Simba rebellion

The Simba rebellion of 1964–65, also known as Orientale Revolt,[5] was a rebellion in Congo-Léopoldville which took place within the wider context of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War. The rebellion, located in the east of the country, was led by the followers of Patrice Lumumba, who had been ousted from power in 1960 by Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu and subsequently killed in January 1961 in Katanga. The rebellion was contemporaneous with the Kwilu rebellion led by fellow Lumumbist Pierre Mulele in central Congo.

Background

The causes of the Simba Rebellion should be viewed as part of the wider struggle for power within the Republic of the Congo following independence from Belgium on 30 June 1960 as well as within the context of other Cold War interventions in Africa by the West and the Soviet Union. The rebellion can be immediately traced back to the assassination of the first Prime Minister of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba, in January 1961. Political infighting and intrigue followed, resulting in the ascendancy of Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in Kinshasa at the expense of politicians who had supported Lumumba such as Antoine Gizenga, Christophe Gbenye and Gaston Soumialot.

In 1961, this change in power led Antoine Gizenga to declare the creation of a rebel government in Stanleyville. This new state, dubbed the Free Republic of the Congo, received support from the Soviet Union and China as they positioned themselves as being "socialists" opposed to American intervention in the Congo and involvement in the death of Lumumba although, as with Lumumba, there is some dispute over the true political inclinations of the Lumumbists. However, in August 1961, Gizenga dissolved the government in Stanleyville with the intention of taking part in the United Nations sponsored talks at Lovanium University. These talks ultimately did not deliver the Lumumbist government that had been intended, Gizenga was arrested and imprisoned on Balu-Bemba and many of the Lumumbists went into exile.

It was in exile that the rebellion began to take shape. In 1963, the Conseil National de Libération (CNL) was founded by Gbenye and Soumialot in Brazzaville, capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo. However, whilst these plans for rebellion were being developed in exile, Pierre Mulele returned from his training in China to launch a revolution in his native province of Kwilu. Mulele proved to be a capable leader and scored a number of early successes, although these would remain localised to Kwilu. With the country again seeming to be in open rebellion of the government in Kinshasa, the CNL launched its rebellion in their political heartland around Stanleyville.

Simba forces and ideology

Gbenye's forces were organized as the "Armée Populaire de Libération" (APL), though were generally nicknamed "Simbas",[5] meaning a lion or big lion in Swahili.[6] They were recruited from ANC mutineers, tribesmen, and youth militants (jeunesse). In general, the Armée Populaire de Libération was divided into regular units which were organized like the ANC (namely the unités d'operations and unités de garnison), and units which were more akin to irregular militias (barriéres). Although they were on average well motivated, the Simbas lacked discipline and their command as well as control were often chaotic.[7]

The majority of the Simbas were young men and teens although children were not unheard of in the conflict. The rebels were led by Gaston Soumialot and Christophe Gbenye, who had been members of Gizenga's Parti Solidaire Africain (PSA), and Laurent Kabila, who had been a member of the Lumumba aligned Association générale des Baluba du Katanga (BALUBAKAT).

Because of the range of political beliefs amongst the Simba rebels, attributing an ideology to the rebellion is very complex. Whilst the leaders claimed to be influenced by Chinese Maoist ideas, the Cuban military advisor Che Guevara wrote that the majority of the fighters did not hold these views. The fighters also practised a system of traditional beliefs which held that correct behaviour and the regular reapplying of dawa (water ritually applied by a medicine man) would leave the fighters impervious to bullets.

Early rebel expansion, January-August 1964

The Simba rebels managed to intimidate two well-equipped battalions of government Armée Nationale Congolaise (ANC) soldiers into retreating without a fight. They rapidly began to capture important cities. Within weeks, they controlled about half of the Congo. By August they had captured Stanleyville where a 1,500-man ANC force fled leaving behind weapons and vehicles which the Simba rebels captured. The attack consisted of a charge, led by shamans, with forty Simba warriors. No shots were fired by the Simba rebels.[8]

As the rebel movement spread, discipline became more difficult to maintain, and acts of violence and terror increased. Thousands of Congolese were executed, including government officials, political leaders of opposition parties, provincial and local police, school teachers, and others believed to have been Westernized. Many of the executions were carried out with extreme cruelty, in front of a monument to Patrice Lumumba in Stanleyville.[9]

With much of Northern Congo and the Congolese upcountry under control, the Simba rebels moved south against Kasai Province. Kasai had rich mining concerns but was also a strategic key to more lasting control of Congo. If the rebels could capture Kasai Province up to the Angola border they could cut the government forces in half, isolating Katanga Province and severely overstretching ANC lines. In August 1964 unknown thousands of Simbas moved down out of the hills and began the conquest of Kasai. As before ANC forces retreated with little fight by either throwing down arms completely or defecting to the rebels.

Newly appointed Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe acted decisively against the new threat. Using contacts he had made while exiled in Spain, Tshombe was able to organize an airlift of his former soldiers currently exiled in rural Angola. The airlift was enacted by the United States and facilitated by the Portuguese as both feared a Soviet influenced socialist state in the middle of Africa. Tshombe's forces were composed primarily of Belgian trained Katangese Gendarmes who had previously served the Belgian Colonial Authority. They were a highly disciplined and well equipped force who had only just barely lost a bid for independence in the previous conflict.[10] In addition the force was accompanied by Jerry Puren and a score of mercenary pilots flying Second World War surplus training planes fitted with machine guns.

Christophe Gbenye as President of the People's Republic of the Congo with General Nicholas Olenga
Christophe Gbenye (left) and General Nicholas Olenga (right), before the Patrice Lumumba monument in Stanleyville, 1964

The combined force marched on Kasai Province and encountered Simba forces near Luluabourg. Its mercenary pilots strafed nearby Simba columns which lacked any anti-aircraft equipment. At the behest of accompanying shamans, many Simba warriors had even discarded their firearms as a way of purifying themselves from "Western" corruption.

The engagement began in a shallow, long valley with Simba forces attacking in an irregular mixture of infantry and motorized forces, which charged directly at the ANC force. In response, the ANC troops also advanced directly, led by jeeps and trucks. The Simba rebels encountered heavy losses because of ANC machine-gun fire. It was a decisive defeat and the Simba rebels were forced to abandon their attacks in Kasai.[11]

Success in Kasai justified Tshombe's decision to bring in Western mercenaries to augment well-trained Katangese formations. Two hundred mercenaries from France, South Africa, West Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, and Angola arrived in Katanga Province over the next month. The largely white mercenaries provided the ANC with a highly trained and experienced force that was unaffected by the indiscipline and social tensions within the ANC.[12] They provided an expertise that could not be matched. Ironically, their presence also strengthened the recruitment efforts of the Simba rebels who could portray the ANC as a Western puppet.

Once the mercenaries were concentrated they spearheaded a combined offensive against the city of Albertville. Once captured, Albertville would give the ANC access to Lake Tanganyika and serve as a staging base for future offensives to relieve Government enclaves in the North. Simba forces were deployed in several large mobs around Albertville in expectation for an attack by ANC infantry and the motorized Gendarmes.

Laissez-Passer of the People's Republic of the Congo-Stanleyville
Official pass issued by the People's Republic of the Congo, the communist government declared by the Simbas

Mike Hoare, a white mercenary commander, led three boats of mercenaries around the Simba rebel flank to attack Albertville from the rear in a night attack. The move made good progress but was diverted when it ran across a Catholic Priest who convinced the mercenaries to rescue 60 clergy currently being held by Simba troops. The mercenaries failed to either rescue the priests or capture the Albertville's airport. The next day ANC infantry and the motorized Gendarmes re-captured the city, overwhelming poorly armed Simba resistance. Together with the success in Kasai the victory at Albertville stabilized the government southern flank. The abuse of the clergy also increased Western support for the Tshombe Government.[13]

In July 1964, Moïse Tshombe had replaced Cyrille Adoula as Prime Minister of a new national government with a mandate to end the regional revolts. By early August 1964 Congolese government forces, with the help of the white mercenaries, were making headway against the Simba rebellion. Fearing defeat, the rebels reached out for support from the Soviet Union and Cuba. The Ugandan government, which felt that Tshombe was beholden to Western interests, offered covert aid to Gbenye. This included the use of government forces to train the rebels as well as the allowance for Ugandan territory to be used as a resupply route. Some Ugandan troops served alongside the rebels in combat,[1] and the Congolese ANC and the Ugandan 1st Battalion directly clashed along the border of the two countries at some point in 1964.[14] The Congolese government retaliated by bombing villages in Uganda's West Nile District.[1]

Hostages

The rebels started taking hostages from the local white population in areas under their control. Several hundred hostages were taken to Stanleyville and placed under guard in the Victoria Hotel. A group of Belgian and Italian nuns were taken hostage by rebel leader Gaston Soumaliot.[15] The nuns were forced into hard labor and numerous atrocities were reported by news agencies all over the world.[16] Uvira, near the border with Burundi was a supply route for the rebellions. On October 7, 1964 the nuns were liberated.[17] From Uvira they escaped by road to Bukavu from where they returned to Belgium by airplane.[18]

Rebel collapse, August 1964 - November 1965

As the quasi-communist Simba rebels faltered, the Soviet Union and Cuba took an active role in the conflict, flying or trucking in supplies, armaments and personnel. Included in these were Soviet advisors who attempted to turn the Simba army into a Western-style force, based on squads of riflemen supporting a machine gun team. The reforms were conducted quickly, and by late 1964 the Simba forces had some degree of modernity, instead of loose gangs of men armed with anything available.

Soviet explosives seized in the Congo
Soviet explosives seized by the Congolese army from the Simbas

As aid from the Soviet Union was received by the Simba military establishment, the Simba force made one final push against the government capital of Kinshasa. The advance made some headway but was stopped cold when several hundred mercenaries were airlifted North and attacked the flank of the Simba pincer. The mercenaries were then able to capture the key town of Boende. After this success, more mercenaries were hired and dispatched to every province in Congo.[19]

Once that the final Simba offensives were checked, the ANC began to squeeze Simba force controlled territory for all sides. ANC commanders formed a loose perimeter around Simba territory, pushing in with a variety of shallow and deep pincers. With mercenaries acting as shock contingent for ANC forces, the Congolese government used aircraft to transport mercenaries to hotspots or rebel strongholds. Mercenary forces become adept at outflanking and then reducing Simba positions with enfilade fire.[20]

Operation Dragon Rouge

Dragon Rouge - DG100b
Refugees move towards the airfield for evacuation

The Congolese government turned to Belgium and the United States for help. In response, the Belgian army sent a task force to Léopoldville, airlifted by the U.S. 322nd Air Division. The Belgian and American governments tried to come up with a rescue plan. Several ideas were considered and discarded, while attempts at negotiating with the Simba force failed.

The task force was led by the Belgian Colonel Charles Laurent.[21] On 24 November 1964, five US Air Force C-130 transports dropped 350 Belgian paratroopers of the Para-Commando Regiment onto Simi-Simi Airport on the western outskirts of Stanleyville.[22] Once the paratroopers had secured the airfield and cleared the runway they made their way to the Victoria Hotel, prevented Simba rebels from killing most of the 60 hostages, and evacuated them via the airfield.[22]

Two missions were flown, one over Stanleyville designated as Dragon Rouge and another over Isiro called Dragon Noir.[22] Over the next two days over 1,800 Americans and Europeans were evacuated, as well as around 400 Congolese. However, almost 200 foreigners and thousands of Congolese were executed by the Simbas.[23]

The operation coincided with the arrival of mercenary units (seemingly including the hurriedly formed 5th Mechanised Brigade and Mike Hoare's 5 Commando ANC) at Stanleyville, which was quickly captured. It took until the end of the year to completely put down the remaining areas of rebellion.

Final rebel strongholds

Congolese soldiers with Chinese propaganda
ANC soldiers with captured Maoist rebel propaganda

Though the main rebel forces had been dispersed, large areas in eastern Congo remained under Simba control. Furthermore, the rebels began to receive more assistance from Cuba which sent around 100 Afro-Cuban volunteers under Che Guevara to train them in March 1965. There were also plans to sent trainers from other Communist countries to Congo as well. Instead, however, international support for the Simbas declined due to the 1965 Algerian coup d'état and the Sino-Soviet split. Furthermore, the Maoist leadership of the Simbas disagreed with the Cubans over ideology, resulting in growing tensions.[24] At the same time, the ANC launched two major campaigns in 1965 against the two last major Simba strongholds which were located along the Ugandan and Sudanese borders as well as in South Kivu.[3] By summer 1965, the Simbas had lost a majority of their territory and were being abandoned by the Soviets and Cubans. The final Simba stronghold at Bukavu held out for a month but was inevitably captured but only after the Simba force had killed several thousand civilians.[25] In November 1965, the Cubans left the Congo. At this point, the rebellion was effectively defeated.[24]

Aftermath

Though the Simba rebellion had been crushed, rebel remnants continued to be active. Weak and no real threat to the Congolese government, they waged a low-level guerrilla war from bases in remote frontier regions.[26] Notable Simba holdouts were located in the western Virunga Mountains (these forces eventually became the Parti de Libération Congolais)[27] and in South Kivu (Kabila's People's Revolution Party).[26] Some of the Simba holdouts continued to be active until the First Congo War in 1996/97 when Kabila became President of the Congo.[28]

Despite successfully defeating the Simbas, Tshombe's prestige was damaged by the joint Belgian–US operation which saw white mercenaries and western forces intervene once again in the Congo.

See also

  • The Gold Scandal in Uganda, which was linked to the Simba rebellion

References

  1. ^ a b c Mujaju 1987, p. 484.
  2. ^ Abbott (2014), p. 15.
  3. ^ a b Abbott (2014), p. 18.
  4. ^ Olivier, Lanotte. "Chronology of the Democratic Republic of Congo/Zaire (1960-1997)". Mass Violence and Resistance - Research Network. Paris Institute of Political Studies.
  5. ^ a b Abbott (2014), p. 14.
  6. ^ Modern Swahili Grammar, East African Educational Publisher Ltd, 2001, p. 42
  7. ^ Abbott (2014), p. 16.
  8. ^ Kinder, Hermann; Werner Hilgemannitle=The Anchor Atlas of World History (1978). 2. New York: Garden City. p. 268 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+zr0037). Retrieved March 16, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ M. Crawford Young. "Post-Independence Politics in the Congo": 34–41. JSTOR 2934325.
  10. ^ Rodgers (1998), pp. 13–16
  11. ^ Rodgers (1998), pp. 16–19
  12. ^ Rodgers (1998), pp. 16,20
  13. ^ Rodgers (1998), pp. 16, 20–21
  14. ^ Risdel Kasasira (27 February 2017). "Life as an Amin army commander". Daily Monitor. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Gaston Soumaliot (Dutch)". Users.telenet.be. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
  16. ^ "Atrocities at Uvira, July 24, 1964". Archive.catholicherald.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
  17. ^ "Liberation of Uvira (in French)". Kisimba.skynetblogs.be. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
  18. ^ "Presentation by Sister Marie-Rose Dewyspelaere of the 1964 events in Uvira. Sister Marie-Rose Dewyspelaere moved to Uvira in 1966" (PDF) (in Dutch). Dewyspelare.be.
  19. ^ Rodgers (1998), p. 20
  20. ^ Annual Report of the American Bible Society, Volume 156, American Bible Society, 1971, p. 58
  21. ^ "HistoryNet – From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher". Historynet.com. Archived from the original on 2008-03-16. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
  22. ^ a b c Dragon Operations: Hostage Rescues in the Congo, 1964–1965, Maj. T. Odom
  23. ^ The Responsibility to Protect Archived 2014-11-15 at the Wayback Machine, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, December 2001
  24. ^ a b Abbott (2014), p. 19.
  25. ^ Annual Report of the American Bible Society, Volume 156, American Bible Society, 1971, p. 58
  26. ^ a b Prunier (2009), p. 77.
  27. ^ Prunier (2009), p. 83.
  28. ^ Prunier (2009), pp. 77, 83.

Works cited

  • Abbott, Peter (2014). Modern African Wars (4): The Congo 1960–2002. Oxford; New York City: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78200-076-1.
  • Dunn, Kevin C. (2003). Imagining the Congo: International Relations of Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Fox, Renee C.; de Craemer, Willy; Ribeaucourt, Jean-Marie (October 1965). ""The Second Independence": A Case Study of the Kwilu Rebellion in the Congo". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 8 (1): 78–109. doi:10.1017/s0010417500003911. JSTOR 177537.
  • Gelijeses, Piero (2002). Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington and Africa, 1959-1976. London: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Gleijeses, Piero (April 1994). ""Flee! The White Giants Are Coming!": The United States, the Mercenaries, and the Congo, 1964–65". Diplomatic History. 18 (2): 207–37. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1994.tb00611.x. ISSN 0145-2096.
  • Guevara, Ernesto 'Che' (2011). Congo Diary: Episodes of the Revolutionary War in the Congo. New York: Ocean Press.
  • Hoare, Mike (2008). Congo Mercenary. Boulder: Sycamore Island Books.
  • Kisangani, Emizet Francois (2012). Civil Wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1960-2010. London: Lynne Rienner.
  • Mujaju, Akiiki B. (October 1987). "The Gold Allegations Motion and Political Development in Uganda". African Affairs. 86 (345): 479–504. JSTOR 722666.
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges (2002). The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: a people's history. London: Zed Books.
  • Prunier, Gérard (2009). Africa's World War : Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-970583-2.
  • Reybrouck, David van (2014). Congo: the epic history of a people. New York: Ecco.
  • Rodgers, Anthony (1998). Someone Else's War. Harper-Collins.
  • Verhaegen, Benoît (1967). "Les rébellions populaires au Congo en 1964". Cahiers d'études africaines. 7 (26): 345–59. doi:10.3406/cea.1967.3100. ISSN 0008-0055.
  • Wagoner, Fred E. (2003). Dragon Rouge: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.
  • Witte, Ludo de (2002). The Assassination of Lumumba. London: Verso.
1967 in Bolivia

Events in the year 1967 in Bolivia.

ASEAN Declaration

The ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was signed in Bangkok on 8 August 1967 by the five ASEAN founding members, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and communist insurgency within their own borders. It states the basic principles of ASEAN: co-operation, amity, and non-interference. The date is now celebrated as ASEAN Day.

Christophe Gbenye

Christophe Gbenye (c.1927 – 3 February 2015) was a Congolese politician, trade unionist, and rebel who, along with Pierre Mulele and Gaston Soumialot, led the Simba Rebellion, an anti-government insurrection in the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the Congo Crisis, between 1964 and 1965.

Congo Crisis

The Congo Crisis (French: Crise congolaise), was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965. The crisis began almost immediately after the Congo became independent from Belgium and ended, unofficially, with the entire country under the rule of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. Constituting a series of civil wars, the Congo Crisis was also a proxy conflict in the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and the United States supported opposing factions. Around 100,000 people are believed to have been killed during the crisis.

A nationalist movement in the Belgian Congo demanded the end of colonial rule: this led to the country's independence on 30 June 1960. Minimal preparations had been made and many issues, such as federalism, tribalism, and ethnic nationalism, remained unresolved. In the first week of July, a mutiny broke out in the army and violence erupted between black and white civilians. Belgium sent troops to protect fleeing whites. Katanga and South Kasai seceded with Belgian support. Amid continuing unrest and violence, the United Nations deployed peacekeepers, but UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, the charismatic leader of the largest nationalist faction, reacted by calling for assistance from the Soviet Union, which promptly sent military advisors and other support.

The involvement of the Soviets split the Congolese government and led to an impasse between Lumumba and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Mobutu, in command of the army, broke this deadlock with a coup d'état, expelled the Soviet advisors and established a new government effectively under his own control. Lumumba was taken captive and subsequently executed in 1961. A rival government of the "Free Republic of the Congo" was founded in the eastern city of Stanleyville by Lumumba supporters led by Antoine Gizenga. It gained Soviet support but was crushed in early 1962. Meanwhile, the UN took a more aggressive stance towards the secessionists after Hammarskjöld was killed in a plane crash in late 1961. Supported by UN troops, Léopoldville defeated secessionist movements in Katanga and South Kasai by the start of 1963.

With Katanga and South Kasai back under the government's control, a reconciliatory compromise constitution was adopted and the exiled Katangese leader, Moïse Tshombe, was recalled to head an interim administration while fresh elections were organised. Before these could be held, however, Maoist-inspired militants calling themselves the "Simbas" rose up in the east of the country. The Simbas took control of a significant amount of territory and proclaimed a communist "People's Republic of the Congo" in Stanleyville. Government forces gradually retook territory and, in November 1964, Belgium and the United States intervened militarily in Stanleyville to recover hostages from Simba captivity. The Simbas were defeated and collapsed soon after. Following the elections in March 1965, a new political stalemate developed between Tshombe and Kasa-Vubu, forcing the government into near-paralysis. Mobutu mounted a second coup d'état in November 1965, now taking personal control. Under Mobutu's rule, the Congo (renamed Zaire in 1971) was transformed into a dictatorship which would endure until his deposition in 1997.

Congolese Civil War

Congolese Civil War or Congo War may refer to any of a number of armed conflicts in present-day countries of Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Western Africa:

In the historic Kingdom of Kongo:

Kongo Civil War (1665–1709)

In the Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Congo-Brazzaville):

Republic of the Congo Civil War (1993–94)

Republic of the Congo Civil War (1997–99)

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Congo-Léopoldville, Congo-Kinshasa, or Zaire):

Congo Crisis (1960–1965), dating from the country's independence from Belgium to the rise of dictator Mobutu Sese Seko

Simba rebellion (1964), subconflict of the Congo Crisis

First Congo War (1996–1997), which led to the overthrow of Mobutu by Laurent-Désiré Kabila and his rebels

Second Congo War (1998–2003), involved nine nations and led to ongoing low-level warfare despite an official peace treaty and the first democratic elections in 2006

Ituri conflict (1999–2007), a subconflict of the Second Congo War

Effacer le tableau (2002-2003), a genocide of Mbuti and other Pygmy tribes by the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo in North Kivu

Kivu conflict (2004–present)

M23 rebellion (2012–2013)

Gualtiero Jacopetti

Gualtiero Jacopetti (4 September 1919 – 17 August 2011) was an Italian documentary film director. With Paolo Cavara and Franco Prosperi, he is considered the originator of mondo films, also called "shockumentaries".

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.

Jamaican political conflict

The Jamaican political conflict is a long standing feud between right-wing and left-wing elements in the country, often exploding into violence. The Jamaican Labor Party and the People's National Party have fought for control of the island for years and the rivalry has encouraged urban warfare in Kingston. Each side believes the other to be controlled by foreign elements, the JLP is said to be backed by the American Central Intelligence Agency and the PNP is said to been backed by the Soviet Union and Fidel Castro.

Johnson Doctrine

The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson after the United States' intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.

List of conflicts in Africa

This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc.), and global conflicts in which Africa was a theatre of war.

List of wars involving Uganda

The following is a list of wars involving Uganda.

Léonard Mulamba

Major-General Léonard Mulamba (1928 – 12 August 1986) was a military and political leader of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Then-Colonel Mulamba was Chief of Staff of the Armée Nationale Congolaise (ANC) from October 1964, until named Prime Minister after the coup d'état led by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu of 25 November 1965. Born in the Kasai region in 1930, Mulamba joined the colonial gendarmerie known as the Force Publique in 1949. He was promoted to the rank of Sergeant Major by 1960 and after independence quickly became an officer. He commanded IX battalion of gendarmes at Luluabourg in 1960.

In 1962, he was assigned to command the 3rd Groupement at Stanleyville. He "gained international fame for.. defence of Bukavu and for conducting one of the most decisive battles of the 1964 north-east revolution the Simba Rebellion of 1964. When Kisangani was recaptured from rebel forces in 1964 he was named military governor of the entire northeastern region." Mulamba has always enjoyed popularity with the troops under his command.Mulamba was removed from premiership by Mobutu on 26 October 1966, following pressure from army high command. The Historical Dictionary of the DRC writes that "Mobutu dismissed Mulumba and abolished the post on 26 October 1966 by citing Mulumba's lax attitude to the mutiny of the Baka Regiment in Stanleyville." Following his dismissal, Mobutu became head of government as well as head of state.

He later served as ambassador to India (1967–1969), Japan (1969–1976) and Brazil (1976–1979).

Mad Mike Hoare

Thomas Michael "Mad Mike" Hoare (born 17 March 1919) is a British mercenary leader and adventurer known for military activities in Africa and his attempt to conduct a coup d'état in the Seychelles. He turned 100 years old in 2019, despite his lifelong philosophy that 'you get more out of life by living dangerously'.

His son Chris Hoare wrote a biography on Mike Hoare's life of derring do. It is titled 'Mad Mike' Hoare: The Legend. ISBN 9780620798617. A brief biography of Mike Hoare, listing some of his involvements around the world|website=www.mercenary-wars.net|access-date=2017-09-17}}

Operation Dragon Rouge

Operation Dragon Rouge was a hostage rescue operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo conducted by Belgium and the United States in 1964. The operation was led by the Belgian Paracommando Regiment to rescue hostages held by Simba rebels in the town of Stanleyville.

Paul Carlson

Paul Carlson (March 31, 1928 – November 24, 1964) was an American physician and medical missionary who served in Wasolo, a town in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He originated from Rolling Hills Covenant Church in Southern California, which is a member of the Evangelical Covenant Church denomination. He was killed in 1964 by rebel insurgents after being falsely accused of being an American spy.

Pierre Mulele

Pierre Mulele (11 August 1929 – 3 or 9 October 1968) was a Congolese rebel active in the Simba Rebellion of 1964. Mulele had also been minister of education in Patrice Lumumba's cabinet. With the assassination of Lumumba in January 1961 and the arrest of his recognised deputy Antoine Gizenga one year later, Mulele became one of the top Lumumbists determined to continue the struggle. He went to Cairo, Egypt, as the representative of the Lumumbists' Congo National Liberation Committee based in Brazzaville. From Cairo he proceeded to China in 1963 to receive military training, and also took a group of Congolese youths with him, who received training in guerrilla tactics. He was a member of the Bapende ethnic group.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

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