Simple Features

Simple Features (officially Simple Feature Access) is both an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard ISO 19125 that specifies a common storage and access model of mostly two-dimensional geometries (point, line, polygon, multi-point, multi-line, etc.) used by geographic information systems.

The ISO 19125 standard comes in two parts. Part one, ISO 19125-1 (SFA-CA for "common architecture"), defines a model for two-dimensional simple features, with linear interpolation between vertices. The data model defined in SFA-CA is a hierarchy of classes. This part also defines representation using Well-Known Text (and Binary). Part 2 of the standard, ISO 19125-2 (SFA-SQL), defines an implementation using SQL.[1] The OpenGIS standard(s) cover implementations in CORBA and OLE/COM as well, although these have lagged behind the SQL one and are not standardized by ISO.

The ISO/IEC 13249-3 SQL/MM Spatial extends the Simple Features data model mainly with circular interpolations (e.g. circular arcs) and adds other features like coordinate transformations and methods for validating geometries as well as Geography Markup Language support.[1]

Standard documents

Part 1 details

The geometries are also associated with spatial reference systems. The standard also specifies attributes, methods and assertions with the geometries. In general, a 2D geometry is simple if it contains no self-intersection. The specification defines DE-9IM spatial predicates and several spatial operators that can be used to generate new geometries from existing geometries.

Implementations

Part 2 of Simple Feature Access is implemented to varying degrees in:

  • The sf[2] package implements for Simple Features for R and contains functions that bind to GDAL for reading and writing data, to GEOS for geometrical operations, and to Proj.4 for projection conversions and datum transformations.
  • MySQL Spatial Extensions.[3] Up to MySQL 5.5, all of the functions that calculate relations between geometries are implemented using bounding boxes not the actual geometries.[4] Starting from version 5.6, MySQL offers support for precise object shapes.[5]
  • MonetDB/GIS extension for MonetDB.[6]
  • PostGIS extension for PostgreSQL, also supporting some of the SQL/MM Spatial features.[7]
  • SpatiaLite extension for SQLite[8]
  • Oracle Spatial, which also implements some of the advanced features from SQL/MM Spatial.[9]
  • IBM DB2 Spatial Extender and IBM Informix Spatial DataBlade.[7]
  • Microsoft SQL Server since version 2008,[7] with significant additions in the 2012 version.[10]
  • SAP Sybase IQ.[11]
  • SAP HANA as of 1.0 SPS6.[12]

The GDAL library implements the Simple Features data model in its OGR component.[13] The Java-based deegree framework implements SFA (part 1) and various other OGC standards.[14]

GeoSPARQL is an OGC standard that is intended to allow geospatially-linked data representation and querying based on RDF and SPARQL by defining an ontology for geospatial reasoning supporting a small Simple Features (as well as DE-9IM and RCC8) RDFS/OWL vocabulary for GML and WKT literals.[15]

Alternatives

As of 2012, various NoSQL databases had very limited support for "anything more complex than a bounding box or proximity search".[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wolfgang Kresse; David M. Danko (2011). Springer Handbook of Geographic Information. Springer. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-3-540-72678-4.
  2. ^ Pebesma, Edzer; Bivand, Roger; Cook, Ian; Keitt, Tim; Sumner, Michael; Lovelace, Robin; Wickham, Hadley; Ooms, Jeroen; Racine, Etienne (22 March 2018). "sf: Simple Features for R". Retrieved 2 April 2018 – via R-Packages.
  3. ^ "MySQL 5.1 documentation on Spatial extensions". mysql.com. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b Frank Hardisty (Fall 2012). "Penn State Geography 583: Geospatial System Analysis and Design. Databases".
  5. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual :: 12.15.9 Functions That Test Spatial Relations Between Geometry Objects". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  6. ^ "GeoSpatial - MonetDB". 4 March 2014.
  7. ^ a b c Wolfgang Kresse; David M. Danko (2011). Springer Handbook of Geographic Information. Springer. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-3-540-72678-4.
  8. ^ "SpatiaLite: SpatiaLite". www.gaia-gis.it. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  9. ^ Ravikanth V. Kothuri; Euro Beinat; Albert Godfrind (2004). Pro Oracle Spatial. Apress. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-59059-383-7.
  10. ^ Alastair Aitchison (2012). Pro Spatial with SQL Server 2012. Apress. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-1-4302-3491-3.
  11. ^ http://infocenter.sybase.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.sybase.infocenter.dc01964.1602/doc/html/saiq-standards-compatibility-spatial.html SAP Sybase IQ support for spatial data
  12. ^ http://help.sap.com/saphelp_hanaplatform/helpdata/en/7a/2f4266787c1014a9b6ab6cf937f8ac/content.htm?frameset=/en/7a/2d11d7787c1014ac3a8663250814c2/frameset.htm&current_toc=/en/99/d10e4fdaaf41588480a43478e840d5/plain.htm&node_id=12 SAP HANA Spatial Reference: Supported Import and Export Formats for Spatial Data
  13. ^ "Redirection". www.gdal.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  14. ^ Shashi Shekhar; Hui Xiong (2007). Encyclopedia of GIS. Springer. pp. 235–236. ISBN 978-0-387-30858-6.
  15. ^ Battle, Robert; Kolas, Dave (2012). "Enabling the Geospatial Semantic Web with Parliament and GeoSPARQL" (PDF). Semantic Web. IOS Press. 3 (4): 355–370. doi:10.3233/SW-2012-0065. Retrieved 21 November 2012.

External links

Adobe Soundbooth

Soundbooth is a discontinued digital audio editor by Adobe Systems Incorporated for Windows XP, Windows Vista, 7 and Mac OS X. Adobe has described it as being "in the spirit of SoundEdit 16 and Cool Edit 2000". Adobe also has a more powerful program called Adobe Audition, which replaced Soundbooth as of Adobe Creative Suite 5.5 Production Premium. Soundbooth, discontinued in 2011, was aimed at creative professionals who do not specialize in audio or people who need a simple editing program and do not require the full features of Adobe Audition. Due to Intel-specific code, Adobe stated that the Mac OS X version would only be available for machines using Intel processors. Soundbooth CS4 was the first version to support 64-bit officially.

Anopla

Anopla are a class of marine worms of the phylum Nemertea, characterized by the absence of stylets on the proboscis, the mouth being below or behind the brain, and by having separate openings for the mouth and proboscis. The other class of Nemertea are the Enopla. Although Anopla is a paraphyletic grouping, it is used in almost all Scientific classifications. Anopla is divided into two orders: Palaeonemertea and Heteronemertea.

Palaeonemertea may be para- or polyphyletic, consisting of 3-5 groupings and totalling about 100 species. These worms have several apparently simple features and, as their name suggests, they are often considered to be the most primitive nemerteans. The primary body-wall musculature consists of an outer circular stratum overlying a longitudinal stratum. The group includes genera such as Cephalothrix in which the nerve cords are inside the body-wall longitudinal muscle, and Tubulanus, in which the nerve cords are between the outer circular muscle and the epidermis. Tubulanids are commonly encountered in rocky areas of intertidal zones in the northern hemisphere. They are often bright orange or have very distinctive banding and or stripes and can be many meters long, although only a few mm thick.

Heteronemertea is a monophyletic grouping of about 500 species, containing genera such as Lineus and Cerebratulus and including the largest and most muscular nemerteans. Almost all heteronemerteans have three primary body-wall muscle strata, an outer longitudinal, middle circular, and inner longitudinal. The lateral nerve cords are outside the circular muscle, as in palaeonemerteans, but separated from the epidermis by the usually well-developed outer longitudinal muscle.

A third subclass of Anopla called the Archinemertea was determined to be paraphyletic and is no longer used by most authors. A trace fossil genus called Archisymplectes from the Pennsylvanian found in central Illinois was formerly placed in this subclass, but is now considered a Palaeonemertea, if indeed it is an Anopla.

Cadcorp

Computer Aided Development Corporation Ltd. (Cadcorp) is a British owned and run company established in 1991. Cadcorp has its headquarters in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, U.K.. Cadcorp has a network of distributors and value added resellers (VARs) around the world.Cadcorp is an ISO 9001:2000 and ISO/IEC 27001:2005 certified company, a Microsoft SQL Server Spatial Partner, an Ordnance Survey Licensed Developer Partner, and a corporate member of the Association for Geographic Information (AGI) in the U.K..

Can It Be All So Simple

"Can It Be All So Simple" is the fourth and final single on Wu-Tang Clan's critically acclaimed debut album Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers). It features production from RZA (credited as Prince Rakeem) that samples Gladys Knight & the Pips' cover of "The Way We Were". The song reached number nine on the Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales chart, number twenty four on the Hot Rap Tracks chart and number eighty two on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart.

"Can It Be All So Simple" features rapping from Ghostface Killah and Raekwon. Its lyrics deal with a glorified mafioso lifestyle. In the song, Raekwon and Ghostface discuss the hardships of growing up in New York City during the 1980s, and how they want to live a lavish and famous lifestyle to escape the hardships of life. The music video was directed by Hype Williams, with images similar to the song's content and a cameo by MC Eiht.

A remix, with new lyrics can be found on Raekwon's debut album Only Built 4 Cuban Linx.... Lauryn Hill's "Ex-Factor" uses the break beat from "Can It Be All So Simple".

GDAL

The Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) is a computer software library for reading and writing raster and vector geospatial data formats, and is released under the permissive X/MIT style free software license by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. As a library, it presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported formats. It may also be built with a variety of useful command line interface utilities for data translation and processing. Projections and transformations are supported by the PROJ.4 library.

The related OGR library (OGR Simple Features Library), which is part of the GDAL source tree, provides a similar ability for simple features vector graphics data.

GDAL was developed mainly by Frank Warmerdam until the release of version 1.3.2, when maintenance was officially transferred to the GDAL/OGR Project Management Committee under the Open Source Geospatial Foundation.

GDAL/OGR is considered a major free software project for its "extensive capabilities of data exchange" and also in the commercial GIS community due to its widespread use and comprehensive set of functionalities.

GeoSPARQL

GeoSPARQL is a standard for representation and querying of geospatial linked data for the Semantic Web from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The definition of a small ontology based on well-understood OGC standards is intended to provide a standardized exchange basis for geospatial RDF data which can support both qualitative and quantitative spatial reasoning and querying with the SPARQL database query language.The Ordnance Survey Linked Data Platform uses OWL mappings for GeoSPARQL equivalent properties in its vocabulary. The LinkedGeoData data set is a work of the Agile Knowledge Engineering and Semantic Web (AKSW) research group at the University of Leipzig, a group mostly known for DBpedia, that uses the GeoSPARQL vocabulary to represent OpenStreetMap data.

In particular, GeoSPARQL provides for:

a small topological ontology in RDFS/OWL for representation using

Geography Markup Language (GML) and well-known text representation of geometry (WKT) literals, and

Simple Features, RCC8, and DE-9IM (a.k.a. Clementini, Egenhofer) topological relationship vocabularies and ontologies for qualitative reasoning, and

a SPARQL query interface using

a set of topological SPARQL extension functions for quantitative reasoning, and

a set of Rule Interchange Format (RIF) Core inference rules for query transformation and interpretation.

Geography Markup Language

The Geography Markup Language (GML) is the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to express geographical features. GML serves as a modeling language for geographic systems as well as an open interchange format for geographic transactions on the Internet. Key to GML's utility is its ability to integrate all forms of geographic information, including not only conventional "vector" or discrete objects, but coverages (see also GMLJP2) and sensor data.

Goldeneye (estate)

Goldeneye is the original name of James Bond novelist Ian Fleming's estate on Oracabessa bay on the northern coastline of Jamaica. He purchased a patch of land of 15 acres (61,000 m2) adjacent to the renowned Golden Clouds estate in 1946 and built his home on the edge of a cliff overlooking a private beach.

Constructed from Fleming's sketch, the three-bedroom structure was fitted with wooden jalousie windows and a swimming pool. Fleming's visitors at Goldeneye included actors, musicians and filmmakers. The property now operates as Goldeneye Hotel and Resort, an upmarket retreat consisting of Fleming's main house and several cottages.

The estate is located in the Oracabessa Bay Fish Sanctuary, established in 2011 to protect the area's marine ecosystem. It is adjacent to James Bond Beach.

JTS Topology Suite

JTS Topology Suite (Java Topology Suite) is an open-source Java software library that provides an object model for Euclidean planar linear geometry together with a set of fundamental geometric functions. JTS is primarily intended to be used as a core component of vector-based geomatics software such as geographical information systems. It can also be used as a general-purpose library providing algorithms in computational geometry.JTS implements the geometry model and API defined in the OpenGIS Consortium Simple Features Specification for SQL.

JTS defines a standards-compliant geometry system for building spatial applications; examples include viewers, spatial query processors, and tools for performing data validation, cleaning and integration. In addition to the Java library, the foundations of JTS and selected functions are maintained in a C++ port, for use in C-style linking on all major operating systems, in the form of the GEOS software library.

Up to JTS 1.14, and the GEOS port, are published under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).

With the LocationTech adoption future releases will be under the EPL/BSD licenses.

Multipoint

Multipoint may refer to:

Multi-point fuel injection, an injection scheme for metering fuel into an internal combustion engine

Multipoint (geography), a point on the Earth that touches the border of several distinct territories

Multipoint ground, a type of electrical installation which involves the creation of many alternate paths for electrical energy to find its way back to ground

Multipoint videoconferencing, simultaneous videoconferencing among three or more remote points by means of a Multipoint Control Unit (MCU)

Windows MultiPoint Mouse SDK, a Microsoft technology which enables multiple users to share a single PC using multiple mice

MultiPoint class in the Simple Features standard representing a collection of geographic points

Open Geospatial Consortium

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), an international voluntary consensus standards organization, originated in 1994. In the OGC, more than 500 commercial, governmental, nonprofit and research organizations worldwide collaborate in a consensus process encouraging development and implementation of open standards for geospatial content and services, sensor web and Internet of Things, GIS data processing and data sharing.

Palaeonemertea

Palaeonemertea is an order of primitive nemertean worm. It may be para- or polyphyletic, consisting of three to five clades and totalling about 100 species.

These worms have several apparently simple features and, as their name suggests, they are often considered to be the most primitive nemerteans. The primary body-wall musculature consists of an outer circular layer overlying a longitudinal layer.

The group includes genera such as Cephalothrix in which the nerve cords are inside the body-wall longitudinal muscle, and Tubulanus, in which the nerve cords are between the outer circular muscle and the epidermis. Tubulanids are commonly encountered in rocky areas of intertidal zones in the northern hemisphere. They are often bright orange or have very distinctive banding and or stripes and can be many metres long, although only a few millimetres thick.

PostGIS

PostGIS ( POST-jis) is an open source software program that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL object-relational database. PostGIS follows the Simple Features for SQL specification from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).

Technically PostGIS was implemented as a PostgreSQL's external extension.

Rag doll

A rag doll is a children's toy. It is a cloth figure, a doll traditionally home-made from (and stuffed with) spare scraps of material. They are one of the oldest children's toys in existence. Today, many rag dolls are commercially produced to simulate the features of the original home-made dolls, such as simple features, soft cloth bodies, and patchwork clothing.

Spatial database

A spatial database is a database that is optimized for storing and querying data that represents objects defined in a geometric space. Most spatial databases allow the representation of simple geometric objects such as points, lines and polygons. Some spatial databases handle more complex structures such as 3D objects, topological coverages, linear networks, and TINs. While typical databases have developed to manage various numeric and character types of data, such databases require additional functionality to process spatial data types efficiently, and developers have often added geometry or feature data types. The Open Geospatial Consortium developed the Simple Features specification (first released in 1997) and sets standards for adding spatial functionality to database systems. The SQL/MM Spatial ISO/EIC standard is a part the SQL/MM multimedia standard and extends the Simple Features standard with data types that support circular interpolations.

Spatial reference system

A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems. Spatial reference systems are defined by the OGC's Simple feature access using well-known text representation of coordinate reference systems, and support has been implemented by several standards-based geographic information systems. Spatial reference systems can be referred to using a SRID integer, including EPSG codes defined by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers.

It is specified in ISO 19111:2007 Geographic information—Spatial referencing by coordinates, prepared by ISO/TC 211, also published as OGC Abstract Specification, Topic 2: Spatial referencing by coordinate.

Tamper resistance

Tamper resistance is resistance to tampering (intentional malfunction or sabotage) by either the normal users of a product, package, or system or others with physical access to it. There are many reasons for employing tamper resistance.

Tamper resistance ranges from simple features like screws with special drives, more complex devices that render themselves inoperable or encrypt all data transmissions between individual chips, or use of materials needing special tools and knowledge. Tamper-resistant devices or features are common on packages to deter package or product tampering.

Anti-tamper devices have one or more components: tamper resistance, tamper detection, tamper response, and tamper evidence. In some applications, devices are only tamper-evident rather than tamper-resistant.

Web Feature Service

In computing, the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Feature Service (WFS) Interface Standard provides an interface allowing requests for geographical features across the web using platform-independent calls. One can think of geographical features as the "source code" behind a map, whereas the WMS interface or online tiled mapping portals like Google Maps return only an image, which end-users cannot edit or spatially analyze. The XML-based GML furnishes the default payload-encoding for transporting geographic features, but other formats like shapefiles can also serve for transport. In early 2006 the OGC members approved the OpenGIS GML Simple Features Profile. This profile is designed both to increase interoperability between WFS servers and to improve the ease of implementation of the WFS standard.

The OGC membership defined and maintains the WFS specification. Numerous commercial and open-source implementations of the WFS interface standard exist, including the open-source reference implementations GeoServer and deegree. The OGC Implementing Products page

provides a comprehensive list of WFS implementations.

XMLHttpRequest

XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an API in the form of an object whose methods transfer data between a web browser and a web server. The object is provided by the browser's JavaScript environment. Particularly, retrieval of data from XHR for the purpose of continually modifying a loaded web page is the underlying concept of Ajax design. Despite the name, XHR can be used with protocols other than HTTP and data can be in the form of not only XML, but also JSON, HTML or plain text.WHATWG maintains an XHR standard as a living document. Ongoing work at the W3C to create a stable specification is based on snapshots of the WHATWG standard.

Standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)
ISO standards by standard number
1–9999
10000–19999
20000+

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