Silky-flycatcher

The silky-flycatchers are a small family, Ptiliogonatidae, of passerine birds. The family contains only four species in three genera. They were formerly lumped with waxwings and hypocolius in the family Bombycillidae, and they are listed in that family by the Sibley-Monroe checklist. The family is named for their silky plumage and their aerial flycatching techniques, although they are unrelated to the Old World flycatchers (Muscicapidae) and the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae).[2]

They occur mainly in Central America from Panama to Mexico, with one species, the phainopepla, extending northwards into the southwestern US. Most do not engage in long-distance migration (instead wandering widely in search of fruit), but the phainopepla is migratory over the northern part of its range.[2]

They are related to waxwings, and like that group have soft silky plumage, usually gray or pale yellow in color. All species, with the exception of the black-and-yellow phainoptila, have small crests. They range in size from 18 to 25 cm in length and are mostly slender birds (with the exception again of the black-and-yellow phainoptila). All the species in this family are sexually dimorphic in both plumage color and tail length. Juveniles of both sexes are colored like the female.[2]

These birds eat fruit or insects. The phainopepla is particularly dependent on desert mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum.

They are found in various types of woodland (semi-desert with trees for the phainopepla), and they nest in trees.

Silky-flycatchers
Phainopepla nitens 1
Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Infraorder: Passerida
Family: Ptiliogonatidae
Baird, 1858
Genera
  • Phainoptila
  • Ptilogonys
  • Phainopepla
Synonyms
  • Ptilogonatidae[1]

Species

References

  1. ^ Chesser, R. Terry; et al. (July 2013). "Fifty-Fourth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk. 130 (3): 558–572. doi:10.1525/auk.2013.130.3.558.
  2. ^ a b c Chu, Miyoko (2005), "Family Ptilogonatidae (Silky-flycatchers)", in del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.), Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 10, Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 292–304, ISBN 84-87334-72-5
Black-and-yellow phainoptila

The black-and-yellow phainoptila or black-and-yellow silky-flycatcher (Phainoptila melanoxantha) is a species of bird in the family Ptiliogonatidae. It is monotypic within the genus Phainoptila. It is found in Costa Rica and Panama.

Grey silky-flycatcher

The grey silky-flycatcher or grey silky (Ptiliogonys cinereus), is a species of bird in the Ptiliogonatidae family.

It is usually found only in Guatemala and Mexico, but vagrants have turned up in the southern United States.

It is found in montane forest and adjacent scrub, both mesic and xeric.

List of birds of California

This list of birds of California is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the U.S. state of California as determined by the California Bird Records Committee (CBRC).As of December 2018, there are 673 species on this list. Two of these species are endemic, 11 were introduced by humans (directly or indirectly), one species has been extirpated, and one was extirpated in the wild but its reintroduction is in progress. Four additional species have been documented but "the CBRC could not reach a consensus as to whether records of these species involved true naturally occurring vagrants or escapes from captivity." The following tags note species in each of those categories and one additional category:

(En) Endemic to California

(I) Introduced but now established in California

(Ex) Extirpated from California

(RI) Reintroduction in progress - not yet established

(*) California Bird Records Committee Review Species (194 species; in general, review species average four or fewer occurrences per year in California over the most recent ten-year period.)

(UO) Of unknown originIndividuals or even flocks of many additional species have been recorded in California but these birds are assumed to be deliberately released or escaped from captivity. In the absence of evidence of wild origin, they are not included in the CBRC list.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list. The taxonomic sequencing of these bird species (as opposed to alphabetical) is done to more easily enable the identification of common traits between closely related species. With taxonomic sequencing, closely related species tend to be listed adjacent to one another.

List of birds of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018. This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered. Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica

(R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica

(E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Guatemala

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guatemala. The avifauna of Guatemala included a total of 762 species as of August 2017, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of them, 46 are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. One species (now extinct) was endemic and two non-endemic species have been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Guatemala as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Guatemala

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Guatemala

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Guatemala as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Mexico

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mexico. The avifauna of Mexico included a total of 1118 species as of February 2018, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 87 are rare or accidental, 10 have been introduced by humans, 108 are endemic, and five more breed only in Mexico though their non-breeding range is larger. Four species are known to be extinct, 65 are globally vulnerable or endangered, and three of the latter might also be extinct. The total figure includes a number of species which are known only from sight records; they are listed but not especially noted. An additional endemic species was named in July 2018, so it is not in the above counts.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Mexico as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mexico

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Mexico

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Mexico as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Panama

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Panama. The avifauna of Panama included a total of 986 species as of January 2018, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Between that date and July 2018, 10 additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 996 species, 144 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans. Seven are endemic. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 did not change any of these counts.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Panama as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Panama

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Panama as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Texas

The list of birds of Texas is the official list of species recorded in the U.S. state of Texas according to the Texas Bird Records Committee (TBRC) of the Texas Ornithological Society. As of May 2019, the list contained 650 species. Of them, 159 are considered review species. Six species were introduced to Texas, two are known to be extinct and another is thought to be, and a fourth is extirpated and possibly extinct.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Texas as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Review species- species "for which documentation for review is requested for any record" by the TBRC

(I) Introduced – introduced to Texas by humans, directly or indirectly.

(E) Extinct – species which no longer exist

(e) (lowercase) Extirpated – no longer found in Texas but exists elsewhere

(RI) Reintroduction in progress - per the TBRC, two species are present but have not been reestablished following earlier extirpation

(u) uncertain – per the TBRC, two species have "stable to increasing populations of introduced/native origin"

List of birds of the United States

This list of birds of the United States is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species confirmed in the United States as of July, 2018. It includes species from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and all U.S. territories.

The birds of the continental United States most closely resemble those of Eurasia, which was connected to the continent as part of the supercontinent Laurasia until around 60 million years ago. Many groups occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere and worldwide. However some groups unique to the New World have also arisen; those represented in this list are the hummingbirds, the New World vultures, the New World quail, the tyrant flycatchers, the vireos, the mimids, the New World warblers, the tanagers, the cardinals, and the icterids.

Several common birds in the United States, such as the house sparrow, the rock pigeon, the European starling, and the mute swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by humans. Introduced species are marked on this list as (I). In addition, many non-native species which have individual escapees or small feral populations in North America are not on this list. This is especially true of birds that are commonly held as pets, such as parrots and finches.

The status of one bird on this list, the ivory-billed woodpecker, is controversial. Until 2005 this bird was widely considered to be extinct. In April of that year it was reported that at least one adult male bird had been sighted in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas. This report, however, has not been universally accepted and the American Birding Association still lists the ivory-billed woodpecker as extinct.

Hawaii has many endemic bird species (such as the Kauaʻi ʻelepaio) that are vulnerable or endangered, and some have become extinct. The number of birds on Guam has been severely reduced by introduced brown tree snakes — several endemic species on Guam (such as the Guam flycatcher) have become extinct, while others (such as the Guam rail) have become extinct in the wild. There are many endemic bird species in Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands, while American Samoa has South Pacific bird species (such as the many-colored fruit dove) found in no other part of the United States.

Long-tailed silky-flycatcher

The long-tailed silky-flycatcher (Ptiliogonys caudatus) is a passerine bird which occurs only in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama, usually from 1,850 m altitude to the timberline. It is a thrush-sized species weighing about 37 g. The silky-flycatchers are related to waxwings, and like that group have soft silky plumage.

The habitat of this bird is mountain forests, where the breeding pair builds a neat cup of lichen 2 to 18 m above ground in a tree, sometimes in loose colonies. The female lays two brown and lilac-blotched grey eggs, which are incubated by both adults. The young fledge 18 to 25 days after hatching, and are fed by both parents.

The male long-tailed silky-flycatcher is 24 cm long and has a pale grey forehead. The rest of the crested head, neck, throat and lower belly are yellow. The back, lower breast and upper belly are blue-grey, and the flight feathers and long pointed tail are black. The outer tail feathers are spotted with white.

The female is 21 cm long and generally duller than the male, with a darker grey forehead, olive body plumage and a shorter, duller black tail. Immatures are similar to the adults, but the central tail feathers are shorter and the white spotting on the outer tail is indistinct.

This species forages in small flocks when not breeding, flycatching for insects or taking small fruits, especially mistletoe. Long-tailed silky-flycatchers often perch prominently on high exposed twigs.

The call of the long-tailed silky-flycatcher is a repeated chee-chip.

This species is a host to the biting louse Brueelia ptilogonis.

Mistletoe

Mistletoe is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales. They are attached to their host tree or shrub by a structure called the haustorium, through which they extract water and nutrients from the host plant. Their parasitic lifestyle have led to some dramatic changes in their metabolism.The name mistletoe originally referred to the species Viscum album (European mistletoe, of the family Santalaceae in the order Santalales); it is the only species native to the British Isles and much of Europe. A separate species, Viscum cruciatum, occurs in Southwest Spain and Southern Portugal, as well as Morocco (North Africa) and southern Africa.Over the centuries, the term has been broadened to include many other species of parasitic plants with similar habits, found in other parts of the world, that are classified in different genera and even families—such as the Misodendraceae and the Loranthaceae.

In particular, the eastern mistletoe native to North America, Phoradendron leucarpum, belongs to a distinct genus of the family Santalaceae. The genus Viscum is not native to North America, but Viscum album has been introduced to California. European mistletoe has smooth-edged, oval, evergreen leaves borne in pairs along the woody stem, and waxy, white berries that it bears in clusters of two to six. The Eastern mistletoe of North America is similar, but has shorter, broader leaves and longer clusters of 10 or more berries.

Ornate hawk-eagle

The ornate hawk-eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) is a fairly large bird of prey from the tropical Americas. Formerly, some authorities referred to this species as the crested hawk-eagle, a name that may cause some confusion as it is more commonly used for an Asian eagle species. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae. This species has a feathered tarsus that marks it as a member of the Aquilinae or booted eagle subfamily. This species is notable for the vivid colors and bold markings of adults, which differ considerably from the far more whitish plumage of the juvenile bird. The ornate hawk-eagle ranges from central Mexico south through much of Central America and in a somewhat spotty but broad overall range into South America, including in the west apart from the Andes and broadly on the Atlantic side especially Brazil down to as far as Southeast Brazil and northern Argentina. This species is found largely in primary forests with tall trees, although can be found in many forest types. The ornate hawk-eagle female lays almost always a single egg and the species has a fairly prolonged breeding cycle like many tropical raptors, especially due to a lengthy post-fledging stage on which juveniles are dependent on their parents. It a diversified and exceptionally powerful predator which takes a range of prey, usually led by various medium-to-large-sized birds and small-to-medium-sized mammals as well as occasional reptiles. Like many forest-dependent raptors, especially those in the tropical and subtropical regions, this species is likely under the pressing threat of deforestation. The decline of forest habitat in this species range, especially the Amazon rainforest, led the IUCN to uplist the ornate hawk-eagle as Near Threatened in 2016.

Phoradendron

Phoradendron is a genus of mistletoe, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Americas. The center of diversity is the Amazon rainforest. Phoradendron is the largest genus of mistletoe in the Americas, and possibly the largest genus of mistletoes in the world. Traditionally, the genus has been placed in the family Viscaceae, but recent genetic research acknowledged by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group shows this family to be correctly placed within a larger circumscription of the sandalwood family, Santalaceae.

They are woody hemi-parasitic shrubs with branches 10–80 cm (3.9–31.5 in) long, which grow on other trees. The foliage is dichotomously branching, with opposite pairs of leaves; these are fairly large, 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long, green and photosynthetic in some species (e.g. P. leucarpum), but minimal in some others (e.g. P. californicum). Although they are able to photosynthesize the plant relies on its host for some nutrients. The plant draws its mineral and water needs, and some of its energy needs, from the host tree using a haustorium which grows into the stems of the host.The flowers are inconspicuous and incomplete, no petals and 3-4 greenish-yellow sepals, 1–3 mm (0.039–0.118 in) diameter. The fruit is a berry, white, yellow, orange, or red when mature, containing one to several seeds embedded in very sticky juice, called viscin. The flowers are unisexual, and depending on the species, the plant will be monoecious or dioecious (both male and female flowers on a single plant or male and female plants with only one sex of flowers). The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the fruit and remove the sticky seeds from their bills by wiping them on tree branches where they can germinate.

The foliage and berries of some species are toxic. Leafy mistletoes seldom kill but they cause stress reducing crop productions in fruits and nut trees.Phoradendron plants can be distinguished from mistletoes in other genera in Viscaceae by their inflorescences, which lack leaves and come from a single branching point or apical meristem. However, it can be difficult to identify species within Phoradendron, because leaf shape and color can vary greatly even within species.

Phoradendron californicum

Phoradendron californicum, the desert mistletoe or mesquite mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant native to southern California, Nevada, Arizona, Sonora, Sinaloa and Baja California. It can be found in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts at elevations of up to 1400 m (4600 feet).The mistletoe is a leafless plant that attaches to host plants, often leguminous woody desert trees such as Cercidium and Prosopis. Desert mistletoe takes water and minerals from its host plants but it does its own photosynthesis, making it a hemiparasite.

During the winter it produces inconspicuous, fragrant flowers. Female desert mistletoe plants produce red to clear berries that are eaten by the phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), a silky flycatcher, which then spreads the seeds. Phainopeplas cannot digest the seed of desert mistletoe, so the birds disperse the seeds when they defecate or wipe their bills.

Phoradendron tomentosum

Phoradendron tomentosum, the leafy mistletoe, hairy mistletoe or Christmas mistletoe, is a plant parasite. It is characterized by its larger leaves and smaller berries than dwarf mistletoe. Leafy mistletoe seldom kill but they do rob their hosts of moisture and some minerals, causing stress during drought and reducing crop productions on fruit and nut trees. Leafy mistletoe has the ability to photosynthesize on its own but it relies on other plants in order to obtain its nutrients. It attaches itself to a tree and then grows haustoria, in order to get the food and water it needs.

Ptiliogonys

Ptiliogonys is a genus of bird in the Ptiliogonatidae family. It contains the following species:

Long-tailed silky-flycatcher (Ptiliogonys caudatus)

Grey silky-flycatcher (Ptiliogonys cinereus)

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

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