Singin' in the Rain

Singin' in the Rain is a 1952 American musical-romantic comedy film directed and choreographed by Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen, starring Kelly, Donald O'Connor, and Debbie Reynolds. It offers a lighthearted depiction of Hollywood in the late 1920s, with the three stars portraying performers caught up in the transition from silent films to "talkies".

The film was only a modest hit when first released. O'Connor won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, and Betty Comden and Adolph Green won the Writers Guild of America Award for their screenplay, while Jean Hagen was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. However, it has since been accorded legendary status by contemporary critics, and is frequently regarded as the best film musical ever made,[3] and the best film ever made in the "Freed Unit" at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It topped the AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals list and is ranked as the fifth-greatest American motion picture of all time in its updated list of the greatest American films in 2007. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry. In 2005 the British Film Institute included it in its list of the 50 films to be seen by the age of 14. In Sight & Sound magazine's 2017 list of the 50 greatest films of all time, Singin' in the Rain placed 20th.[4]

Singin' in the Rain
Singing in the rain poster
theatrical release poster
Directed by
Produced byArthur Freed
Screenplay by
Story by
  • Betty Comden
  • Adolph Green
Starring
Music byLennie Hayton (original score)[1]
Songs:
Nacio Herb Brown (music)
Arthur Freed (lyrics)
CinematographyHarold Rosson
Edited byAdrienne Fazan
Production
company
Distributed byLoew's Inc.
Release date
Running time
103 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$2.5 million[2]
Box office$12.4 million[2]

Plot

Don Lockwood (Gene Kelly) is a popular silent film star with humble roots as a singer, dancer, and stuntman. Don barely tolerates his vain, cunning, conniving, and shallow leading lady, Lina Lamont (Jean Hagen), though their studio, Monumental Pictures, links them romantically to increase their popularity. Lina is convinced they are in love, despite Don's protestations otherwise.

At the premiere of his latest film, The Royal Rascal, Don tells the gathered crowd an exaggerated version of his life story, including his motto: "Dignity, always dignity." His words are humorously contradicted by flashbacks showing him alongside his best friend Cosmo Brown (Donald O'Connor). To escape from his fans after the premiere, Don jumps into a passing car driven by Kathy Selden (Debbie Reynolds). She drops him off, but not before claiming to be a stage actress and sneering at his "undignified" accomplishments as a movie star.

Later, at a party, the head of Don's studio, R.F. Simpson (Millard Mitchell), shows a short demonstration of a talking picture,[a] but his guests are unimpressed. To Don's amusement, Kathy pops out of a mock cake right in front of him, revealing herself to be a chorus girl. Furious at Don's teasing, she throws a real cake at him, only to accidentally hit Lina in the face. She runs away. Don is smitten with Kathy and searches for her for weeks. While filming a love scene, Lina tells him that she had Kathy fired. Don finally finds Kathy working in another Monumental Pictures production. She confesses to having been a fan of his all along.

After a rival studio has an enormous hit with its first talking picture, the 1927 film The Jazz Singer, R.F. decides he has no choice but to convert the next Lockwood and Lamont film, The Dueling Cavalier, into a talkie. The production is beset with difficulties, including Lina's grating voice and strong New York accent. An exasperated diction coach tries to teach her how to speak properly, but to no avail. The Dueling Cavalier's preview screening is a disaster; the actors are barely audible thanks to the awkward placing of the microphones, Don repeats the line "I love you" to Lina over and over, to the audience's derisive laughter,[b] and in the middle of the film, the sound goes out of synchronization, with hilarious results as Lina shakes her head while the villain's deep voice says, "Yes! Yes! Yes!" and the villain nods his head while Lina's squeaky soprano says, "No! No! No!"

Don, Kathy and Cosmo come up with the idea to turn The Dueling Cavalier into a musical called The Dancing Cavalier, complete with a modern musical number called "Broadway Melody". Cosmo, inspired by a scene in The Dueling Cavalier where Lina's voice was out of sync, suggests that they dub Lina's voice with Kathy's. R.F. approves the idea but tells them not to inform Lina about the dubbing. When Lina finds out, she is infuriated. She becomes even angrier when she discovers that R.F. intends to give Kathy a screen credit and a big publicity buildup afterward. Lina threatens to sue R.F. unless he orders Kathy to continue working uncredited as Lina's voice. R.F. reluctantly agrees to her demands, as a clause in her contract states that the studio is responsible for media coverage of her and she can sue if she is not happy with it.

The premiere of The Dancing Cavalier is a tremendous success. When the audience clamors for Lina to sing live, Don, Cosmo, and R.F. tell her to lip sync into the microphone while Kathy, concealed behind the curtain, sings into a second one. While Lina is "singing", Don, Cosmo and R.F. gleefully raise the curtain, revealing the fakery. Lina flees. A distressed Kathy tries to run away as well, but Don proudly announces to the audience that she's "the real star of the film." Later, Kathy and Don kiss in front of a billboard for their new film, Singin' in the Rain.

Cast

  • Gene Kelly as Don Lockwood. His performance in the song "Singin' in the Rain" is now considered to be iconic.[5]
  • Debbie Reynolds as Kathy Selden. Directors Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen insisted that Reynolds was always first in their minds for the role.[6] Although the film revolves around the idea that Kathy has to dub over for Lina's voice, in the scene where Kathy is dubbing a line of Lina's dialogue ("Our love will last 'til the stars turn cold"), Jean Hagen's normal voice is used.[7][8][9]
  • Donald O'Connor as Cosmo Brown, Don's lifelong pal, and vaudeville partner, who becomes the head of Monumental Pictures' music department.
  • Jean Hagen as Lina Lamont. Fresh off her role in The Asphalt Jungle, Hagen read for the part for producer Arthur Freed. She did a dead-on impression of Judy Holliday's Billie Dawn character from Born Yesterday, – for which Hagen had been Holliday's understudy – which won her the role.[10]
  • Millard Mitchell as R.F. Simpson. The initials of the fictional head of Monumental Pictures are a reference to producer Arthur Freed. R.F. also uses one of Freed's favorite expressions when he says that he "cannot quite visualize it" and has to see it on film first, referring to the "Broadway Melody" sequence. This is a joke, since the audience has just seen it.
  • Cyd Charisse as the long-legged woman in the green sequined dress and Louise Brooks hair who vamps Gene Kelly in the "Broadway Melody" sequence.
  • Douglas Fowley as Roscoe Dexter, the director of Don and Lina's films.
  • Rita Moreno as Zelda Zanders, the "Zip Girl" and Lina's friend.

Uncredited

  • King Donovan as Rod, head of the publicity department at Monumental Pictures.
  • Judy Landon as Olga Mara, a silent screen vamp who attends the premiere of The Royal Rascal.
  • Madge Blake as Dora Bailey, a Hollywood gossip columnist based on Louella Parsons.
  • Kathleen Freeman as Phoebe Dinsmore, Lina's diction coach.
  • Bobby Watson as Lockwood's diction coach during the "Moses Supposes" number.
  • Jimmy Thompson as the singer of "Beautiful Girl".
  • Mae Clarke as the hairdresser who puts the finishing touches on Lina Lamont's hairdo.
  • Julius Tannen as the man demonstrating the technology of talking pictures.[11][12]
  • Tommy Farrell as Sid Philips, the director of the movie who feature the song "Beautiful Girl".

Gwen Verdon She provided the Tap sounds of Gene Kelly’s “Dancing In the Rain” sequence. She said this was done while tapping in water. She announced this when interviewed by Dick Cavett on his television show (1968-1974).

Songs

Singin' in the Rain was originally conceived by MGM producer Arthur Freed, the head of the "Freed Unit" responsible for turning out MGM's lavish musicals, as a vehicle for his catalog of songs written with Nacio Herb Brown for previous MGM musical films of the 1929–39 period.[13] Screenwriters Betty Comden and Adolph Green wrote two entirely new songs, "Make 'Em Laugh" and "Moses Supposes", the latter with music director Roger Edens providing the music (see below).[14]

All songs have lyrics by Freed and music by Brown unless otherwise indicated.[14] Some of the songs, such as "Broadway Rhythm," "Should I?," and especially "Singin' in the Rain" itself, have been featured in numerous films. The films listed below mark the first time each song was presented on screen.

Production

History

Arthur Freed, the head of the "Freed Unit" at MGM responsible for the studio's glossy and glamorous musicals, conceived the idea of a movie based on the back catalog of songs written by himself and Nacio Herb Brown, and called in Betty Comden and Adolph Green from New York to come up with a story to tie the songs together and to write the script. Comden and Green first refused the assignment, as their agent had assured them that their new contract with MGM called for them to write the lyrics to all songs unless the score was by Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, or Rodgers and Hammerstein. After a two-week hold-out, their new agent, Irving "Swifty" Lazar, having looked over the contract, told them that the clause had been entirely an invention of their previous agent, and that there was no such language in the contract. After hearing this, Comden and Green began working on the story and script.[16]

Because many of the songs had originally been written during the time when silent films were giving way to "talkies", and musicals were popular with audiences, Comden and Green came up with the idea that the story should be set during that transitional period in Hollywood, an era they were intimately familiar with. When Howard Keel was mentioned as the possible lead, they tried to work up a story involving a star of Western films who makes a comeback as a singing cowboy, but they kept gravitating to a story about a swashbuckling romantic hero with a vaudeville background who survives the transition by falling back on his abilities as a song-and-dance man, a story which Gene Kelly was well-suited for.[17]

Kelly could not be approached at the time, as he was deeply immersed in An American in Paris (1951), which he was starring in and co-choreographing with Stanley Donen. Comden and Green continued to work on the script, and had at that time three possible openings for the film: a silent movie premiere, a magazine interview with a Hollywood star, and a star-meets-girl, star-loses-girl sequence. Unable to decide which to use or how to proceed, they had just decided to return their advance to MGM and admit defeat, when Betty Comden's husband arrived from New York and suggested that they combine all three openings into one. The script with the re-written opening was approved by Freed and by MGM's head of production Dore Schary, who had recently replaced Louis B. Mayer.[18]

By this time shooting on An American in Paris had completed, and Freed suggested that Kelly be given the script to read. Kelly and Donen responded enthusiastically, and immediately become involved in re-writes and adjustments to the script. Comden, Green, Kelly, and Donen were all old friends, and the process went smoothly. Besides the Freed-Brown songs, Comden and Green contributed the lyrics to "Moses Supposes", which was set to music by Roger Edens. Shortly before shooting began, "The Wedding of the Painted Dolls", which Comden and Green had "painfully wedged into the script as a cheering-up song" was replaced with a new Freed-Brown song, "Make 'Em Laugh".[19]

After Comden and Green had returned to New York to work on other projects, they received word that a new song was needed for a love-song sequence between Kelly and Debbie Reynolds. The original had been a song-and-dance medley involving different sets in different soundstages on the studio lot, but they were asked for a romantic love song set in an empty sound stage, and it was needed immediately. Comden and Green provided such a scene for "You Are My Lucky Star" and sent it off to Hollywood.[20]

Revisions from early drafts

Trailer
  • In an early draft of the script, the musical number "Singin' in the Rain" was to be sung by Reynolds, O'Connor, and Kelly, emerging from a restaurant after the flop preview of The Dueling Cavalier, to celebrate the idea of changing the film into a musical.[21]
  • Kelly singing "You Were Meant For Me" to Reynolds on an empty sound stage was not included in that draft. The number was originally conceived as Kelly singing a medley of other songs to her as they romped around various studio back lot sets.[22]
  • Rita Moreno was originally to have sung the lead in "I've Got a Feelin' You're Foolin'" with other showgirls, but this ended up as part of the "Beautiful Girl Montage" without her.[23]

Scenes filmed but cut before release

  • Gene Kelly sang a reprise of "All I Do Is Dream of You" after the party at R.F. Simpson's house when Kelly chases after Reynolds. The song, ending in Kelly's bedroom, was cut from the release version after two previews, and the footage has been lost.[24]
  • Reynolds' solo rendition of "You Are My Lucky Star" (to a billboard showing an image of Lockwood) was cut after previews.[24] This number has survived and is included on the original soundtrack and DVD version of the film.[25]
  • In the steamy "Vamp Dance" segment of the "Broadway Melody Ballet" with Cyd Charisse and Gene Kelly, reviewers from both the Production Code and the Catholic Church's Legion of Decency objected to a brief, suggestive pose or movement between the dancers. Although there is no precise documentation of what or where it was, close examination of footage toward the end of the dance shows an abrupt cut when Charisse is wrapped around Kelly, indicating the probable location.[26]

Other notes

In the sequence in which Gene Kelly dances and sings the title song while spinning an umbrella, splashing through puddles and getting soaked with rain, Kelly was sick with a 103 °F (39 °C) fever.[27][28] The water used in the scene caused Kelly's wool suit to shrink during filming. A common myth is that Kelly managed to perform the entire song in one take, thanks to cameras placed at predetermined locations. However, this was not the case; filming the sequence took 2 to 3 days.[29] Another myth is that the rain was mixed with milk in order for the drops to show up better on camera; but the desired visual effect was produced, albeit with difficulty, through backlighting.[30][31]

Debbie Reynolds was not a dancer when she made Singin' in the Rain; her background was as a gymnast.[25] Kelly apparently insulted her for her lack of dance experience, upsetting her. In a subsequent encounter when Fred Astaire was in the studio, he found Reynolds crying under a piano. Hearing what had happened, Astaire volunteered to help her with her dancing. Kelly later admitted that he had not been kind to Reynolds and was surprised that she was still willing to talk to him afterwards. After shooting the "Good Morning" routine, which had taken from 8:00 a.m. until 11:00 p.m. to shoot,[32] Reynolds' feet were bleeding.[25] Years later, she was quoted as saying that "Singin' in the Rain and childbirth were the two hardest things I ever had to do in my life."[33]

Donald O'Connor had to stay in bed in the hospital for several days after filming the "Make 'Em Laugh" sequence, due to his smoking up to four packs of cigarettes a day.[29][34]

Most of the costumes from this film were eventually acquired by Debbie Reynolds and held in her massive collection of original film costumes, sets, and props. Many of these items were sold at a 2011 auction in Hollywood. While most items were sold to private collectors, Donald O'Connor's green check "Fit As a Fiddle" suit and shoes were purchased by Costume World, Inc. They are now on permanent display at the Costume World Broadway Collection Museum in Pompano Beach, Florida.

Reception

According to MGM records, during the film's initial theatrical release, it made $3,263,000 in the US and Canada and $2,367,000 internationally, earning the studio a profit of $666,000.[35] It was the tenth highest-grossing movie of the year in the US and Canada.[36][37]

Critical response

Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote: "Compounded generously of music, dance, color spectacle and a riotous abundance of Gene Kelly, Jean Hagen and Donald O'Connor on the screen, all elements in this rainbow program are carefully contrived and guaranteed to lift the dolors of winter and put you in a buttercup mood."[38] Variety was also positive, writing: "Arthur Freed has produced another surefire grosser for Metro in Singin' in the Rain. Musical has pace, humor, and good spirits a-plenty, in a breezy, good-natured spoof at the film industry itself ... Standout performances by Gene Kelly and Donald O'Connor, especially the latter, enhance the film's pull."[39] Harrison's Reports called it "top-notch entertainment in every department — music, dancing, singing, staging and story." [40] Richard L. Coe of The Washington Post called it "yet another fresh and breezy, colorful and funny musical" from Gene Kelly, adding, "Of the players there's not a dud in the lot, from Kelly's facile performing to the brief but electric dance appearance by Cyd Charisse, a swell partner for him."[41]

Pauline Kael, the long-time film critic for The New Yorker, said of the film "This exhuberant and malicious satire of Hollywood in the late twenties is perhaps the most enjoyable of movie musicals – just about the best Hollywood musical of all time."[42] Roger Ebert placed Singin' in the Rain on his Great Movies list, calling the film "a transcendent experience, and no one who loves movies can afford to miss it."[43]

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film had a score of a perfect 100% "Certified fresh" approval rating based on 49 reviews with an average rating of 9.2/10, the website's critical consensus reads: "Clever, incisive, and funny, Singin' In The Rain is a masterpiece of the classical Hollywood musical."[44]

Admiration in the film industry

Betty Comden and Adolph Green report that when they met Francois Truffaut at a party in Paris, Truffaut was very excited to meet the authors of Chantons sous la pluie. He told them that he had seen the film so many times that he knew it frame by frame, and that he and fellow director and screenwriter Alain Resnais, among others, went to see it regularly at a small Parisian movie theatre where it sometimes ran for months at a time.[42]

Awards and honors

For her role as Lina Lamont, Jean Hagen was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. The film was also nominated for Best Original Music Score for Lennie Hayton.

Donald O'Connor won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy for his portrayal of Cosmo Brown.[45] Betty Comden and Adolph Green received the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Written American Musical.[46]

Singin' in the Rain has appeared twice on Sight & Sound's list of the ten best films of all time, in 1982 and 2002. Its position in 1982 was at number 4 on the critics list; on the 2002 critics' list, it was listed as number 10, and it tied for 19 on the directors' list.[47]

Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 100% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 49 reviews, with an average score of 9.2/10. The film is ranked as No. 14 on Rotten Tomatoes' list of best rated films.[48] Rotten Tomatoes summarizes the critical consensus as, "Clever, incisive, and funny, Singin' in the Rain is a masterpiece of the classical Hollywood musical."[49] In 2008, Singin' in the Rain was placed on Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time List, ranking at #8, the highest ranked G-rated movie on the list.[50]

In 1989, Singin' in the Rain was among the first 25 films chosen for the newly established National Film Registry for films that are deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation.

The film is recognized by the American Film Institute in these lists:

Home media

The 40th Anniversary Edition VHS version released in 1992 includes a documentary, the original trailer, and Reynolds's solo rendition of "You Are My Lucky Star," which had been cut from the final film.[59]

According to the audio commentary on the 2002 Special Edition DVD, the original negative was destroyed in a fire. Despite this, the film was digitally restored for its DVD release. A Blu-ray Ultimate Collector's Edition was released in July 2012.

Adaptations

Comic book adaptation

Stage adaptation
The Broadway musical Singin' in the Rain was adapted from the motion picture, and the plot of the stage version closely adheres to the original. Directed and choreographed by post-modern choreographer Twyla Tharp, the opening night cast starred Don Correia as Don Lockwood, Mary D'Arcy as Kathy Selden, Richard Fancy as Roscoe Dexter, Faye Grant as Lina Lamont, and Peter Slutsker as Cosmo Brown. The musical opened on July 2, 1985 at the Gershwin Theatre after 39 previews, and ran for 367 performances, closing on May 18, 1986.[61]

In popular culture

  • Kelly's hometown Pittsburgh Pirates games at PNC Park play the scene from the film during rain delays.[62]
  • In the 1983 television special Paddington Goes to the Movies, the film is mentioned at some points and Paddington performs a version of Gene Kelly's famous dance from the 1952 film.
  • In the 1989 Woody Allen film Crimes and Misdemeanors, Cliff (Woody Allen) and Halley (Mia Farrow) watch Singin’ in the Rain at Cliff’s apartment. Cliff claims to watch the film “every few months to keep my spirits up.”
  • In their 1976 Christmas special, the British comedy act Morecambe and Wise parodied the "Singin' in the Rain" sequence.[63]
  • Gene Kelly's "Singin' in the Rain" sequence was one of the opening scenes of The Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios.[64] Kelly approved his Audio-Animatronics likeness prior to its delivery to Florida.[65]
  • The dance to the title song is parodied in the 2005 Broadway musical Spamalot in the dance break to "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life," complete with tap-dancing knights spinning bright yellow umbrellas around.[66]
  • The "Singin' in the Rain" sequence was featured in a 2005 Volkswagen Golf commercial, with Gene Kelly seen break-dancing in the street. Also featured was Mint Royale's version of the song accompanying the commercial.
  • A parody of the number "Singin' in the Rain" was featured in the 2005 animated film Robots where Fender (Robin Williams) breaks out singing and dancing after dropping off a date. Instead of 'rain' he says 'oil' to fit the film's theme, and emulates Gene Kelly's iconic swing on the lamppost.
  • Two songs from the film were featured in "The Substitute", a season 2 episode of the musical comedy television series Glee.
  • In the 2012 film Silver Linings Playbook, Jennifer Lawrence's character is inspired by a clip of Donald O'Connor and Gene Kelly dancing to "Moses Supposes" from Singin' in the Rain.
  • The 2013 anime short Gisoku no Moses features a young female ghost dancing with a pair of haunted dance shoes to the tune of "Moses Supposes."[67]
  • In the 2015 romantic drama film Brooklyn, Tony Fiorello (Emory Cohen) takes Eilis Lacey (Saoirse Ronan) out on a date to see the film. In the next scene, he emulates Gene Kelly's iconic swing on the lamppost.
  • The scene in which Gene Kelly sings "You Were Meant for Me" is featured in the 2015 Nancy Meyers film The Intern.
  • Singin' in the Rain was an inspiration for the 2016 musical film La La Land, directed by Damien Chazelle.[68]
  • The song "Good Morning" was featured in the Legends of Tomorrow season 3 episode "Phone Home".[69]
  • The video to the BTS song "Boy with Luv" heavily references "Singin' in the Rain.[70][71]

See also

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ This scene pays homage to the original 1921 DeForest Phonofilm demonstration, featuring DeForest explaining the system.
  2. ^ This is a reference to a scene by John Gilbert in his first talkie, His Glorious Night.

Citations

  1. ^ a b Singin' in the Rain at the American Film Institute Catalog
  2. ^ a b "Singin' In The Rain (1952)".
  3. ^ Haley Jr., Jack: That's Entertainment!, Frank Sinatra segments. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1974
  4. ^ "The 50 Greatest Films of All Time | Sight & Sound". British Film Institute. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  5. ^ Betty Comden and Adolph Green (2002). The story Behind Singin' in the Rain: Now It Can be Told, reprint of the Singin' In the Rain screenplay introduction, originally published in 1972, included in the liner notes of the Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies.
  6. ^ Osborne, Robert. TCM commentary, "Singing in the Rain."
  7. ^ Hess & Dabholkarm (2009), p.145
  8. ^ Reynolds, Debbie & Columbia, David Patrick (1989). Debbie: My Life. Pocket Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0671687922.
  9. ^ Kermode, Mark (18 March 2007). "The 50 greatest film soundtracks: 11. Singin' In The Rain". The Observer. London. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  10. ^ Susman, Gary (March 29, 2012; updated December 6, 2017) "'Singin' in the Rain' 60th Anniversary: 25 Things You Didn't Know About Hollywood's Greatest Musical" Huffington Post
  11. ^ Julius Tannen, Chatterbox, "Speaking the Public Mind," PerformingArtsArchive.com
  12. ^ Singin' in the Rain–Talking picture (YouTube)
  13. ^ Feltenstein, George (2002). "Producer's Note," included in the liner notes of the "Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain" double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Track list in the liner notes of the "Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain" double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies.
  15. ^ CineBooks' Motion Picture Guide review of the film included on the Microsoft Cinemania 1997 CD
  16. ^ Comden & Green (1972), pp.1-4
  17. ^ Comden & Green (1972), pp.4-5
  18. ^ Comden & Green (1972), pp.5-8
  19. ^ Comden & Green (1972), pp.8-9
  20. ^ Comden & Green (1972), pp.9-10
  21. ^ Hess & Dabholkar (2009), p.124
  22. ^ Hess & Dabholkarm (2009), pp.23-24
  23. ^ Hess & Dabholkar (2009), p.70
  24. ^ a b Hess & Dabholkarm (2009), p.173
  25. ^ a b c New 50th Anniversary Documentary What a Glorious Feeling, hosted by Debbie Reynolds on the film's DVD.
  26. ^ Hess & Dabholkarm (2009), pp.180-181
  27. ^ Sanburn, Josh (December 2, 2010). "Top Ten Movie Dance Scenes: A Wet, Soft Shoe in Singin' in the Rain". Time.
  28. ^ "The Biography Channel". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  29. ^ a b "Singin' in the Rain (1952) – Hollywood's Greatest Musical!". Key Light Enterprises. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  30. ^ Bubbeo, Daniel (July 11, 2012). "Gene Kelly's widow Patricia chats about her late husband and 'Singin' in the Rain'". Newsday. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
  31. ^ The Basics: Was There Really Milk in Singin’ in the Rain? Archived 2014-08-19 at the Wayback Machine notes: "Gene Kelly himself described what happened in several interviews, including American Film (1979): 'Shooting the title number was just terrible for the photographer Hal Rossen [sic]. He had to backlight all the rain and then he had to put frontlight on the performer. That was as tough a job as I’ve ever seen, because you can’t photograph in rain and see it.'"
  32. ^ Reynolds, Debbie (2013). Unsinkable: A Memoir. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-06-221365-5.
  33. ^ Patrick Perry, "ON TOUR WITH DEBBIE REYNOLDS: Feisty and Fit Actress Speaks Out About An All-Too-Common Problem - Overactive Bladder", The Saturday Evening Post, January/February 2003.
  34. ^ Mankiewicz, Ben (2017) "Intro to Singin' in the Rain 65th Anniversary Theatrical Release" Accessed: January 15, 2017
  35. ^ The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
  36. ^ "Singin' in the Rain - Box Office Data". The Numbers. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  37. ^ 'Top Box-Office Hits of 1952', Variety, January 7, 1953
  38. ^ Crowther, Bosley (March 28, 1952). "' Singin' in the Rain,' Starring Gene Kelly, Ushers In Spring at the Music Hall". The New York Times: 27.
  39. ^ "Singin' in the Rain". March 12, 1952: 6.
  40. ^ "'Singin' in the Rain' with Gene Kelly, Donald O'Connor and Debbie Reynolds". Harrison's Reports: 42. March 15, 1952.
  41. ^ Coe, Richard L. (May 1, 1952). "Again Kelly Rings Those Chimes!". The Washington Post: 18.
  42. ^ a b Comden & Green (1972), p.10
  43. ^ Ebert, Roger (February 14, 1999). "Singin' in the Rain". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  44. ^ "Singin' In The Rain". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  45. ^ "Singin' in the Rain: Awards" IMDb.com
  46. ^ "wga awards". Wga.org. Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  47. ^ "Sight & Sound | Top Ten Poll 2002 - Critics' top ten films of all time". BFI. 2011-08-02. Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  48. ^ "Top 100 Movies Of All Time". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  49. ^ "Singin' in the Rain". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  50. ^ "Empire's 500 Best Movies of All Time". CinemaRealm. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  51. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  52. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  53. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  54. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  55. ^ a b c "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  56. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  57. ^ "AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  58. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  59. ^ "VHS back cover". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  60. ^ "Movie Love #14". Grand Comics Database.
  61. ^ Singin' in the Rain on the Internet Broadway Database
  62. ^ "On Stage: Kate Hepburn, Richard Rauh and old Nixon". Arts & Entertainment. PG Publishing Co., Inc. July 9, 2003. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  63. ^ "The Morecambe and Wise Show" BBC Two
  64. ^ "Great Movie Ride Singin' In the Rain" Studios Central
  65. ^ Fleming, Brenda "9 Facts and Secrets about the Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios" DisDining
  66. ^ "Spamalot: And now for something completely silly". Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  67. ^ ""Gisoku no Moses", a delightful anime short inspired by Gene Kelly". Nerdwatch!. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  68. ^ Harris, Aisha (December 13, 2016). "La La Land's Many References to Classic Movies: A Guide". Slate. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
  69. ^ "'Legends of Tomorrow' Recap With Spoilers: "Phone Home"". comicbook.com. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
  70. ^ union, rock jin (2019-04-12). "i made a compilation of all the singin in the rain references i saw in the boy with luv mv !! its such a cute homage to the film https://youtu.be/XsX3ATc3FbA pic.twitter.com/DGkm2sDNxZ". @780613. Retrieved 2019-05-06. External link in |title= (help)
  71. ^ Anderson, Sage. "The internet can't cope with BTS' new video for 'Boy With Luv'". Mashable. Retrieved 2019-05-06.

Bibliography

  • Comden, Betty & Green, Adolph (1972) "Introduction" Singin' in the Rain. New York: Viking. SBN 670-01946-1
  • Hess, Earl J. & Dabholkar, Pratibha A. (2009). Singin’ in the Rain: The Making of an American Masterpiece. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1656-5.

Further reading

External links

2001 Laurence Olivier Awards

The 2001 Laurence Olivier Awards were held in 2001 in London celebrating excellence in West End theatre by the Society of London Theatre.

25th Academy Awards

The 25th Academy Awards ceremony was held on March 19, 1953. It took place at the RKO Pantages Theatre in Hollywood, and the NBC International Theatre in New York City.

It was the first Academy Awards ceremony to be televised, and the first ceremony to be held in Hollywood and New York City simultaneously. It was also the only year that the New York ceremonies were to be held in the NBC International Theatre on Columbus Circle, which was shortly thereafter demolished and replaced by the New York Coliseum convention center.A major upset occurred when the heavily favored High Noon lost to Cecil B. DeMille's The Greatest Show on Earth, eventually considered among the worst films to have won the Academy Award for Best Picture. The American film magazine Premiere listed the film among the 10 worst Oscar winners and the British film magazine Empire rated it #3 on their list of the 10 worst Oscar winners. It has the lowest spot on Rotten Tomatoes' list of the 81 films to win Best Picture. Of all the films nominated for the Oscar this year, only High Noon, and Singin' in the Rain would show up 46 years later on the American Film Institute list of the greatest American films of the 20th Century. For a film that only received two nominations, Singin' in the Rain went on to be named as the greatest American musical film of all time and in the 2007 American Film Institute updated list as the fifth greatest American film of all time, while High Noon was ranked twenty-seventh on the same 2007 list, as well.

The Bad and the Beautiful won five awards, the most wins ever for a film not nominated for Best Picture. It was also the second Academy Awards in which a film not nominated for Best Picture received the most awards of the evening, excluding years where there were ties for the most wins. The only other film to do this was The Thief of Bagdad at the 13th Academy Awards; as of the 91st Academy Awards, it has not happened since.

Until Spotlight won only Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay at the 88th Academy Awards, this was the last year in which the Best Picture winner won just two Oscars. It was also the second of three years to date in which two films not nominated for Best Picture received more nominations than the winner (The Bad and the Beautiful and Hans Christian Andersen, both with six). This occurred again at the 79th Academy Awards.

Shirley Booth became the last person born in the 19th century to win an Oscar in a Leading Role. She is also the first woman in her 50s to win the award, at the age of 54 (the second woman in her 50s to win, Julianne Moore, was 54 when awarded at the 87th Academy Awards).

John Ford's fourth win for Best Director set a record for the most wins in this category that remains unmatched to this day.

For the first time since the introduction of Supporting Actor and Actress awards in 1936, Best Picture, Best Director, and all four acting Oscars went to six different films. This has happened only three times since, at the 29th Academy Awards for 1956, the 78th for 2005, and the 85th for 2012.

2nd Helpmann Awards

The 2nd Helpmann Awards ceremony was presented by the Australian Entertainment Industry Association (AEIA), currently known by its trade name, Live Performance Australia (LPA), for achievements in disciplines of Australia's live performance sectors. The ceremony took place on 6 May 2002 at the Star City Show Room in Sydney and was hosted by Simon Burke for the second year in a row. During the ceremony, the AEIA handed out awards in twelve categories for achievements in theatre, musicals, opera, ballet, dance and concerts.The ceremony received criticism for its rules and voting procedures, and was compared to the previous ceremony's "polished awards night".

Adrienne Fazan

Adrienne Fazan was an award-winning American film editor who first started cutting films in 1933. She worked on many MGM films, including The Tell-Tale Heart (1941), Anchors Aweigh (1945), Singin' in the Rain (1952), and Kismet (1955).

Be a Clown

"Be a Clown" is a song written by Cole Porter for the 1948 film The Pirate. The song was performed twice in the film: first by Gene Kelly and The Nicholas Brothers and then at the end of the film by Kelly and Judy Garland.

It was also sung in Mickey's Fun Songs: Let's Go To The Circus although some of the lyrics were changed.

The song was featured in an episode of Land of the Giants and also in the 2004 film De-Lovely.

The song "Make 'Em Laugh" (by Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed) in the film Singin' in the Rain appears to be very similar to "Be a Clown," although Cole Porter did not make a complaint. Both films were Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer productions and starred Kelly, who appeared in (but did not sing) the "Make 'Em Laugh" segment of the latter film in which the song was performed by Donald O'Connor.

Betty Comden

Betty Comden (born Basya Cohen, May 3, 1917 – November 23, 2006) was one-half of the musical-comedy duo Comden and Green, who provided lyrics, libretti, and screenplays to some of the most beloved and successful Hollywood musicals and Broadway shows of the mid-20th century. Her writing partnership with Adolph Green, called "the longest running creative partnership in theatre history", lasted for six decades, during which time they collaborated with other leading entertainment figures such as the famed "Freed Unit" at MGM, Jule Styne, and Leonard Bernstein, and wrote the musical comedy film Singin' in the Rain.

Donald O'Connor

Donald David Dixon Ronald O’Connor (August 28, 1925 – September 27, 2003) was an American dancer, singer, and actor who came to fame in a series of movies in which he co-starred alternately with Gloria Jean, Peggy Ryan, and Francis the Talking Mule.

He is best known today for his role as Don Lockwood's friend and colleague Cosmo Brown in Singin' in the Rain (1952).

Gene Kelly

Eugene Curran Kelly (August 23, 1912 – February 2, 1996) was an American dancer, actor of film, stage, and television, singer, film director, producer, and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his good looks, and the likable characters that he played on screen.

Best known today for his performances in films such as An American in Paris (1951), Anchors Aweigh (1945)— for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor—and Singin' in the Rain (1952), he starred in musical films until they fell out of fashion in the late 1950s. He starred in, choreographed, or co-directed some of the most well-regarded musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, debuting with Judy Garland in For Me and My Gal (1942), and followed by Du Barry Was a Lady (1943), Thousands Cheer (1943), The Pirate (1948), On the Town (1949), and It's Always Fair Weather (1955), among others. Later, he starred in two films outside the musical genre: Inherit the Wind (1960) and What a Way to Go! (1964). Kelly directed films without a collaborator (in some of which he starred), including Hello, Dolly! (1969), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.His many innovations transformed the Hollywood musical, and he is credited with almost single-handedly making the ballet form commercially acceptable to film audiences.Kelly received an Academy Honorary Award in 1952 for his career achievements, the same year An American in Paris won six Academy Awards, including Best Picture. He later received lifetime achievement awards in the Kennedy Center Honors (1982), and from the Screen Actors Guild and American Film Institute. In 1999, the American Film Institute also ranked him as the 15th greatest male screen legend of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

Make 'Em Laugh

"Make 'Em Laugh" is a song first featured in the 1952 film Singin' in the Rain, frenetically performed by Donald O'Connor. Written by Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed, the song is closely based on Cole Porter's "Be a Clown". It finished at #49 in AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema.

O'Connor's song-and-dance routine in Singin' in the Rain is noted for its extreme physical difficulty, featuring dozens of jumps, pratfalls, and two backflips. Hollywood legend states that O'Connor, though only 27 years old at the time and a chain-smoker, was bedridden for several days after filming the sequence. This high degree of difficulty has made the original routine a tour de force in physical comedy.

Millard Mitchell

Millard Mitchell (August 14, 1903 – October 13, 1953) was an American character actor whose credits include roughly 30 feature films and two television appearances.

Born in Havana, Cuba, he appeared as a bit player in eight films between 1931 and 1936. Mitchell returned to film work in 1942 after a six-year absence. Between 1942 and 1953, he was a successful supporting actor.

For his performance in the film My Six Convicts (1952), Mitchell won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. He is also known for his role as Col. Rufus Plummer in Billy Wilder's A Foreign Affair (1948), as Gregory Peck's commanding officer in the war drama Twelve O'Clock High (1949), and as the fictional movie mogul R.F. Simpson in the musical comedy Singin' in the Rain (1952).

Mitchell also appeared frequently on Broadway, often playing a fast-talking Broadway character. He played the starring role in The Great Campaign (1947).Mitchell died at the age of 50 from lung cancer at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica, California,

and was interred in Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City, California.

Robbie Collin

Robbie Collin is a British film critic.

Collin studied aesthetics and the philosophy of film at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. He edited the university's student newspaper, The Saint.

Collin has been the chief film critic at The Daily Telegraph since 2011. From 2007 to 2011 he wrote a weekly film column for the News of the World until the newspaper's closure. That year he was shortlisted for Critic of the Year at the British Press Awards, and was shortlisted again in 2017, when he was highly commended by the jury.He appeared on the Channel 4 Vue Film Show, presented by Edith Bowman, and contributed to the BBC Radio 2 Arts Show with Claudia Winkleman. In August 2013 he guest presented BBC Radio 4's Film programme. He regularly guest-presents Kermode and Mayo's Film Review, also with Edith Bowman, Sanjeev Bhaskar and Ben Bailey Smith.

In 2018 Collin compiled a list of the 100 greatest films of all time for the Telegraph, with Singin' in the Rain at the top.

Scarlett Strallen

Scarlett Strallen (born 3 July 1982) is an English stage actress, best known for her work in musical theatre productions in the West End and on Broadway. She has received two Olivier Award nominations, in 2006 for her portrayal of Josephine in HMS Pinafore, performed at Regent's Park Open Air Theatre and in 2012 for her role in Singin' in the Rain.

Singin' in the Rain (disambiguation)

Singin' in the Rain is a 1952 musical film. The title may also refer to:

"Singin' in the Rain" (song), a 1929 popular song, the title song of the film

Singin' in the Rain (musical), a 1983 stage adaptation of the film

Singin' in the Rain (musical)

Singin' in the Rain is a musical with a book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, lyrics by Arthur Freed, and music by Nacio Herb Brown.

Adapted from the 1952 movie of the same name, the plot closely adheres to the original. Set in Hollywood in the waning days of the silent screen era, it focuses on romantic lead Don Lockwood, his sidekick Cosmo Brown, aspiring actress Kathy Selden, and Lockwood's leading lady Lina Lamont, whose less-than-dulcet vocal tones make her an unlikely candidate for stardom in talking pictures.

Singin' in the Rain (song)

"Singin' in the Rain" is a song with lyrics by Arthur Freed and music by Nacio Herb Brown, published in 1929. It is unclear exactly when the song was written; it has been claimed that the song was performed as early as 1927.

The song is a centerpiece of the musical film of the same name, Singin' in the Rain (1952), which was "suggested by" the song, according to the film's title credits.

The song is listed as No. 3 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years...100 Songs.

Stanley Donen

Stanley Donen ( DON-ən; April 13, 1924 – February 21, 2019) was an American film director and choreographer whose most celebrated works are On the Town (1949) and Singin' in the Rain (1952), both of which starred Gene Kelly who co-directed. His other films include Royal Wedding (1951), Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954), Funny Face (1957), Indiscreet (1958), and Charade (1963). He began his career in the chorus line on Broadway for director George Abbott, where he befriended Kelly. From 1943, he was in Hollywood and worked as a choreographer before beginning to collaborate with Kelly. After On the Town, Donen worked as a contract director for MGM under producer Arthur Freed producing critically well-received box-office hits. Donen and Kelly co-directed the musical Singin' in the Rain, released in April 1952, which has appeared on lists of the best films ever made. Donen's relationship with Kelly deteriorated during their final collaboration, It's Always Fair Weather (1955). He then broke his contract with MGM to become an independent producer in 1957. He continued making films throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, often financial successes that gained positive attention. His film output became less frequent in the early 1980s and he briefly returned to the stage as a director in the 1990s and again in 2002.

Donen is credited with having transitioned Hollywood musical films from realistic backstage dramas to a more integrated art form in which the songs were a natural continuation of the story. Before Donen and Kelly made their films, musicals – such as the extravagant and stylized work of Busby Berkeley – were often set in a Broadway stage environment where the musical numbers were part of a stage show. Donen and Kelly's films created a more cinematic form and included dances that could only be achieved in the film medium. Donen stated that what he was doing was a "direct continuation from the Astaire – Rogers musicals ... which in turn came from René Clair and from Lubitsch ... What we did was not geared towards realism but towards the unreal."

Donen is highly respected by film historians; however his career is often compared to Kelly's, and there is debate over who deserves more credit for their collaborations. Donen and Kelly's relationship was complicated, both professionally and personally, but Donen's films as a solo director are generally better regarded by critics than Kelly's. French film critic Jean-Pierre Coursodon has said that Donen's contribution to the evolution of the Hollywood musical "outshines anybody else's, including Vincente Minnelli's". David Quinlan called him "the King of the Hollywood musicals". Among his awards are an Honorary Academy Award in 1998 and a Career Golden Lion from the Venice Film Festival in 2004. Donen married five times and had three children. Film director and comedian Elaine May was his partner from 1999 until his death in 2019. He was the last surviving notable director of Hollywood's Golden Age.

That Funny Feeling

That Funny Feeling is a 1965 American romantic comedy film directed by Richard Thorpe and starring Sandra Dee, Bobby Darin, and Donald O'Connor.

This was the third film pairing of Dee and then-husband Darin, following 1961's Come September and 1962's If a Man Answers. It was the second film that O'Connor and Kathleen Freeman (who played a lady in a telephone booth) made together, the first being Singin' in the Rain.

William J. Tuttle

William Julian Tuttle (April 13, 1912 – July 27, 2007) was an American make-up artist.

Born in Jacksonville, Florida, he was forced to leave school at a young age to support his mother and younger brother. After a series of odd-jobs and a brief stint in his own band, Tuttle moved to Los Angeles in 1930 and began taking art classes at the University of Southern California where he would meet his future collaborator Charles Schram. Around the same time, he began working as a page at Fox Studios. He went on to work under makeup artist Jack Dawn at Twentieth Century Pictures.

In 1934, Tuttle and Dawn moved to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Working as Dawn's assistant, Tuttle supervised the makeup work in such movies as The Wizard of Oz and Father of the Bride.

Tuttle created makeup for many of Hollywood’s biggest stars, among them Judy Garland (“Summer Stock”, 1950); Gene Kelly (“Singin’ in the Rain”, 1952); Katharine Hepburn (“Pat and Mike”, 1952) and Esther Williams (“Million Dollar Mermaid”, 1952). Eventually, he worked his way up to head of the studio's makeup department.

In the 1950s, he would be responsible for the makeup in Singin' in the Rain, Forbidden Planet, North by Northwest and The Time Machine. He reused pieces he first created for The Time Machine in "Eye of the Beholder", one of his many Twilight Zone contributions.

In 1965, Tuttle received a special Oscar for his work on George Pal's 7 Faces of Dr. Lao; this was 17 years before makeup became an official Oscar category. Later work included Logan's Run and Young Frankenstein. Tuttle is the subject of the 1968 MGM short The King of the Duplicators where he demonstrated some of his work. He also appeared as himself in the documentary film The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal (1985), produced and directed by Arnold Leibovit.

Later in life, Tuttle managed his company known as Custom Color Cosmetics.William Tuttle died, aged 95, from natural causes at his home in Pacific Palisades, California, survived by his wife, Anita and his daughter, Teresa.His remains were placed in Minneapolis, Minnesota's Lakewood Cemetery.

You Stepped Out of a Dream

"You Stepped Out of a Dream" is a popular song with music written by Nacio Herb Brown and lyrics by Gus Kahn that was published in 1940. The song has become a pop and jazz standard, with many recorded versions.

It was a centerpiece in the 1941 musical Ziegfeld Girl, in which it was sung by Tony Martin and accompanied an iconic image of Lana Turner walking down a grand staircase. Although Turner never officially sang or recorded the song, it became her theme song during her peak years as one of Hollywood's top leading ladies, often played when she entered a nightclub or restaurant. The song is played in the film The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971) during a murder scene.

The song was added to the Chichester/London 2012 Revival version of the musical Singin' in the Rain.

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