Sind River

The Sind River or the Sindh River is a river in the Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. It is a major tributary of the Jehlum River and is 108 kilometres long.

Sind River
Nallah Sindh
Sind River
Location
CountryIndia
StateJammu and Kashmir
RegionKashmir Valley
DistrictGanderbal
Physical characteristics
Source34°12′14.860″N 75°35′21.94″E / 34.20412778°N 75.5894278°ECoordinates: 34°12′14.860″N 75°35′21.94″E / 34.20412778°N 75.5894278°E
 ⁃ locationMachoi Glacier
 ⁃ elevation4,800 m (15,700 ft)
Mouth34°11′2.382″N 74°40′36.21″E / 34.18399500°N 74.6767250°E
 ⁃ location
Jehlum river at Shadipora
 ⁃ elevation
1,600 m (5,200 ft)
Length108 km (67 mi)
Discharge 
 ⁃ average290 m3/s (10,000 cu ft/s)

Geography

Sind River11
Sind River at Gatribal
Nallah sindh
Sind seen from Duderhama Bridge
Nallah Sindh Valley
Sind Valley

The Sind River forms the Sind Valley. The source of the river lies in Machoi Glacier at an elevation of 4800 metres, east of Amarnath temple south of Zojila pass.[1][2] It flows through Panjtarni (a camping site of Amarnath yatra) southwards up to Domail where it joins a tributary which doubles its flow from Kolhoi Glacier. It flows mostly westwards along with NH 1D and is fed by many glacial streams on its way to Ganderbal town. At Kichpora Preng it is fed by Wangath river which flows down from the Gangabal Lake. The major tributaries of the river are: Amarnath stream, Kolhoi Grar, Shitkadi Nallah, Gund Nallah, Surfraw Nallah and Wangath Nallah.

Surfraw Nallah is Big Nallah which joins The Sindh at Surfraw(Soraf raw).This Nallah is also known for Beauty and Fish.[3] It is navigable from Ganderbal town onwards as the waterflow slows down. It joins the Jehlum River at Shadipora.[4] 17 kilometres northwest from Srinagar city. The Sind River passes through a famous alpine hill station Sonamarg where river rafting[5] tournaments on the river are being organised yearly by the Tourism Department of Jammu and Kashmir.[6] It is the only river in Jammu and Kashmir on which three hydroelectric power plants are functional. The waters of the river are used for irrigation by way of different canals[7] and for domestic use after going through water treatment plants.

Fish

The Sind River is the natural habitat of trout, and other various types of fishes. The most famous among them are:[8] Brown trout,[9] (Salmo trutta) Rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss), Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus), Shuddgurn and Anyour.

Ecological issues

Sind River
Sind River at Benhama village

Trout and hence trout fishing are at risk along the Sind. This is for several reasons.

The extraction of sand/bajri by engagement of heavy machines is destroying the natural habitat of trout and other fish.[10] Wastes from dwellings and camps of security forces on the banks of the river, use of pesticides, DDT and insecticides by farmers kills many fish every day. The change in topography leads to destruction of aquatic fauna of Sind. In various riverine villages people catch fish through conventional way of angling and using nets. These methods are replaced today by resorting to unconventional and illegal methods. The worst method is using bleaching powder, procured from officials of PHE department. Bleaching powder not only kills fish but other aquatic life as well. This process is very common during summers, especially in Wayil[11] catchment area. The Fisheries Department and other government agencies do not have a high profile intervening. Mismanagement of water diversion to power canals is another concern for the survival of fish.[12]

Major projects on the Sind

Major bridges

  • Wayil Road Bridge of NH 1D. It is a steel structure bridge for one way vehicular traffic at a time.
  • Duderhama Road Bridge, connecting Ganderbal town.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lulu. Explore Kashmiri Pandits. Lulu.com. p. 37–. ISBN 9780963479860. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  2. ^ Kalhana (2001). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmi. Elibron.com, 2001. p. 12–. ISBN 9781402173486. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  3. ^ "Upper Sindht II, Water Resources Projects in Indus Basin". nih.ernet.in. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015.
  4. ^ "Shadipora". wikiedit.org.
  5. ^ "Sonamarg, two died in river rafting". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Sonamarg, Kashmir-Travel and tourist guide". sonamarg.org.
  7. ^ "Geography of Jammu and Kashmir State". ikashmir.net.
  8. ^ "Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network-Gain". growfish.com.au. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  9. ^ Petr, ed. by T. (1999). Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes : Asia. Rome: FAO. p. 72. ISBN 92-5-104309-4.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ "sand extraction, human waste destroy trout habitat". greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Wayil India page". fallingrain.com.
  12. ^ "Jammu Kashmir Holidays". jammukashmirholidays.com.
  13. ^ "Upper Sindh partially resumes generation". greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  14. ^ "Upper Sindh Project still not working". greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
  15. ^ "Rangil Water Treatment Plan to operate soon". kashmirnow.com. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
Amarnath Peak

Amarnath Peak is a mountain with a peak elevation of 5,186 metres (17,014 ft), in Ganderbal district of Kashmir, in the vicinity of Sonamarg. Amarnath Peak is part of the Himalayas, and is located south of Zojila and west of Machoi Glacier. It lies 117 km northeast from Srinagar, 13 km from Baltal in the southeast. It lies 6 km south of Zojila. The melt waters form a major tributary of the Sind River at Baltal.Amarnath mountain is considered as a sacred mountain, it has a cave at its south face at an elevation of 3,800 metres (12,470 ft) known as Amarnath cave. The cave is believed to be the ancient and among most sacred places for pilgrimage in Hinduism. It is the centre for Hindu pilgrims during summer.

Baltal, Jammu and Kashmir

Baltal is a camping ground for pilgrims, 15 km north of Sonamarg on the Sind River at the base of Zojila pass in Jammu and Kashmir (India). This little valley is only a day's journey away from and provides a shorter high-altitude alternate route to the sacred cave of Amarnath.

Dabra, Gwalior

Dabra is town and a municipality in Gwalior district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India located near NH-75 national highway.

Dabra (Hindi: डबरा) was also known as Padmapawaya in ancient times. Great poet Bhavabhuti had received his education at Dabra (ancient time Padmapawaya). Dabra has a sugar producing factory and is almost equidistant from New Delhi and Bhopal. It is connected to New Delhi, Mumbai, Bhopal, Agra, Mathura, Varanasi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Haridwar, Chhapra, Gaya, Pune, Nasik, Jammu, Amritsar, Nagpur, Raigarh, Amritsar, Nanded Sahib, Allahabad, Ferozpur, Chhindwara, Udaipur, Jaipur, Ajmer, Puri, Indore, Jabalpur, Sagar and Bhubaneshwar through rail network. Gwalior and Jhansi are the two big cities located 42 km and 58 km away from Dabra respectively. It is the biggest municipality in Madhya Pradesh as of now and naturally very beautiful. Sind river is just 5 km away from Dabra. Sonagir, a famous jain pilgrimage and Datia another famous tourist place are located 15 km and 30 km from Dabra respectively. Other famous sites are Bamrouli Hanuman Temple (5 km from Dabra towards Jhansi), Jaurasi Hanuman Temple (25 km from Dabra towards Gwalior), Dhumeshwar Mahadev Temple (30 km from Dabra towards Bhitarwar ), tomb of peer baba at Tekanpur and Shri Dev temple located at Pichhore just 10 km away from Dabra (one of the ancient 300-year-old temple located in the vicinity of Dabra). One of the nine jewels of Akbar Abdul Fazal (on the behest of Jahangir by Vir Singh Deo, the raja of Orchha) was killed and has a tomb near Aantri village (30 km from Dabra towards Gwalior). Van Khandeshwar Mahadev Temple (2 km from Dabra towards Gwalior), Kale Baba Temple, Gayatri Temple and Thakur Baba Temple are another famous temples in or nearby Dabra. Annual fair held at Thakur Baba temple is very famous locally. Natives of Dabra are known for their politeness, truthfulness and amiability. Dabra city is also known for cascading landscape; in addition to its massive production of 'Dhaan' (Rice grain with chaff). Unity in diversity is one of the unique character of this town. Discrimination based on religion, region, language, caste, gender and education is rarely found in Dabra. In any festival, natives of Dabra participate in such a harmonious way, it can even be showcased as an example of national integration.

Dras River

The Dras River, also spelt Drass River , is a river in the Kargil district of Ladakh region, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Ganderbal

Ganderbal is a town and a municipality committee in Ganderbal district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It has an average elevation of 1,619 metres (5,312 feet). It is bordered by district Srinagar in the south, Bandipore to the north, Kargil in the northeast, Anantnag to the south-east and Baramulla in the south-west.

Gangabal Lake

The Gangbal Lake also called Gangbal Lake, is a lake situated at the foothills of Mount Haramukh (the second highest mountain peak in the vicinity of Kashmir valley) in Ganderbal district, north of Srinagar city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake, home to many species of fish, including the brown trout.The lake has a maximum length of two and a half kilometers and maximum width of one kilometre. It is fed by precipitation, glaciers and springs. The lake water outflows to a nearby Nundkol Lake and then via Wangath Nallah to Sind River.

Jhelum River

The Jhelum River (Urdu: جہلم‎, Punjabi: ਜਿਹਲਮ/جہلم, Kashmiri: Vyeth (ویتھ/व्यथा)) is a river in northern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, and passes through the Kashmir Valley. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 725 kilometres (450 mi).

Kali Sindh River

The Kali Sindh, is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It belongs to the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh originates from Bagli (District Dewas) in Madhya Pradesh. It crosses the State Highway No 18 connecting Indore and state capital Bhopal near Sonkatch. The main tributaries of the Kali Sindh are Parwan, Niwaj and Ahu, Kuwari and Betwa Rivers.

Kolahoi Peak

Kolahoi Peak is a mountain with a peak elevation of 17,799 ft (5,425 metres), in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir, in the vicinity of Sonamarg. Kolahoi Peak is part of the Himalaya Range, and is located between 15 km south of Sonamarg and 21 km north from Aru, Pahalgam. To its north flows the Sind River and the glacier of its name Kolahoi Glacier is the source of Lidder River. in the vicinity of Kashmir valley.

Kolahoi Peak rises from the Kolahoi Glacier is a pyramid-shaped peak with ice falls and ice fields at its bottom. The rock formation of the peak is extraordinary stable with aretes and ridges.

Lar, Jammu and Kashmir

Lar is a town and a notified area committee in Ganderbal district of Central Kashmir , in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is a newly established tehsil carved out of Ganderbal Tehsil. It is situated 25 km from heart of the summer capital, Srinagar , on National Highway (NH 1D) between the foothills of the Himalayan mountains in the north and the picturesque Zabarwan Hills in the south. The Sind River, a major tributary to the Jehlum River flows through Lar. The famous Manasbal Lake lies a few kilometres away from the Town centre.

Machoi Glacier

The Machoi Glacier is a 9 kilometer long glacier in the north eastern Himalayan Range situated 8 kilometers east from Sonamarg on the right side of NH 1D at Zojila in the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India. It lies at an average elevation of 4800 meters.

The highest peak named after the glacier is the Machoi Peak that lies at the eastern end of the glacier, at an elevation of 5458 meters. The glacier is the source of the Sind River that flows westwards, and the Dras river that flows eastwards.Machoi, like many other Himalayan glaciers has been melting at alarming rates due to Global warming.

Machoi Peak

Machoi Peak is a mountain with a peak elevation of 17,907 ft (5,458 metres), in Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Machoi Peak is part of the Himalaya Range, and is located between Amarnath cave and Zojila. It lies 105 km north east from Srinagar, 25 km from Sonamarg in the east. It rises from the glacier of its name Machoi Glacier is the source of Sind River in the vicinity of Kashmir valley. Machoi Peak rises from the Machoi glacier is a pyramid-shaped peak with ice falls and ice fields at its bottom and ridges.

Naranag

Naranag (or Nara Nag) is a tourist village of Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is located around 8 km from Kangan, 6 km upstream from the Sind River. Noted for its scenic meadows, lakes and mountains, it is a base camp for trekking to the Mount Haramukh 16,870 ft (5,142 metres) and Gangabal Lake. The village lies at the left bank of the Wangath river, which is a tributary of the Sind River. Tourism hut at Naranag for any information and assistance tourism officials are available and hut is also provide for accommodation.

Nundkol Lake

The Nundkol Lake or Nund Kol also known as Kalodaka Lake is an oligotrophic alpine lake situated in the Kashmir Valley, in Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Satsar Lake

The Satsar Lake or Sat Sar (literal English translation: “the seven lakes”) consists of seven small alpine lakes situated in the Kashmir Valley, in Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Shivpuri district

Shivpuri District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state of India. The town of Shivpuri is the district headquarters.

Sind River Snake

The Sind River snake (Enhydris chanardi ) is a species of mildly venomous, rear-fanged, colubrid snake. It is endemic to Thailand (near or around Bangkok).

Sind Valley

The Sind Valley is a Himalayan sub-valley of the Kashmir Valley in the State of Jammu and Kashmir of India. The entrance of the Sind Valley lies 33 kilometres (21 mi) northeast of Srinagar the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 65 kilometres (40 mi) long gorge valley with an average width of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi).

Wayil, Jammu and Kashmir

Wayil is a tourist village in the Ganderbal District of Jammu & Kashmir, India. It is located on the bank of Sind River, around 8 km from Ganderbal, 30 km northeast from Srinagar, at NH 1D which connects Srinagar and Ladakh.

Passes
Valleys
Cities
Towns
Rivers
Glaciers
Lakes
Mountains
Hill stations
and
Mughal gardens
See also
Rivers
Lakes
Glaciers
Dams, Barrages
Hydrography of surrounding areas

Languages

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