps 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media (for example: videos versus albums, singles, or downloads).Porno Graffitti
Porno Graffitti (ポルノグラフィティ, Poruno Gurafiti), also known as Porno (ポルノ, Poruno), are a Japanese rock band from Onomichi (formerly Innoshima), Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The band got their name from the album Pornograffitti by the band Extreme. They currently record under the SME Records label, and their agency is Amuse, Inc..Haruichi Shindō originally formed the band with his cousin during high school and named it "No Score." After the band started, Haruichi asked Akihito Okano and Tama to join. The band was so named because none of them could actually read a score when they first started. When they first started the band, Haruichi was the vocalist, but found out that Akihito could sing better, so he gave the vocalist position to Akihito and took over as guitarist instead. This was the foundation of Porno Graffitti. They debuted with the song Apollo in 1999. Their two subsequent CD singles, Saudade and Agehachō, both sold over a million copies in Japan.
The band is well known for their work in creating music for anime series and movies. They are particularly well known for the song "Melissa," which was used as the opening theme of the anime series Fullmetal Alchemist in 2003. In addition, they have created the songs "Hitori no Yoru" for the second opening theme of the anime series GTO (2000), "Winding Road" for the ending theme of the anime series Ayakashi Ayashi (2006), and "Montage" for an opening theme of the anime Puzzle & Dragons X.
Their song "Koyoi, Tsuki ga, Miezu Tomo" was featured in the third Bleach film, and their single "Anima Rossa" was featured as the eleventh opening to Bleach. Their single "2012Spark" was featured as the main theme song of the movie Gyakuten Saiban and their single "Matataku Hoshi no Shita de" was the second opening theme for the anime Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic. Their 2016 single "THE DAY" was the first opening theme of the anime series My Hero Academia. Their single "Oh! Rival" is part of the soundtrack for the 2019 Detective Conan film.
They've also featured in video game music, with a cover of their 2000 single "Music Hour" used for a stage of the Nintendo DS rhythm game Moero! Nekketsu Rhythm Damashii Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan 2.Prison Break (soundtrack)
Prison Break is the first soundtrack of the American television series Prison Break, composed by Ramin Djawadi, and was released in 2007, bringing together music used for seasons 1 and 2. Released in August 2007, the album includes thirty-one music composed specially for seasons 1 and 2 of Prison Break, although many will be included in the following seasons, in their original version or variant.
The first title, Main Titles, lets see that generic start and end of the original form only a single music. This is a title created for the pilot episode. In addition, the album contains only the creations of Ramin Djawadi, thus, all other music or songs used in the series are not present. The Main Title, was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 2006.Singles
Singles may refer to:
Single persons and associated businesses and discussionsIn retail commerce:
United States one-dollar bills, particularly when requesting change from, or implicitly comparing to, larger denomination billsIn film and television:
Singles (miniseries), a 1984 Australian television series
Singles (1992 film), written and directed by Cameron Crowe
Singles (2003 film), a South Korean film starring Jang Jin-young
S1ngles, a Greek TV series
Singles (TV series), a British sitcom produced from 1988 to 1991In music:
Single (music), a type of music release usually having only one song
Singles is a frequent title for a compilation album
Singles (Alison Moyet album)
Singles (Deacon Blue album)
Singles (Future Islands album)
Singles (Jimmy Eat World album)
Singles (Luna Sea album) (1997)
Singles (Maroon 5 album) (2015)
Singles (New Order album)
Singles (Nirvana album)
Singles: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack to the 1992 film
Singles (Red Krayola album) (2004)
Singles (Suede album)
"Singles" (The Long Blondes album), an album by The Long Blondes
Singles (The Smiths album)
Singles (Travis album)
Singles (Despina Vandi album)
Singles (The UA Years), an album by The Stranglers
The Singles (Corey Hart album)
Singles (Fishbone album)
Singles 1–12, an album by The Melvins
"Singles", a song by E-40 and Too $hort from History: Function Music
"Singles", a song by Ibeyi from their self-titled album
In computer, video and card games:
Singles: Flirt Up Your Life, a video game by Rotobee
Singles (cards), individual trading cards sold at hobby storesIn sports:
Singles means individual players competing one-on-one in several sports including tennis, badminton, table tennis, squash, professional wrestling and match play in golf
Single skating, a figure skating discipline commonly known as "singles"
Single (baseball), when a batter reaches first base due to successful contact with the ballIn geography:
Singles, Puy-de-Dôme, a commune of the Puy-de-Dôme département, FranceIn food products:
Kenco Singles, a single-serve coffee brewing system
Kraft Singles, a brand of individually packaged cheese slicesIn motorcycles:
Single, a motorcycle with a single cylinderSino Chart
The Sino Chart is a sales chart in China established in 2009. Chart rankings are based on physical record sales (album, EPs and singles), and does not include download sales.Charts are published every Sunday for paid members and, on Mondays, are released on their official website.
On April 26, 2015 the site officially closed.Speechless (Michael Jackson song)
"Speechless" is a song by the American recording artist Michael Jackson, included on his tenth studio album, Invincible (2001). It was only released as a promotional single in South Korea. The singer was inspired to write the ballad after a water balloon fight with children in Germany. Jackson collaborated on the production with musicians such as Jeremy Lubbock, Brad Buxer, Novi Novoq, Stuart Bradley and Bruce Swedien. Andraé Crouch and his gospel choir provided backing vocals.
Executives at Jackson's record label, Epic Records, responded positively to the track when given a preview several months before Invincible's release. "Speechless" was issued as a promotional single. Music critics focused on the track's a cappellas, lyrics and music. A clip of Jackson singing "Speechless" was included in the 2009 documentary-concert film Michael Jackson's This Is It.Stardust (band)
Stardust was a one-time musical collaborative effort consisting of producers Thomas Bangalter, Alan Braxe, and vocalist Benjamin Diamond. They released their only single, "Music Sounds Better with You", on 20 July 1998.V6 (band)
V6 (ブイシックス, Bui Shikkusu) is a six-member Japanese boy band formed by Johnny & Associates. The group debuted on November 1, 1995 with the single "Music for the People", which was used as the image song for the World Cup of Volleyball in 1995. Their first four singles, including "Music for the People", were all cover versions of the same-titled Eurobeat songs composed by Italian producers such as Giancarlo Pasquini, Andrea Leonardi, Alberto Contini, Sandro Oliva.
Similar to their agency seniors Hikaru Genji, the group is separated into two subgroups based on age. For V6, the group is split into 20th Century and Coming Century, which consists of the three oldest members and three youngest members respectively. The band sold more than 13.5 million albums and singles.Yo Yo Honey Singh
Hirdesh Singh (born 15 March 1983), known by this professional name, Yo Yo Honey Singh or Honey Singh, is an Indian music director, songwriter, Indi-pop singer, music producer and film actor. He started as a session and recording artist, and became a bhangra music producer. He has also begun to produce music for Bollywood films.