Sinaloa

Sinaloa (Spanish pronunciation: [sinaˈloa] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and Durango to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit to the south. To the west, Sinaloa faces Baja California Sur across the Gulf of California.

The state covers an area of 58,328 square kilometers (22,521 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio.

In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include Mazatlán and Los Mochis.

Sinaloa
Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa
Flag of Sinaloa

Flag
Official seal of Sinaloa

Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Land of the 11 Rivers
Anthem: State of Sinaloa Anthem
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
Coordinates: 25°0′N 107°30′W / 25.000°N 107.500°WCoordinates: 25°0′N 107°30′W / 25.000°N 107.500°W
Country Mexico
Capital and Largest CityCuliacán Rosales
Municipalities18
AdmissionOctober 14, 1830[1]
Order20th
Seat123
Government
 • GovernorQuirino Ordaz Coppel PRI
 • Senators[2]Imelda Castro Castro Morena
Rubén Rocha Moya Morena
Mario Zamora Gastélum PRI
 • Deputies[3]
Area
 • Total58,328 km2 (22,521 sq mi)
 Ranked 17th
Highest elevation2,520 m (8,270 ft)
Population
(2015)[6]
 • Total2,966,321
 • Rank16th
 • Density51/km2 (130/sq mi)
 • Density rank18th
Demonym(s)Sinaloense
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
Postal code
80-82
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-SIN
HDIIncrease 0.804 very high Ranked 5th
GDPUS$ 13,749,376,250 [a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $175,992,016 thousand of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to $13,749,376.25 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

History

Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, much of Sinaloa was inhabited by the Cáhita peoples.

In 1531, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán with a force of over 10,000 men, defeated a force of 30,000 Cáhita warriors at the site of Culiacán. Beltrán de Guzmán established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán. Over the next decade, the Cahíta suffered severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish brought.

The Spanish organized Sinaloa as part of the gobierno of Nueva Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of Culiacán and Cosalá remained in control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the north, south and west were made part of the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya province, making the Culiacán area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastián, near Copala, but the capital moved to Durango in 1583.[9]

Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what is now Sinaloa de Leyva and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits' movement into the eastern part of Sinaloa led to the Acaxee going to war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the Sierra Madre Occidental region and executed 48 Acaxee leaders.[10]

After Mexican independence, Sinaloa was joined with Sonora as Estado de Occidente, but it became a separate, sovereign state in 1830.

Geography and environment

The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the length of the state and lies between the Gulf of California and the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, which dominates the eastern part of the state. Sinaloa is traversed by many rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa.

Sinaloa has a warm climate on the coast; moderately warm climate in the valleys and foothills; moderately cold in the lower mountains, and cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from subtropical, found on coastal plains, to cold in the nearby mountains. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C (109 °F) with rain and thunderstorms during the rainy season (June to October) and dry conditions throughout most of the year.

Numerous species of plants and animals are found within Sinaloa. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree, Bursera microphylla.[11]

Culture

Culturally, it is known for its popular styles of music banda and norteño.[12]

It is the only place in the continent where the ancient Mesoamerican ballgame is still played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far from Mazatlán. The ritual ballgame was central in the society, religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya.

Ulama 37 (Aguilar)
An ulama player in Sinaloa.

The Sinaloa version of the game is called ulama and is very similar to the original.[13] There are efforts to preserve this 3500-year-old unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who play it.[14]

Its rich cuisine[15] is well known for its variety[16] particularly in regard to mariscos (seafood) and vegetables.[17] Sushi is a popular dish here.[18]

Famous entertainers from Sinaloa include actor Pedro Infante and singer Ana Gabriel, born in Guamúchil; Lola Beltrán from Rosario, Cruz Lizárraga, the founder of Banda el Recodo, Jorge Orta, actress/comedian/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacan; Sabine Moussier and actress/singer Lorena Herrera, born in Mazatlan.

The Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS) has significantly influenced the culture of Sinaloa.[19] The cartel is reportedly the largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime syndicate in the Americas; it is based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa.[20]

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895[21] 261,050—    
1900 296,701+13.7%
1910 323,642+9.1%
1921 341,265+5.4%
1930 395,618+15.9%
1940 492,821+24.6%
1950 635,681+29.0%
1960 838,404+31.9%
1970 1,266,528+51.1%
1980 1,849,879+46.1%
1990 2,204,054+19.1%
1995 2,425,675+10.1%
2000 2,536,844+4.6%
2005 2,608,442+2.8%
2010 2,767,761+6.1%
2015[22] 2,966,321+7.2%

According to the 2015 census, Sinaloa is home to 2,966,700[7] inhabitants, 61% of whom reside in the capital city of Culiacán and the municipalities of Mazatlán and Ahome. It is a young state in terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years of age.

Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state practices the Catholic faith. Also, 1% of those over five years of age speak an indigenous language alongside Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic group still residing in the state is the Mayo or "Yoreme" (Cáhita language) people. Life expectancy in the state follows the national tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years respectively.

In ethnic composition, Sinaloa has received large historic waves of immigration from Europe (mainly Spain, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia) and Asia (mainly China, Japan and the Philippines). In recent years, retirees from the U.S. and Canada have arrived and made Sinaloa their home.

There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews in the first decades of the twentieth century.

Greeks (ancestry from Greece) form a notable presence in Sinaloa, where one can find local cuisine with kalamari and a few Greek Orthodox churches along the state's coast.

There is a sizable Arab Mexican community, mostly Lebanese and Syrian descent. It has one of the largest Arab populations in the country.

Overall Sinaloa has one of the highest European Mexican rates in the whole country, estimated at 38%, although the Mexican Census didn't have a racial category count since 1921.

Sinaloense moved to the United States in large numbers in the last 50 years (since 1970), a large community, for example, is in the twin towns of Indio, California and Coachella, California about 25 miles east of Palm Springs, California in the desert resort industry.

Education

In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.27 years; 4.2% of those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 3.18% of children under 14 years of age do not attend school. [23]

Institutions of higher education include Universidad Politécnica de Sinaloa, Universidad Politécnica del Mar y la Sierra, Universidad Politécnica del Valle del Evora, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Mazatlán and Universidad Casa Blanca.

Municipalities

Sinaloa is divided into 18 municipios (municipalities). See Municipalities of Sinaloa.

The state's major cities include the capital and largest city, Culiacán. Also Mazatlán, which is a world-famous tourist resort and destination. Los Mochis, an agricultural hub in the Northwestern region of Mexico.

Economy

The main economic activities of Sinaloa are agriculture, fishing, livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from these activities are used for both local and national consumption. Agriculture produces tomatoes, cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, sugarcane, peanuts and squash. Sinaloa is the most prominent state in Mexico in terms of agriculture and is known as "Mexico's breadbasket". Additionally, Sinaloa has the second largest fishing fleet in the country. Livestock produces meat, sausages, cheese, milk as well as sour cream.

Government and politics

The current governor of Sinaloa is Quirino Ordaz Coppel (PRI), elected for the period 2017–2022. The state is represented in Mexico City by three Senators in the upper house of Mexican Congress: Aaron Irizar Lopez (PRI), Daniel Amador Gaxiola (PRI) and Francisco Salvador Lopez Brito (PAN). It also has fourteen federal deputies in the lower house.

Notable and infamous natives or residents

Gallery

Parque Sinaloa 001

Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de Sonora y Sinaloa" (in Spanish).
  2. ^ "Senadores por Sinaloa LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  7. ^ a b "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. ^ Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245
  10. ^ John Schmal, "The History of Indigenous Sinaloa"
  11. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009
  12. ^ Lawrence Downes. "In Los Angeles, Songs Without Borders". New York Times.
  13. ^ "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  14. ^ Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. 2009
  15. ^ "Festivities and cuisine in Sinaloa".
  16. ^ "Sinaloa".
  17. ^ "Culinary Arts of Sinaloa".
  18. ^ "Oh No, There Goes Tokyo Roll—Sinaloa Style Sushi Invades Los Angeles".
  19. ^ "Sinaloa Cartel Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana". Borderland Beat. 23 February 2011.
  20. ^ "Mexico's Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  21. ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  22. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  23. ^ INEGI (2005). "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Sinaloa" (PDF): 27, 29, 33. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

References

External links

Adrián Gómez González

Adrián Gómez González was a Mexican drug trafficker and a Sinaloa Cartel drug lord.Gómez worked as a lieutenant for Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo during the 1970s and 1980s; when Félix Gallardo was arrested in 1989, his old organization, the Guadalajara Cartel, broke up into two factions: the Tijuana Cartel led by his nephews, the Arellano Félix brothers, and the Sinaloa Cartel, run by former lieutenants Héctor Luis Palma Salazar, Adrián Gómez González, Ismael Zambada García and Joaquín Guzmán Loera (El Chapo). By then, the four Sinaloa Cartel drug lords controlled the Mexican states of Sinaloa, Durango, Chihuahua, Sonora, Nuevo León, and Michoacán.

Carlos Beltrán Leyva

Carlos Beltrán Leyva (born 1969) is an incarcerated Mexican drug lord with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. The cartel was created by the four Beltrán Leyva brothers: Carlos, Héctor, Alfredo and Arturo. Born in the Sinaloan countryside in the late 1960s, Carlos and his brothers worked closely with Joaquín "Chapo" Guzmán, the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, during decades of smuggling.The organization, run mainly by Arturo and Héctor, formed as a splinter group of the powerful Sinaloa Cartel, which was led by Joaquín Guzmán Loera. After Alfredo was arrested, the Beltrán-Leyva brothers blamed Guzmán Loera and retaliated by forming the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, and killing one of the Sinaloa cartel chief's sons in a grenade attack on a Culiacán shopping center. This sparked a war between the Sinaloa Cartel and the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, which allied itself with the Gulf Cartel.

Culiacán

Culiacán (Spanish pronunciation: [kuljaˈkan] (listen)) is a city in northwestern Mexico. It is the largest city in and the capital of the state of Sinaloa. It is also the seat of Culiacán Municipality. It had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably smaller, measuring only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

The city is located in a valley at the confluence of the Tamazula and Humaya Rivers, where the two meet to form the Culiacán River, 55 m above sea level. It is in the center of the state, at about the same distance to the two other urban centers of the state: Los Mochis to the north and Mazatlán to the south.

Dorados de Sinaloa

Dorados de Sinaloa, or Dorados, is a Mexican professional football club based in Culiacán. The club plays its home games in Culiacán, Mexico. Dorados was the youngest franchise to play in the Primera División de México, having joined the division for the first time for the Apertura 2004 tournament, when the club was only one year old. Dorados currently plays in Ascenso MX, the second tier of the Mexican league. The goalkeeper's colours are a red shirt and white shorts primarily, and the secondary attire is all white.

Gente Nueva

Gente Nueva (English: New People), also known as Los Chapos, in reference to their drug lord Joaquín Guzmán Loera, was a group of hitmen that works as the armed wing of the Sinaloa Cartel, created to counter the Juárez Cartel influence in the Mexican north-west.

Since its foundation in 2007, Gente Nueva has served as the main branch of the organization in Ciudad Juárez and in the rest of the state, where they have engaged in a four-year war with the Juárez Cartel and its enforcer wing, La Línea, for the control of the smuggling routes to the United States. Amid the internal struggles and infightings in the Juárez cartel, Gente Nueva began to recruit the cartel's members.By 2012, U.S. intelligence indicated that the Sinaloa cartel and Gente Nueva have emerged victorious and successfully relegated the Juárez cartel to the sidelines. The El Paso–Juárez corridor is a lucrative route for drug traffickers because the DEA estimates that about 70% of the cocaine that enters the United States flows through that area.

Héctor Luis Palma Salazar

Héctor Luis Palma Salazar (a.k.a.: "El Güero Palma") is a former Mexican drug trafficker and leader of the Sinaloa Cartel alongside Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán. Palma was arrested on June 23, 1995 and extradited to the United States, where he served a jail sentence until June 2016. He was then deported back to Mexico in June 2016, where he was charged with a double murder in 1995, in Nayarit.

Ignacio Coronel Villarreal

Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel Villarreal (1 February 1954 – 29 July 2010) was a Mexican suspected drug lord and one of the founders of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. He worked alongside Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, Mexico's most-wanted drug lord. His stronghold was Jalisco.

Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada

Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada García (born 1 January 1948), is a Mexican suspected drug lord and leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. Before assuming leadership of the entire cartel, he served as the logistical coordinator for the Zambada-García faction of the Sinaloa Cartel which has assisted in the exporting of cocaine and heroin into Chicago and other US cities by train, ship, jet, and narco-submarines.

Jalisco New Generation Cartel

The Jalisco New Generation Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Jalisco Nueva Generación, CJNG, Los Mata Zetas and Los Torcidos) is a Mexican criminal group based in Jalisco and headed by Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes ("El Mencho"), one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords. The CJNG are currently fighting La Nueva Plaza for control of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Los Viagras for the state of Michoacán, Los Zetas for the city of Puebla, the Sinaloa cartel in Tijuana and Baja California, and the Cartel de Juarez in Ciudad Juarez. The CJNG also operates in the states of Nayarit, Colima, and Guanajuato. While this cartel is best known for its fights against the Zetas, it has also been battling La Resistencia for control of Jalisco and its surrounding territories.Jalisco New Generation Cartel started as one of splits of Milenio Cartel the other being La Resistencia. La Resistencia accused CJNG of giving up Oscar Valencia (El Lobo) to the authorities and called them Los Torcidos (The Twisted Ones). Jalisco Cartel defeated La Resistencia and took control of Millenio Cartel's smuggling networks.

Jalisco New Generation Cartel expanded its operation network from coast to coast in only six months, making it one of the criminal groups with the greatest operating capacity in Mexico as of 2012. The Sinaloa Cartel, led by Joaquín Guzmán Loera (a.k.a. El Chapo), has used the Jalisco New Generation Cartel as its armed wing to fight off Los Zetas in Guzmán's turf and to carry out incursions to other territories like Nuevo Laredo and Veracruz in the past.Through online videos, the Jalisco New Generation Cartel has tried to seek society's approval and tacit consent from the Mexican government to confront Los Zetas by posing as a "righteous" and "nationalistic" group. Such claims have stoked fears that Mexico, just like Colombia a generation before, may be witnessing the rise of paramilitary drug gangs.By 2018 the CJNG became the most powerful cartel in Mexico.

Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán

Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera (; Spanish: [xoaˈkin aɾtʃiˈβaldo ɣuzˈman loˈeɾa]; born 4 April 1957) is a Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, an international crime syndicate. Known as "El Chapo" ("Shorty", pronounced [el ˈtʃapo]) because of his 168 cm (5 ft 6 in) stature, Guzmán is considered to have been the most powerful drug trafficker in the world.Born in Sinaloa, Guzmán was raised in a poor farming family, and endured physical abuse at the hands of his father. Through his father, Guzmán entered the drug trade, helping him grow marijuana for local dealers during his early adulthood. By the late 1970s, Guzmán began working with Héctor Luis Palma Salazar, one of the nation's rising drug lords, whom he helped map routes to move drugs through Sinaloa, and into the United States. Guzmán later supervised logistics for Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, one of the nation's leading kingpins, in the mid 1980s, but founded his own cartel in 1988 after Gallardo's arrest.

As the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, Guzmán oversaw operations whereby mass cocaine, methamphetamines, marijuana, and heroin was produced and subsequently smuggled into and distributed throughout the United States and Europe, the world's largest users. He achieved this by pioneering the use of distribution cells in the U.S. and long-range tunnels near borders, which enabled him to export more drugs to the United States than any other trafficker in history. His leadership of the cartel also brought immense wealth and power; Guzmán was ranked by Forbes as one of the most powerful people in the world between 2009 and 2013, while the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) estimated that he matched the influence and wealth of Pablo Escobar.Guzmán was first captured in 1993 in Guatemala and was extradited and sentenced to 20 years in prison in Mexico for murder and drug trafficking. He bribed prison guards and escaped from a federal maximum-security prison in 2001. His status as a fugitive resulted in an $8.8 million combined reward from Mexico and the U.S. for information leading to his capture, and he was later arrested in Mexico in 2014. He escaped prior to formal sentencing in 2015, through a 1.5 km (0.93 mi) tunnel under his jail cell. He was recaptured by Mexican authorities following a shoot-out in 2016, and was extradited to the United States a year later, where he was found guilty of a number of criminal charges related to his leadership of the Sinaloa Cartel. He is expected to be sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole in a sentencing hearing scheduled for 25 June 2019.

Los Mochis

Los Mochis (Spanish pronunciation: [los ˈmotʃis]) is a coastal city in northern Sinaloa, Mexico. It serves as the municipal seat of the municipality of Ahome. As of the 2010 census, the population was 362,613, which was 61 percent of the municipality's population.

Los Mochis is the western terminus of the Chihuahua-Pacific Railroad (El Chepe), which passes through the scenic Copper Canyon. This railway was originally conceived by Albert K. Owen and approved by President Porfirio Díaz as a trade route linking the cattle markets in Kansas City with the nearest port on the Pacific Ocean, Topolobampo.

Today the North Pacific irrigation region (Sinaloa-Sonora) in which the Fort Valley is the largest district and is the principal agricultural area of Sinaloa, containing over 70% of all irrigated land and producing sugar cane, cotton, rice, flowers, and many types of vegetables. The valley is one of the largest producers of mangoes in Mexico. Air transportation is provided by Los Mochis International Airport. Nearby Topolobampo is the second largest natural deepwater port in the world, and is known for its commercial fishing and increasingly important role in shipping.

Los Ántrax

Los Ántrax is an enforcer gang of Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. The group was led by the drug lords Jesús Peña (alias "El 20"), José Rodrigo Aréchiga Gamboa (alias "El Chino Ántrax"), René Velázquez Valenzuela (alias "El Sargento Phoenix"), among others, and they are responsible for a number of homicides and for providing armed security services to Ismael El Mayo Zambada. The gang operates in the capital city of Culiacán, Sinaloa, where its members conduct homicides and violent attacks.

Mazatlán

Mazatlán (Spanish pronunciation: [masaˈtɬan] (listen)) is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The city serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipio, known as the Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at 23°13′N 106°25′W on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California Peninsula.

Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning "place of deer." The city was founded in 1531 by an army of Spaniards and indigenous settlers. By the mid-19th century, a large group of immigrants arrived from Germany. Together, with the hard work of the Natives, they were able to develop Mazatlán into a thriving commercial seaport, importing equipment for the nearby gold and silver mines. It served as the capital of Sinaloa from 1859 to 1873. The German settlers also influenced the local music, banda, with some genres being an alteration of Bavarian folk music. The settlers also established the Pacifico Brewery on March 14, 1900.

With a population of 438,434 (city) and 489,987 (municipality) as of the 2010 census, Mazatlán is the second-largest city in the state. It is also a popular tourist destination, with its beaches lined with resort hotels. A car ferry crosses the Gulf of California, from Mazatlán to La Paz, Baja California Sur. The municipality has a land area of 3,068.48 km² (1,184.75 sq mi) and includes smaller outlying communities such as Villa Unión, La Noria, El Quelite, and El Habal. Mazatlán is served by General Rafael Buelna International Airport.

Mazatlán is also known for being the hometown and center of Banda sinaloense, a musical genre which began to develop in the XIX century and is now one of the most popular music genres in Mexico.

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo (born January 8, 1946), commonly referred to by his alias El Padrino ("The Godfather"), is a convicted Mexican drug lord who formed the Guadalajara Cartel in the 1980s, and controlled almost all of the drug trafficking in Mexico and the corridors along the Mexico–United States border.

Félix Gallardo was arrested for the murder of Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agent Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, who was tortured to death on one of Félix Gallardo's ranches. Félix Gallardo was serving his 37-year sentence at the Altiplano maximum-security prison but was transferred to a medium-security facility in 2014, due to his declining health.

Operation Black Swan

Operation Black Swan was a joint Mexican–American military operation that resulted in the recapture of the Sinaloa Cartel leader, Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, following a deadly firefight in the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, on January 8, 2016. Officials in the Mexican government announced that the operation was planned and executed by the FES, and that they had originally targeted an important Sinaloa Cartel assassin at a home in Los Mochis, and happened to find Guzmán as well. U.S. government officials announced that members of the United States Army's Delta Force and the United States Marshals Service assisted the Mexican Marines in the January 8 mission, and will pursue the extradition of Guzmán to the United States.Guzmán had been on the run since his escape from a federal prison in Almoloya de Juárez, Mexico, on July 11, 2015. On January 8, 2016, Mexican naval forces moved into position to raid a house in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, believed to be occupied by one of Guzmán's "top assassins" or "sicarios". As they entered the building, an "intense" gun battle erupted between the marines and several armed assailants, leaving five of the cartel gunmen dead and six wounded. One marine was also wounded. During the chaos of the firefight, the marines discovered Guzmán, who fled the house through a series of tunnels and then attempted to escape in a stolen vehicle. Shortly thereafter he was spotted by federal agents and apprehended outside a motel a short distance away from the house.The Mexican Marine reported that they found an arms cache at the house consisting of eight assault rifles, two M16 rifles with grenade launchers, two Barrett M82 sniper rifles, and a loaded rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Two armored cars were also seized.

Operation Sinaloa

Operation Sinaloa or Operation Culiacan - Navolato (Spanish: Operacion Sinaloa/Operacion Conjunto Sinaloa) is an ongoing Anti-drug trafficking operation in the Mexican state of Sinaloa by the Federal Police and the Mexican Armed Forces. Its main objective is to cripple all cartel organizations such as the Sinaloa Cartel, Beltrán-Leyva Cartel and Los Zetas that operate in that state. The Military was deployed in response to the murder of Mexico's Federal Police commissioner Édgar Eusebio Millán Gómez.

Pedro Avilés Pérez

Pedro Avilés Pérez, also known as "El León de la Sierra" (English: "The Mountain Lion"), was a Mexican drug lord in the state of Sinaloa in the late 1960s. He is considered to be the first generation of major Mexican drug smugglers of marijuana. He was also the first known drug lord to use an aircraft to smuggle drugs to the United States.Second-generation Sinaloan traffickers such as Rafael Caro Quintero and Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo would claim they learned all they knew about drug trafficking while serving in the Avilés organization. Killed in a shootout with the Federal Police in September 1978, it is believed Avilés was set up by Fonseca Carrillo, the cartel's treasurer. Caro Quintero, Aviles' foreman in Chihuahua, began acquiring marijuana and poppy plantations. Corruption of state officials was brokered by Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, an emerging capo who had spent time in Sinaloa working as a Sinaloan State Police trooper and serving as bodyguard to Leopoldo Sánchez Celis, governor of Sinaloa.

Sinaloa Cartel

The Sinaloa Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Sinaloa), also known as the Guzmán-Loera Organization, the Pacific Cartel, the Federation and the Blood Alliance, is an international drug trafficking, money laundering, and organized crime syndicate established during the late 1980s. The cartel is primarily based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa, with operations in the Mexican states of Baja California, Durango, Sonora, and Chihuahua. The 'Federation' was partially splintered when the Beltrán-Leyva brothers broke apart from the Sinaloa Cartel.The United States Intelligence Community considers the Sinaloa Cartel "the most powerful drug trafficking organization in the world" and in 2011, the Los Angeles Times called it "Mexico's most powerful organized crime group." The Sinaloa Cartel operates in the "Golden Triangle", the states of Sinaloa, Durango, and Chihuahua. The region is a major producer of Mexican opium and marijuana. According to the U.S. Attorney General, the Sinaloa Cartel was responsible for importing into the United States and distributing nearly 200 tons of cocaine and large amounts of heroin between 1990 and 2008. According to the National Drug Intelligence Center, within the U.S. the Sinaloa Cartel is primarily involved in the distribution of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana and MDMA. It is also the majority supplier of illicit fentanyl to North America.As of 2017, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling illicit drugs into the United States and trafficking them throughout the United States. After the arrest of Joaquín 'El Chapo' Guzmán, the cartel is now headed by Ismael Zambada Garcia (aka El Mayo) and Guzman's sons, Alfredo Guzman Salazar and Ivan Archivaldo Salazar.

Tijuana Cartel

The Tijuana Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Tijuana) or Arellano-Félix Organization (Spanish: Cártel Arellano Félix, CAF) is a Mexican drug cartel based in Tijuana. The cartel once was described as "one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico." However, since the 2006 Sinaloa Cartel incursion in Baja California and the fall of the Arellano-Félix brothers, the Tijuana Cartel has been reduced to a few cells. In 2016, the organization has become known as Cartel Tijuana Nueva Generación (New Generation Tijuana Cartel) and has begun to align itself under the Jalisco New Generation Cartel, along with Beltrán Leyva Organization (BLO) to create an anti-Sinaloa alliance, in which the Jalisco New Generation Cartel heads, creating a possible powershift in Mexico.

Places adjacent to Sinaloa
Sinaloa State of Sinaloa
Municipalities
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(municipal seats)

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