Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki[2] [simɛˈɔn ˈpɤ̞rvi vɛˈliki]) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantines, Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever,[4] making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe.[5] His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural prosperity and enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture.[6]

During Simeon's rule, Bulgaria spread over a territory between the Aegean, the Adriatic and the Black Sea.[7][8] The newly independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church became the first new patriarchate besides the Pentarchy, and Bulgarian Glagolitic and Cyrillic translations of Christian texts spread all over the Slavic world of the time.[9] It was at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s that the Cyrillic alphabet was developed.[10][11][12] Halfway through his reign, Simeon assumed the title of Emperor (Tsar),[13] having prior to that been styled Prince (Knyaz).[14]

Lead Seal from the reign of Simeon The Great
BULGARIA, First Empire. temp. Simeon I Veliki (Simeon the Great) to Petar I. 893-969. PB Seal (27mm, 11.60 g, 12h). Facing bust of Theotokos holding Child; [M]P [ΘV] across field / [+]MΛIΛ[...]MO[...], Lion (or leopard) standing right with foreleg raised. Unpublished. VF, gray and brown patina, some light roughness.From an American Collection.
Simeon the Great
Симеон І Велики
Skylitzes - Simeón el Grande
Simeon I, from the Madrid Skylitzes
Emperor of the Bulgarians and Romans
Reign893 – 27 May 927
SuccessorPeter I
Died27 May 927
Preslav, Bulgaria
SpouseUnknown name (first spouse)
Maria Sursuvul
Peter, Emperor of Bulgaria
DynastyKrum dynasty
FatherBoris I

Background and early life

Simeon was born in 864 or 865, as the third son of Knyaz Boris I[14] of Krum's dynasty.[15] As Boris was the ruler who Christianized Bulgaria in 865, Simeon was a Christian all his life.[14][16] Because his eldest brother Vladimir was designated heir to the Bulgarian throne, Boris intended Simeon to become a high-ranking cleric,[17] possibly Bulgarian archbishop, and sent him to the leading University of Constantinople to receive theological education when he was thirteen or fourteen.[16] He took the name Simeon[18] as a novice in a monastery in Constantinople.[16] During the decade (ca. 878–888) he spent in the Byzantine capital, he received excellent education and studied the rhetoric of Demosthenes and Aristotle.[19] He also learned fluent Greek, to the extent that he was referred to as "the half-Greek" in Byzantine chronicles.[20] He is speculated to have been tutored by Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople,[21] but this is not supported by any source.[16]

Around 888, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and settled at the newly established royal monastery of Preslav "at the mouth of the Tiča",[22] where, under the guidance of Naum of Preslav, he engaged in active translation of important religious works from Greek to Medieval Bulgarian (Currently referred to as Church Slavonic), aided by other students from Constantinople.[16] Meanwhile, Vladimir had succeeded Boris, who had retreated to a monastery, as ruler of Bulgaria. Vladimir attempted to reintroduce paganism in the empire and possibly signed an anti-Byzantine pact with Arnulf of Carinthia,[23] forcing Boris to re-enter political life. Boris had Vladimir imprisoned and blinded, and then appointed Simeon as the new ruler.[24] This was done at an assembly in Preslav which also proclaimed Bulgarian as the only language of state and church[25] and moved the Bulgarian capital from Pliska to Preslav, to better cement the recent conversion.[26] It is not known why Boris did not place his second son, Gavril, on the throne, but instead preferred Simeon.[14]


Trade War with Byzantium and Magyar invasions

With Simeon on the throne, the long-lasting peace with the Byzantine Empire established by his father was about to end. A conflict arose when Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise, allegedly acting under pressure from his mistress Zoe Zaoutzaina and her father Stylianos Zaoutzes, moved the marketplace for Bulgarian goods from Constantinople to Thessaloniki,[17] where the Bulgarian merchants were heavily taxed. The Bulgarians sought protection by Simeon, who in turn complained to Leo. However, the Byzantine emperor ignored his embassy.[27][28]

Map of Bulgaria's greatest territorial extent during the reign of Simeon I

Forced to take action, in the autumn of 894 Simeon invaded the Byzantine Empire from the north, meeting with little opposition[29] due to the concentration of most Byzantine forces in eastern Anatolia to counter Arab invasions.[30] Informed of the Bulgarian offensive, the surprised Leo sent an army consisting of guardsmen and other military units from the capital to halt Simeon, but his troops were routed[17][31] somewhere in the theme of Macedonia.[8] The Bulgarians took most of the Khazar mercenary guardsmen prisoners and killed many archons, including the army's commander. However, instead of continuing his advance to the Byzantine capital, Simeon quickly withdrew his troops to face a Magyar invasion from the north.[32] These events were later called "the first trade war in medieval Europe" by Bulgarian historians.[31]

Unable to effectively respond to the Bulgarian campaign due to the engagement of their forces against the Arabs, the Byzantines convinced the Magyars to attack Bulgaria,[17] promising to transport them across the Danube using the Byzantine navy.[31][33] Leo VI may have also concluded an agreement with Arnulf to make sure that the Franks did not support Simeon against the Magyars.[34] In addition, the talented commander Nikephoros Phokas was called back from southern Italy to lead a separate army against Bulgaria in 895 with the mere intention to overawe the Bulgarians.[35] Simeon, unaware of the threat from the north, rushed to meet Phokas' forces, but the two armies did not engage in a fight.[36] Instead, the Byzantines offered peace, informing him of both the Byzantine foot and maritime campaign, but intentionally did not notify him of the planned Magyar attack. Simeon did not trust the envoy and, after sending him to prison, ordered the Byzantine navy's route into the Danube closed off with ropes and chains, intending to hold it until he had dealt with Phokas.[37]

Despite the problems they encountered because of the fencing, the Byzantines ultimately managed to ferry the Magyar forces led by Árpád's son Liüntika across the Danube,[38] possibly near modern Galaţi,[39] and assisted them in pillaging the nearby Bulgarian lands. Once notified of the surprise invasion, Simeon headed north to stop the Magyars, leaving some of his troops at the southern border to prevent a possible attack by Phokas.[40] Simeon's two encounters with the enemy in Northern Dobruja resulted in Magyar victories,[17] forcing him to retreat to Drǎstǎr.[40][41] After pillaging much of Bulgaria and reaching Preslav, the Magyars returned to their lands,[42] but not before Simeon had concluded an armistice with Byzantium towards the summer of 895.[35] A complete peace was delayed, as Leo VI required the release of the Byzantine captives from the Trade War.[43]

Anti-Magyar campaign and further wars with Byzantium

Bulgarians defeat Byzantines under Krenites and Kourtikios
Simeon I's army defeating the Byzantines, led by Procopius Crenites and Curtacius the Armenian in Macedonia. From the Madrid Skylitzes.

Having dealt with the pressure from the Magyars and the Byzantines, Simeon was free to plan a campaign against the Magyars looking for retribution. He negotiated a joint force with the Magyars' eastern neighbours, the Pechenegs, and imprisoned the Byzantine envoy Leo Choirosphaktes in order to delay the release of the captives until after the campaign against the Magyars.[44] This would allow him to renegotiate the peace conditions in his favour. In an exchange of letters with the envoy, Simeon refused to release the captives and ridiculed Leo VI's astrological abilities.[17][45]

Using a Magyar invasion in the lands of the neighbouring Slavs in 896 as a casus belli, Simeon headed against the Magyars together with his Pecheneg allies, defeating them completely[46] in the Battle of Southern Buh and making them leave Etelköz forever and settle in Pannonia.[8][17] Following the defeat of the Magyars, Simeon finally released the Byzantine prisoners in exchange for Bulgarians captured in 895.[17]

Skylitzes - Simeon at Bulgarophygon 896
The Bulgarians routing the Byzantine forces at Bulgarophygon in 896. From the Madrid Skylitzes.

Claiming that not all prisoners had been released,[46] Simeon once again invaded Byzantium in the summer of 896, heading directly to Constantinople.[47] He was met in Thrace by a hastily assembled Byzantine army, but annihilated the Byzantine forces in the Battle of Bulgarophygon (at modern Babaeski, Turkey).[17][48] Arming Arab captives and sending them to fight with the Bulgarians as a desperate measure, Leo VI managed to repel the Bulgarians from Constantinople, which they had besieged.[17][49] The war ended with a peace treaty which formally lasted until around Leo VI's death in 912[8] and under which Byzantium was obliged to pay Bulgaria an annual tribute.[50] Under the treaty, the Byzantines also ceded an area between the Black Sea and Strandža to the Bulgarian Empire.[51] Meanwhile, Simeon had also imposed his authority over Serbia in return for recognizing Petar Gojniković as their ruler.[52]

Simeon often violated the peace treaty with Byzantium, attacking and conquering Byzantine territory on several occasions,[53] such as in 904, when the Bulgarian raids were used by Arabs led by the Byzantine renegade Leo of Tripoli to undertake a maritime campaign and seize Thessaloniki.[54] After the Arabs plundered the city, it was an easy target for Bulgaria and the nearby Slavic tribes. In order to dissuade Simeon from capturing the city and populating it with Slavs,[17][55] Leo VI was forced to make further territorial concessions to the Bulgarians in the modern region of Macedonia. With the treaty of 904, all Slavic-inhabited lands in modern southern Macedonia and southern Albania were ceded to the Bulgarian Empire,[8][56] with the border line running some 20 kilometres north of Thessaloniki.[57]

Recognition as Emperor

The death of Leo VI on 11 May 912 and the accession of his infant son Constantine VII under the guidance of Leo's brother Alexander, who expelled Leo's wife Zoe from the palace, constituted a great opportunity for Simeon to attempt another campaign against Constantinople, the conquest of which remained the dream of his life. In the spring of 913, Simeon's envoys, who had arrived in Constantinople to renew the peace of 896, were sent away by Alexander, who refused to pay the annual tribute, urging Simeon to prepare for war.[58]

Before Simeon could attack, Alexander died on 6 June 913, leaving the empire in the hands of a regency council headed by Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos.[59] Many residents of Constantinople did not recognize the young emperor and instead supported the pretender Constantine Doukas,[60] which, exacerbated by revolts in southern Italy and the planned Arab invasion in eastern Anatolia, was all to Simeon's advantage.[61] Nicholas Mystikos tried to discourage Simeon from invading Byzantium in a long series of pleading letters, but the Bulgarian ruler nevertheless attacked in full force in late July or August 913, reaching Constantinople without any serious resistance.[62]

The anarchy in Constantinople had ceased after the murder of the pretender Constantine Doukas, however, and a government had promptly been formed with Patriarch Nicholas at the helm.[63] This urged Simeon to raise his siege and enter peace negotiations, to the joy of the Byzantines.[63] The protracted negotiations resulted in the payment of the arrears of Byzantine tribute,[64] the promise that Constantine VII would marry one of Simeon's daughters,[17][62] and, most importantly, Simeon's official recognition as Emperor of the Bulgarians by Patriarch Nicholas in the Blachernae Palace.[65][66]

Shortly after Simeon visited Constantinople, Constantine's mother Zoe returned to the palace on the insistence of the young emperor and immediately proceeded to eliminate the regents. Through a plot, she managed to assume power in February 914, practically removing Patriarch Nicholas from the government, disowning and obscuring his recognition of Simeon's imperial title,[67] and rejecting the planned marriage of her son to one of Simeon's daughters.[68] Simeon had to resort to war to achieve his goals. He invaded Thrace in the summer of 914 and captured Adrianople. Zoe was quick to send Simeon numerous presents in order to conciliate him, and she managed to convince him to cede back Adrianople and withdraw his army. In the following years, Simeon's forces were engaged in the northwestern Byzantine provinces, around Drač (Durrës) and Thessaloniki, but did not make a move against Constantinople.[69]

Victories at Acheloos and Katasyrtai

Battle of Anchialos (917)
Map of the progress of the Battle of Acheloos or Anchialos[70]
Bulgarians defeat the Byzantines at Anchialos
The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos, Madrid Skylitzes.

By 917, Simeon was preparing for yet another war against Byzantium. He attempted to conclude an anti-Byzantine union with the Pechenegs, but his envoys could not match the financial resources of the Byzantines, who succeeded in outbidding them.[71] The Byzantines hatched a large-scale campaign against Bulgaria and also tried to persuade the Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković to attack the Bulgarians with Magyar support.[72]

In 917, a particularly strong Byzantine army led by Leo Phokas the Elder, son of Nikephoros Phokas, invaded Bulgaria accompanied by the Byzantine navy under the command of Romanos Lekapenos, which sailed to the Bulgarian Black Sea ports. En route to Mesembria (Nesebǎr), where they were supposed to be reinforced by troops transported by the navy, Phokas' forces stopped to rest near the river of Acheloos, not far from the port of Anchialos (Pomorie).[73][74] Once informed of the invasion, Simeon rushed to intercept the Byzantines, and attacked them from the nearby hills while they were resting disorganized. In the Battle of Acheloos of 20 August 917, one of the largest in medieval history,[75] the Bulgarians completely routed the Byzantines and killed many of their commanders, although Phokas managed to escape to Mesembria.[76] Decades later, Leo the Deacon would write that "piles of bones can still be seen today at the river Acheloos, where the fleeing army of the Byzantines was then infamously slain".[77]

The planned Pecheneg attack from the north also failed, as the Pechenegs quarrelled with admiral Lekapenos, who refused to transport them across the Danube to aid the main Byzantine army.[73] The Byzantines were not aided by Serbs and Magyars either: the Magyars were engaged in Western Europe as Frankish allies, and the Serbs under Petar Gojniković were reluctant to attack Bulgaria because Michael of Zahumlje, an ally of Bulgaria, had notified Simeon of their plans.[78]

Simeon's army quickly followed up the victory of Acheloos with another success.[62] The Bulgarians sent to pursuit the remnants of the Byzantine army approached Constantinople and encountered Byzantine forces under Leo Phokas, who had returned to the capital, at the village of Katasyrtai in the immediate proximity of Constantinople.[79] The Bulgarian regiments attacked and again defeated the Byzantines, destroying some of their last units before returning to Bulgaria.[80]

Suppression of Serbian unrest and late campaigns against Byzantium

Immediately after that campaign, Simeon sought to punish the Serbian ruler Petar Gojniković who had attempted to betray him by concluding an alliance with the Byzantines.[8] Simeon sent an army led by two of his commanders, Theodore Sigrica and Marmais, to Serbia. The two managed to persuade Petar to attend a personal meeting, during which he was enchained and carried off to Bulgaria, where he died in a dungeon. Simeon put Pavle Branović, prior to that an exile in Bulgaria, on the Serbian throne, thus restoring the Bulgarian influence in Serbia for a while.[81]

Meanwhile, the Byzantine military failures forced another change of government in Constantinople: the admiral Romanos Lekapenos replaced Zoe as regent of the young Constantine VII in 919, forcing her back into a convent. Romanos betrothed his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine and advanced to the rank of co-emperor in December 920, effectively assuming the government of the empire,[82][83] which was largely what Simeon had planned to do.[84]

Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos negotiating with Simeon I of Bulgaria c. 922–924. miniature of the Radziwill Chronicle (15th century).
Skylitzes Simeon sending envoys to the Fatimids
Simeon sending envoys to the Fatimids, Madrid Skylitzes.

No longer able to climb to the Byzantine throne by diplomatic means, the infuriated Simeon once again had to wage war to impose his will. Between 920 and 922, Bulgaria increased its pressure on Byzantium, campaigning in the west through Thessaly reaching the Isthmus of Corinth and in the east in Thrace, reaching and crossing the Dardanelles to lay siege on the town of Lampsacus.[17] Simeon's forces appeared before Constantinople in 921, when they demanded the deposition of Romanos and captured Adrianople, and 922, when they were victorious at Pigae, burned much of the Golden Horn and seized Bizye.[85][86] In the meantime, the Byzantines attempted to ignite Serbia against Simeon, but he substituted Pavle with Zaharije Pribisavljević, a former refugee at Constantinople that he had captured.[17][85]

Desperate to conquer Constantinople, Simeon planned a large campaign in 924 and sent envoys to the Fatimid caliph Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, who possessed a powerful navy which Simeon needed. The caliph agreed and sent his own representatives back with the Bulgarians to arrange the alliance. However, the envoys were captured by the Byzantines at Calabria. Romanos offered peace to the Arabs, supplementing this offer with generous gifts, and ruined their union with Bulgaria.[17][87]

In Serbia, Zaharije was persuaded by the Byzantines to revolt against Simeon. Zaharije was supported by many Bulgarians exhausted from Simeon's endless campaigns against Byzantium.[88] The Bulgarian emperor sent his troops under Sigrica and Marmais, but they were routed and the two commanders beheaded, which forced Simeon to conclude an armistice with Byzantium in order to concentrate on the suppression of the uprising. Simeon sent an army led by Časlav Klonimirović in 924 to depose Zaharije. He was successful, as Zaharije fled to Croatia. After this victory, the Serbian nobility was invited to come to Bulgaria and bow to the new Prince. However, he did not appear at the supposed meeting and all of them were beheaded. Bulgaria annexed Serbia directly.[17][89]

In the summer of 924, Simeon nevertheless arrived at Constantinople and demanded to see the patriarch and the emperor. He conversed with Romanos on the Golden Horn on 9 September 924 and arranged a truce, according to which Byzantium would pay Bulgaria an annual tax, but would be ceded back some cities on the Black Sea coast.[90] During the interview of the two monarchs, two eagles are said to have met in the skies above and then to have parted, one of them flying over Constantinople and the other heading to Thrace, as a sign of the irreconcilability of the two rulers.[91] In his description of this meeting, Theophanes Continuatus mentions that "the two emperors... conversed", which may indicate renewed Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial claims.[92]

War with Croatia and death

Most likely after (or possibly at the time of) Patriarch Nicholas' death in 925, Simeon raised the status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church to a patriarchate.[93] This may be linked to Simeon's diplomatic relations with the Papacy between 924 and 926, during which he demanded and received Pope John X's recognition of his title as "Emperor of the Romans", truly equal to the Byzantine emperor, and possibly the confirmation of a patriarchal dignity for the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.[94]

In 926, Simeon's troops under Alogobotur invaded Croatia, at the time a Byzantine ally, but were completely defeated by the army of King Tomislav in the Battle of the Bosnian Highlands.[8] Fearing a Bulgarian retribution, Tomislav accepted to abandon his union with Byzantium and make peace on the basis of the status quo, negotiated by the papal legate Madalbert.[95][96] In the last months of his life, Simeon prepared for another conflict with Constantinople despite Romanos' desperate pleas for peace.[97]

On 27 May 927, Simeon died of heart failure in his palace in Preslav. Byzantine chroniclers tie his death to a legend, according to which Romanos decapitated a statue which was Simeon's inanimate double, and he died at that very hour.[98][99]

He was succeeded by his son Peter I, with George Sursubul, the new emperor's maternal uncle, initially acting as a regent.[100] As part of the peace treaty signed in October 927 and reinforced by Peter's marriage to Maria (Eirene), Romanos' granddaughter, the existing borders were confirmed, as were the Bulgarian ruler's imperial dignity and the head of the Bulgarian Church's patriarchal status.[101]

Culture and religion

St. Theodor
Ceramic icon of Theodore Stratelates dating to Simeon's reign

During Simeon's reign, Bulgaria reached its cultural apogee, becoming the literary and spiritual centre of Slavic Europe.[3][102] In this respect, Simeon continued his father Boris' policy of establishing and spreading Slavic culture and attracting noted scholars and writers within Bulgaria's borders. It was in the Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School, founded under Boris, that the main literary work in Bulgaria was concentrated during the reign of Simeon[103] in the new Cyrillic alphabet which was developed there.[10][11][12]

The late 9th and early 10th century constitute the earliest and most productive period of medieval Bulgarian literature.[103] Having spent his early years in Constantinople, Simeon introduced Byzantine culture to the Bulgarian court, but eliminated its assimilative effect by means of military power and religious autonomy.[103] The disciples of Cyril and Methodius, among whom Clement of Ohrid, Naum and Constantine of Preslav, continued their educational work in Bulgaria, actively translating Christian texts, such as the Bible and the works of John Chrysostom, Basil of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory of Nazianzus, Athanasius of Alexandria, as well as historic chronicles such as these of John Malalas and George Hamartolus, to Bulgarian.[103] The reign of Simeon also witnessed the production of a number of original theological and secular works, such as John Exarch's Six Days (Šestodnev), Constantine of Preslav's Alphabetical Prayer and Proclamation of the Holy Gospels, and Černorizec Hrabǎr's An Account of Letters.[103] Simeon's own contribution to this literary blossoming was praised by his contemporaries, for example in the Praise to Tsar Simeon preserved in the Zlatostruj collection and Simeon's Collection,[102] to which the tsar personally wrote an addendum.[104]

Simeon turned the new Bulgarian capital Preslav into a magnificent religious and cultural centre, intended more as a display of his realm's heyday and as a royal residence than as a military fortress.[102] With its more than twenty cross-domed churches and numerous monasteries, its impressive royal palace and the Golden (or Round) Church, Preslav was a true imperial capital.[102] The development of Bulgarian art in the period is demonstrated by a ceramic icon of Theodore Stratelates and the Preslav-style illustrated ceramics.[105]


Simeon was married twice. By his first wife, whose identity is unknown, Simeon had a son called Michael.[106] Possibly because his mother was of inferior birth, he was excluded from the succession and sent to a monastery.[100]

By his second wife, the sister of the influential noble George Sursubul, he had three sons: Peter, who succeeded as Emperor of Bulgaria in 927 and ruled until 969; Ivan, who unsuccessfully conspired against Peter in 929 and then fled to Byzantium;[107] and Benjamin (Bajan), who, according to Lombard historian Liutprand of Cremona, "possessed the power to transform himself suddenly into a wolf or other strange animal".[108]

Simeon also had several daughters, including one who was arranged to marry Constantine VII in 913.[64] The marriage was annulled by Constantine's mother Zoe once she had returned to the court.[109]

Family tree of Simeon I[110]
Boris I
(d. 907, ruled 852—889)
(ruled 889–893)
Gabriel (Gavril)     Jacob (Jakov) Eupraxia (Evpraksija) Anna
unknown wife
Simeon I
(b. 864/865, d. 927,
ruled 893–927)
sister of
George Sursubul
   1  2  2  2  ?
(d. 931)
Peter I
(b. after 912, d. 970,
ruled 927–969)
Ivan Benjamin daughters

Legacy and popular culture

Car Simeon Bulharsky - Alfons Mucha
The Bulgarian Tsar Simeon: The Morning Star of Slavonic Literature, by Alfons Mucha

Tsar Simeon I has remained among the most highly valued Bulgarian historical figures, as indicated by popular vote in the Velikite Bǎlgari (a spin-off of 100 Greatest Britons) television programme, which in February 2007 placed him fourth among the greatest Bulgarians ever.[111] Simeon the Great has been regularly featured in fiction. Bulgarian national writer Ivan Vazov dedicated a children's patriotic poem to him, "Tsar Simeon", and it was later arranged as a song, "Kray Bosfora šum se vdiga" ("A Clamour Rises by the Bosphorus").[112] An eleven-episode drama series filmed in 1984, Zlatniyat vek (The Golden Age), retells the story of Simeon's reign. In the series, the tsar is played by Marius Donkin.[113] A historical drama play called Tsar Simeon Veliki — Zlatniyat vek produced by Stefan Staychev, director of the Silistra Theatre, premiered in December 2006. Ivan Samokovliev stars in the part of Simeon.[114]

The painting, "The Bulgarian Tsar Simeon" is part of the 20-canvas work by Alfons Mucha, The Slav Epic.[115]

The last Bulgarian monarch, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was named after Simeon I.[116] A brand of high-quality grape rakija, Car Simeon Veliki, also bears his name,[117] and an Antarctic peak on Livingston Island of the South Shetland Islands was named Simeon Peak in his honour by the Antarctic Place-names Commission.[118]


Timeline of Simeon I's life


  1. ^ For example, in Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
  2. ^ This article uses the United Nations-authorized scientific transliteration system to romanize Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.
  3. ^ a b Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp. 23–25.
  4. ^ Enciklopedija Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Akademično izdatelstvo "Marin Drinov". 1988. OCLC 75865504.
  5. ^ The First Bulgarian Empire. Encarta. Archived from the original on 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
  6. ^ Hart, Nancy. Bulgarian Art and Culture: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (PDF). University of Texas at Austin. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
  7. ^ Weigand, Gustav (1924). "1 Istoriko-geografski obzor: 4 Srednovekovie". Etnografija na Makedonija (in Bulgarian). trans. Elena Pipiševa. Leipzig: Friedrich Brandstetter. Archived from the original on 2007-04-15.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
  9. ^ Castellan, Georges (1999). Istorija na Balkanite XIV–XX vek (in Bulgarian). trans. Liljana Caneva. Plovdiv: Hermes. p. 37. ISBN 954-459-901-0.
  10. ^ a b Dvornik, Francis (1956). The Slavs: Their Early History and Civilization. Boston: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. p. 179. The Psalter and the Book of Prophets were adapted or "modernized" with special regard to their use in Bulgarian churches, and it was in this school that glagolitic writing was replaced by the so-called Cyrillic writing, which was more akin to the Greek uncial, simplified matters considerably and is still used by the Orthodox Slavs.
  11. ^ a b Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks, Florin Curta, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 221–222., ISBN 0521815398
  12. ^ a b The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford History of the Christian Church, J. M. Hussey, Andrew Louth, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 100., ISBN 0191614882
  13. ^ "Цѣсарь Блъгарѡмъ". Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 367.
  14. ^ a b c d Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 280.
  15. ^ Dimitrov, Božidar. "Hramǎt "Sveti Četirideset mǎčenici"" (in Bulgarian). National Historical Museum. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
  16. ^ a b c d e Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
  18. ^ "From the Greek form of the Hebrew name שִׁמְעוֹן (Shim'on) which meant "hearkening" or "listening"." Campbell, Mike. "Biblical Names". Behind the Name. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
  19. ^ "Hunc etenim Simeonem emiargon, id est semigrecum, esse aiebant, eo quod a puericia Bizantii Demostenis rhetoricam Aristotelisque sillogismos didicerit". Liutprand of Cremona. Antapodosis, cap. 29, p. 66. Cited in Drinov, Marin (1876). Južnye slavjane i Vizantija v X veke (in Russian). p. 374.
  20. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 282.
  21. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 281.
  22. ^ This is not to be understood literally, as the mouth of the Tiča lies to the east, on the Black Sea coast. Researchers link the word ustie ("river mouth") in the sources to a narrow section of the river or to the Ustie pass near the city. Nikolova, Bistra (2002). "Veliki Preslav". Pravoslavnite cǎrkvi prez Bǎlgarskoto srednovekovie (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. p. 88. ISBN 954-430-762-1.
  23. ^ Annales Fuldenses, p. 408. Cited in Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 133.
  24. ^ Todt 1996.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 283.
  25. ^ Crampton, R.J. (2005). "The Reign of Simeon the Great (893–927)". A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-521-85085-1.
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  27. ^ John Skylitzes. Skylitzes–Kedrenos, II, p. 254.4–16
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  29. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 289.
  30. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, p. 312., cited in Vasil'ev, A. (1902). Vizantija i araby, II (in Russian). pp. 88, p. 104, pp. 108–111.
  31. ^ a b c Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 198.
  32. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 289–291.
  33. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 145.
  34. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 294–295.
  35. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 146.
  36. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 295.
  37. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 296–297.
  38. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 297.
  39. ^ According to toponymic evidence. Kuun, Géza (1895). Relationum Hungarorum cum oriente gentibusque originis historia antiquissima (in Latin). p. 23.
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  41. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  42. ^ Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  43. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 301–304.
  44. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 304.
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  46. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 147.
  47. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 315.
  48. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 316.
  49. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 317.
  50. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 148.
  51. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 318–321.
  52. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 141.
  53. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 321.
  54. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 324.
  55. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 152.
  56. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 334–337.
  57. ^ "In the year 6412 since the creation of the world, indict 7 (904). Border between Byzantines and Bulgarians. In the time of Simeon, by the grace of God Prince of the Bulgarians, under Olgu Tarkan Theodore and under Komit Drista." Border marking inscription from Narǎš (modern Greece). Uspenskij, F.I. (1898). "Pograničnyj stolb meždu Vizantiej i Bolgariej pri Simeone". Izvestija russkogo arheologičeskogo instituta v Konstantinopole (in Russian): 184–194.
  58. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Todt 1996.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 352.
    * Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  59. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 212.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Todt 1996.
  60. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 156.
  61. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 353.
  62. ^ a b c Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  63. ^ a b Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 359.
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  66. ^ Ostrogorsky, George (1935). "Avtokrator i samodržac". Glas Srpske kraljevske akademije (in Serbian) (CLXIV): 95–187.
  67. ^ Loud, G.A. (1978). "A re-examination of the 'coronation' of Symeon of Bulgaria in 913". The Journal of Theological Studies. Oxford University Press. xxix (XXIX): 109–120. doi:10.1093/jts/XXIX.1.109.
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  70. ^ According to Čolpanov, Boris (1988). Slavata na Bǎlgarija: istoriko-hudožestven očerk (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Voenno izdatelstvo. OCLC 22276650.
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  73. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 160–161.
  74. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 376–377.
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  77. ^ Leo the Deacon, History Archived 2006-09-07 at the Wayback Machine., p. 12410–12. Cited in Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 216.
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  79. ^ De Boor, Сarl Gothard (1888). Vita Euthymii. Berlin: Reimer. p. 214.
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  82. ^ Alexander Kazhdan, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press.
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  86. ^ Vita S. Mariae Junioris.
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  88. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 446–447.
  89. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 459.
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  91. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 405–407.
  92. ^ "tôn basileôn omilountôn". Discussed in Stephenson, Paul. "The peace agreed between Romanos Lekapenos and Symeon of Bulgaria, AD 924 (translation of Theophanes Continuatus)". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
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  102. ^ a b c d Delev, Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata kultura.
  103. ^ a b c d e Ivanova, "Introduction", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
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  108. ^ Antapodosis, p. 309.
  109. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 148.
  110. ^ Family tree of Simeon I:
    • Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 133, 177.
    • Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 280, 495.
  111. ^ "Vasil Levski beše izbran za naj-velikija bǎlgarin na vsički vremena" (in Bulgarian). Velikite Bǎlgari. 2007-02-18. Archived from the original on 2007-03-17. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
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  114. ^ "Tazi večer v Silistra e premierata na grandioznija istoričeski spektakǎl "Zlatnijat vek — Car Simeon Veliki"" (in Bulgarian). bTV Novinite. 2006-12-07. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
  115. ^ Bozhkov, Atanas (1994). Bulgarian contributions to European civilization. Bulvest 2000. p. 324. ISBN 978-954-8112-58-1.
  116. ^ "Simeon Sakskoburggotski (Car Simeon Vtori)" (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
  117. ^ "Grozdova rakija: Car Simeon Veliki" (in Bulgarian). Vinex. Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
  118. ^ "Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer: Simeon Peak". Antarctic Place-names Commission. Republic of Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25.


  • Dimitrov, Bozhidar (1994). "Bulgaria — a predominant power in the European East 893–967 AD". Bulgaria: illustrated history. Sofia: Borina. ISBN 954-500-044-9.
  • Fine, Jr., John V.A. (1991). "5 Bulgaria under Simeon, 893–927". The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.

In Bulgarian

  • Bakalov, Georgi; Milen Kumanov (2003). Elektronno izdanie – Istorija na Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Trud, Sirma. ISBN 954528613X. OCLC 62020465.
  • Bogdanov, Ivan (1973). Simeon Veliki — epoha i ličnost (in Bulgarian). Sofia. OCLC 71590049.
  • Bozhilov, Ivan (1983). Car Simeon Veliki (893–927) — zlatnijat vek na srednovekovna Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Otečestvenija front. OCLC 1323835.
  • Delev, Petǎr; Valeri Kacunov; Plamen Mitev; Evgeniya Kalinova; Iskra Baeva; Boian Dobrev (2006). "9 Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri Car Simeon; 10 Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata kultura". Istorija i civilizacija za 11. klas (in Bulgarian). Trud, Sirma. ISBN 954-9926-72-9.
  • Ivanova, Klimentina; Svetlina Nikolova (1995). Tǎržestvo na slovoto. Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata knižnina (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Agata-A. ISBN 978-954-540-005-6.
  • Todt, Klaus-Peter (1996). "Symeon, Zar". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 11. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 345–350. ISBN 3-88309-064-6.
  • Tsanev, Stefan (2006). "10 (889–912) Zlatnijat vek. Knjaz Rasate-Vladimir, car Simeon Veliki; 11 (912–927) Kǎrvavijat vek. Simeon — car na bǎlgari i romei". Bǎlgarski hroniki (in Bulgarian). Sofia, Plovdiv: Trud, Žanet 45. ISBN 954-528-610-5.
  • Zlatarski, Vasil (1971) [1927]. "2 Ot slavjanizacijata na dǎržavata do padaneto na Pǎrvoto carstvo (852–1018): 4 Borba s Vizantija za političesko nadmoštie". Istorija na bǎlgarskata dǎržava prez srednite vekove. Tom I. Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo (in Bulgarian) (2 ed.). Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. OCLC 67080314.
  • "1.2 Bǎlgarite stavat hristijani. Izborǎt na knjaz Boris I". Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, Trud, Sirma. 2005.

External links

Preceded by
Tsar of Bulgaria
Succeeded by
Peter I

Year 927 (CMXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link 'will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Battle of Achelous (917)

The Battle of Achelous or Acheloos (Bulgarian: Битката при Ахелой, Greek: Μάχη του Αχελώου), also known as the Battle of Anchialus, took place on 20 August 917, on the Achelous River near the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, close to the fortress Tuthom (modern Pomorie) between Bulgarian and Byzantine forces. The Bulgarians obtained a decisive victory which not only secured the previous successes of Simeon I but made him de facto a ruler of the whole Balkan Peninsula excluding the well-protected Byzantine capital Constantinople and the Peloponnese.

The battle, which was one of the biggest and bloodiest battles of the European Middle Ages, was one of the worst disasters ever to befall a Byzantine army, and conversely one of the greatest military successes of Bulgaria. Among the most significant consequences was the official recognition of the Imperial title of the Bulgarian monarchs, and the consequent affirmation of Bulgarian equality vis-à-vis Byzantium.

Battle of Anchialus

The Battle of Anchialus refers to three battles between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire.

Battle of Anchialus (708), where Bulgarian Khan Tervel routed the force of Byzantine emperor Justinian II and reaffirmed his right to the region of Zagora in present-day south-east Bulgaria.

Battle of Anchialus (763), where Byzantine emperor Constantine V with 9000 cavalry defeated the Bulgarians under Telets. Telets was assassinated after the defeat.

Battle of Achelous (917), took place near Anchialus. Simeon I of Bulgaria defeated a larger Byzantine army under Leo Phokas the Elder.

Battle of Katasyrtai

The battle of Katasyrtai (Kατασυρται) occurred in the fall of 917, shortly after the striking Bulgarian triumph at Achelous near the village of the same name close to the Byzantine capital Constantinople, (now Istanbul). The result was a Bulgarian victory.

Chernorizets Hrabar

Chernorizets Hrabar (Church Slavonic: Чрьнори́зьць Хра́бръ, Črĭnorizĭcĭ Hrabrŭ, Bulgarian: Черноризец Храбър) was a Bulgarian monk, scholar and writer who worked at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.

Gregory of Bulgaria

Gregory (Bulgarian: Григорий) was the Fourth Bulgarian Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.Gregory of Bulgaria was Patriarch during driving Simeon I of Bulgaria when Bulgaria was in her Golden century.

Leo Rhabdouchos

Leo Rhabdouchos or Rhabduchus (Greek: Λέων Ῥαβδοῦχος; fl. 917) was a Byzantine nobleman and diplomat.

List of Serbian monarchs

This is an archontological list of Serbian monarchs, containing monarchs of the medieval principalities, to heads of state of modern Serbia.

The Serbian monarchy dates back to the Early Middle Ages. The Serbian royal titles used include Prince, Grand Prince, King, Emperor and Despot.

Maria (wife of Boris I of Bulgaria)

Maria (Bulgarian: Мария) was a Bulgarian royal consort as the wife of the Knyaz Boris I of Bulgaria. Her parents are unknown. She is mentioned in one charter from 850/96, together with her family members.

These are the children of Boris and Maria:

Vladimir of Bulgaria

Gavriil (Gabriel)

Simeon I of Bulgaria



Michael of Zahumlje

Michael of Zahumlje (reign usually dated c. 910–935),, also known as Michael Višević (Croatian/Bosnian/Serbian Latin: Mihajlo Višević, Serbian Cyrillic: Михаило Вишевић) or rarely as Michael Vuševukčić, was a semi-independent, or independent Slavic ruler of Zahumlje, in present-day central Herzegovina and southern Croatia, who flourished in the early part of the 10th century. Prince Michael of Zahumlje having a common boundary with the Serbia and probably with Kingdom of Croatia, but was an ally of Bulgaria. He was nevertheless able to maintain independent rule throughout at least a good part of his reign.Michael came into territorial conflict with Petar of Serbia, who expand his power to the province of Narenta or Pagania, west from the Neretva River. To eliminate the threat, Michael warned his ally, the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, about the alliance between Peter and Symeon's enemy, the Byzantine Empire. Symeon attacked Serbia and captured Peter, who later died in prison.Michael was mentioned together with Tomislav of Croatia in Pope John X's letter of 925. In that same year, he participated in the first church councils in Split, something that some historians have taken as evidence of Zahumlje being a vassal of Croatia. In any case, Michael, with grand titles of the Byzantine court as anthypatos and patrician (patrikios), remained ruler of Zahumlje through the 940s, while maintaining good relations with the Pope.

Nicholas Mystikos

Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Greek: Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos; 852 – 11 May 925) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925. His feast day in the Eastern Orthodox Church is 16 May.Nicholas was born in the Italian Peninsula and had become a friend of the Patriarch Photios. He fell into disfavor after Photios' dismissal in 886 and retired to a monastery. Emperor Leo VI the Wise retrieved him from the monastery and made him mystikos, a dignity designating either the imperial secretary or a judicial official.

On 1 March 901, Nicholas was appointed patriarch. However, he fell out with Leo VI over the latter's fourth marriage to his mistress Zoe Karbonopsina. Although he reluctantly baptized the fruit of this relationship, the future Constantine VII, Nicholas forbade the emperor from entering the church and may have become involved in the revolt of Andronikos Doukas. He was deposed as patriarch on 1 February 907 and replaced by Euthymios. Exiled to his own monastery, Nicholas regarded his deposition as unjustified and involved Pope Sergius III in the dispute.

About the time of the accession of Leo VI's brother Alexander to the throne in May 912, Nicholas was restored to the patriarchate. A protracted struggle with the supporters of Euthymios followed, which did not end until the new Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos promulgated the Tomos of Union in 920. In the meantime Alexander had died in 913 after provoking a war with Bulgaria, and the underage Constantine VII succeeded to the throne. Nicholas Mystikos became the leading member of the seven-man regency for the young emperor, and as such had to face the advance of Simeon I of Bulgaria on Constantinople. Nicholas negotiated a peaceful settlement, crowned Simeon emperor of the Bulgarians in a makeshift ceremony outside Constantinople, and arranged for the marriage of Simeon's daughter to Constantine VII.

This unpopular concession undermined his position, and by March 914, with the support of the magistros John Eladas, Zoe Karbonopsina overthrew Nicholas and replaced him as foremost regent. She revoked the agreement with Simeon, prompting the renewal of hostilities with Bulgaria. With her main supporter Leo Phokas crushingly defeated by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Acheloos in 917, Zoe started to lose ground. Embarrassed by further failures, she and her supporters were supplanted in 919 by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine VII and finally advanced to the imperial throne in 920. The Patriarch Nicholas came to be one of the strongest supporters of the new emperor, and took the brunt of renewed negotiations with the Bulgarians until his death in 925.

In addition to his numerous letters to various notables and foreign rulers (including Simeon of Bulgaria), Nicholas Mystikos wrote a homily on the sack of Thessalonica by the Arabs in 904. He was a critical thinker who went as far as to question the authority of Old Testament quotations and the notion that the emperor's command was unwritten law.

Orso II Participazio

Orso II Participazio (died 932) was the eighteenth doge of the Republic of Venice, by tradition (historically, he was the sixteenth), from 912 to 932.

Roman of Bulgaria

Roman (Bulgarian: Роман; 930s–997) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 977 to 991, being in Byzantine captivity thereafter still claiming the title.

Simeon I

Simeon I may refer to:

Simon I (High Priest) (310–291 or 300–270 BCE), in the Temple in Jerusalem

Simeon I, Caucasian Albanian Catholicos in 706–707

Simeon I of Bulgaria (864/865 – 927)

Simeon of Moscow, Simeon Ivanovich Gordyi (the Proud), (1316–1353), Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir

Simeon I of Yerevan, Catholicos of All Armenians in 1763–1780

Simeon of Bulgaria

Simeon of Bulgaria may refer to:

Simeon I of Bulgaria, ruled over the First Bulgarian Empire 893–927

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Simeon II of Bulgaria, de jure Tsar of Bulgaria 1943–1946, later elected Prime Minister of Bulgaria, served 2001–2005

Sočanica Basilica

Sočanica is a basilica of a 9-10th-century church in the village Sočanica, in Leposavić, Kosovo. The stone decoration dates it to the reigns of Simeon I of Bulgaria (893-927) and Petar of Serbia. It was in use in the 11th and 12th centuries according to grave finds. In the reign of Grand Prince Uroš II, the site was known as Sečenica and was defended from the Byzantines from the newly built fortress at Galič, protecting the bridge over Ibar and the road to Ras.

The site draws continuity with Municipium Dardanorum.

Trpimir II of Croatia

Trpimir II was King of Croatia from 928 to 935. He was from the Trpimirović dynasty. Trpimir was probably the son of Duke Muncimir and younger brother of King Tomislav.Following the death of Simeon I of Bulgaria, Byzantium no longer needed Croatia's military support and repealed its alliance. Previously, Byzantium relied heavily on the Croats to threaten Simeon from the west. Despite the achievements of King Tomislav in halting Bulgaria's expansion, Byzantium reversed Croatia's supremacy over the Theme of Dalmatia, which fell once again under its administration. However, Byzantine administration was nominal.

Trpimir's woes did not stop there. Pope Leo VI abolished the Diocese of Nin in 928 and transferred Bishop Grgur to Skradin, in what was seen as a humiliating defeat for pro-Slavic proponents in the long running dispute between the Split and Nin Bishoprics.

De Administrando Imperio mentions that in the time of Trpimir, Croatia had a significant merchant fleet that traded across the entire Adriatic Sea.


Tsar ( or ; Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, царь), also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch)—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.

"Tsar" and its variants were the official titles of the following states:

First Bulgarian Empire, in 919–1018

Second Bulgarian Empire, in 1185–1396

Serbian Empire, in 1346–1371

Tsardom of Russia, in 1547–1721 (replaced in 1721 by imperator, but still remaining in use, also officially in relation to several regions until 1917)

Tsardom of Bulgaria, in 1908–1946The first ruler to adopt the title tsar was Simeon I of Bulgaria. Simeon II, the last Tsar of Bulgaria, is the last person to have borne the title Tsar.


Tsaritsa or tsarina Bulgarian: царица, Russian: царица) is the title of a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, or the title of a tsar's wife. The English spelling is derived from the German czarin or zarin, in the same way as the French tsarine/czarine, and the Spanish and Italian czarina/zarina. For a Tsar's daughters see tsarevna.

"Tsaritsa" was the title of the female supreme ruler in the following states:

Bulgaria: in 913–1018, in 1185–1422 and in 1908–1946

Serbia: in 1346–1371

Russia: officially from about 1547 until 1721, unofficially in 1721–1917 (officially "Empresses").

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