Sigma Nu (ΣΝ) is an undergraduate college fraternity founded at the Virginia Military Institute on January 1, 1869. The fraternity was founded by James Frank Hopkins, Greenfield Quarles and James McIlvaine Riley shortly after Hopkins witnessed what he considered a hazing ritual by upperclassmen at the Virginia Military Institute. The fraternity's existence remained secret until the founders publicly announced their new society on January 1, 1869. Since its founding, Sigma Nu has more than 279 active and inactive chapters and colonies across the United States and Canada and has initiated more than 227,000 members. Sigma Nu, Kappa Alpha Order and Alpha Tau Omega make up the Lexington Triad.
The fraternity's values are summarized as an adherence to the principles of love, honor, and truth. Because of its military heritage, Sigma Nu retains many military trappings in its chapter ranks and traditions, and places importance on the concept of personal honor. In 1945, William Yates (University of Pennsylvania) inspired the formation of the "Sigma Nu Inc., Educational Foundation". Its name was changed to the "Sigma Nu Educational Foundation, Inc." The foundation assists collegiate members with financial aid supplements, and the fraternity in the development of a leadership program. The fraternity's mission statement is:
|Founded||January 1, 1869|
Virginia Military Institute
|Vision statement||Excelling with Honor|
|Slogan||Love, Honor, Truth|
|Colors||Black White Gold|
|Flower||White Rose (The Classic Five-Petaled, wild, white English Floribunda)|
|Philanthropy||Helping Hand Initiative|
|Nicknames||Sig Nu, Snu|
|Founding Principles||Love, Truth, Honor, and No Hazing|
James Frank Hopkins, Greenfield Quarles, and James McIlvaine Riley enrolled at the Virginia Military Institute in 1866. Hopkins entered the institute at the age of 21 and was, at the time, one of the oldest cadets entering the institute. Both Hopkins and Quarles had served in the American Civil War as Confederate soldiers.
At this time, many secret societies were being formed on the VMI campus. In Hopkins' third year at VMI, he joined the Masonic Lodge in Lexington. The masons inspired him to create a similar organization at VMI. Hopkins shared his ideas with Quarles and Riley, and in October 1868, the three came together on a limestone rock on the edge of the VMI parade ground to form the Legion of Honor. The three founders would go on to bring others into the Legion of Honor over the rest of the year. On January 1, 1869, the founders, along with the rest of the members of the Legion of Honor, held their first official meeting as Sigma Nu.
The first year of Sigma Nu also saw the creation of the Badge, the original Constitution, and the Law. The Badge designed by Hopkins stands mostly unchanged from its original form. The badges were first introduced in the spring of 1869. Early members, Edward Arthur and Linton Buck, both wrote the original Constitution and Law, respectively. Some conflict arose because Arthur had been a member of the Honduras Emigrant Society and had included some influences from that organization in the constitution. Linton Buck felt these influences should be removed. His revision became the first Law of Sigma Nu. This first chapter of Sigma Nu chose as its motto nulli secundus, a Latin phrase meaning "second to none."
There were many efforts in the beginning years to establish chapters at other schools. By 1883, Alpha chapter attempted to establish 11 additional chapters, of which only 3 survived. One of the many factors was the anti-fraternity sentiment during this time period. Kappa chapter established in 1881, at North Georgia College & State University, gave the fraternity an important member, John Alexander Howard. Howard suggested that the fraternity drop the use of Roman numerals for chapter designation in favor of using a Greek letter designation. He is also responsible for the creation of The Delta, Sigma Nu's fraternity magazine. The name The Delta originated from the location of the three active chapters of Sigma Nu forming a Delta. Howard's editorials in The Delta inspired Isaac P. Robison, founder of Lambda chapter, to propose having a convention for the whole fraternity. On July 10, 1884, Sigma Nu's first convention was held in the Maxwell House Hotel in Nashville, Tennessee.
The fraternity had begun debating allowing non-white and Jewish members shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court desegregated schools in 1954. In 1964, following a failed civil rights amendment to the Sigma Nu's constitution, the Dartmouth College chapter seceded from the fraternity in protest. The organization did not allow non-white members until the late 1960s. The Dartmouth chapter rejoined in 1983.
The Grand Chapter of Sigma Nu is a four-day legislative convention where representatives of the fraternity's collegiate and alumni chapters and Grand Officers meet to determine new legislation and operational direction of the Fraternity for the next biennium. The Grand Chapter meets every two years. The Grand Chapter body is composed of two voting representatives from each collegiate chapter of Sigma Nu Fraternity. Laws are discussed and voted on by the collegiate representatives in a Robert's Rules of Order style business meeting conducted by the National Reagent of the Fraternity.
The Law is a three-part document (Constitution, Statutes and Trial Code), which governs Sigma Nu Fraternity, Inc. The Law sets membership requirements, standards of conduct, and the framework for the operation of all entities of the Fraternity, including collegiate chapters. The Law is designed to allow for autonomy and self-governance in collegiate chapters. The Law may be amended by the Grand Chapter to accommodate changing needs of Sigma Nu's membership. The first edition of the Law was formally adopted at Sigma Nu's first convention in 1884.
The High Council serves as the board of directors of Sigma Nu Fraternity, Inc. and is elected by the Grand Chapter. It serves as the governing arm of the General Fraternity during the period between Grand Chapters. Governance of the High Council is relegated to those duties especially prescribed by The Law. In cases where The Law prescribes no especial duty, the High Council shall act on those situations through interpretation of The Law. There are five roles on the High Council: the Regent, who acts as the national president and chairman of the board of Sigma Nu for a term of two years; the Regent-Elect, who ascends to the role of Regent at the end of the prior Regent's term; the Grand Treasurer, who is responsible for the financial condition of the fraternity; the Vice-Regents, appointed members of the board; and the Collegiate Grand Councilmen, who serve as collegiate representatives to the High Council.
The fraternity sponsors various programming including ethical leadership development through its LEAD program and philanthropic events through its Helping Hand Initiative. It recruits new members using its Values Based Recruitment method.
The Sigma Nu College of Chapters is a three-day training program held annually. College of Chapters is designed for collegiate chapter Commanders, and the program emphasizes chapter management, leadership, core competencies, and networking. The curriculum focuses on best practices and is presented by fraternity staff, alumni volunteers, and advisers.
The LEAD (Leadership, Ethics, Achievement, Development) Program is designed to be a four-year educational and development curriculum for its collegiate members. In 1988, Sigma Nu created the LEAD Program. Since its launch in 1988 the Program has been updated twice, once in 1997 and again in 2008. The 2008 updates included the online version of the LEAD Program that currently exists today. The program trains candidates in general life skills, with an emphasis on alcohol abuse awareness.
Following graduation in 1989, actor Jon Hamm enrolled at the University of Texas, where he was a member of the Upsilon Chapter of Sigma Nu fraternity. While Hamm was attending the school he was arrested for participating in a violent hazing incident that occurred in November 1990 in which another student, Mark Sanders, was beaten with a paddle and a broom, where Hamm was leading Sanders around the fraternity house with the claw of a hammer beneath Sander's genitals, and had his clothes set on fire. The incident led to the fraternity being shut down on campus. Hamm completed the terms of a deferred adjudication and the charges were dismissed in August 1995.
In 2014, the fraternity at Emory University was suspended for five years for repeated hazing and misconduct violations. One hazing incident required pledges to “consume food items in large quantities at rapid paces to the point of physical harm and vomiting.”
In February 2014, Sigma Nu suspended all chapter events at University of North Carolina Wilmington after a fight broke out at a party they hosted. An East Carolina University student attending their party drove with a US Marine on his hood and hit a tree, killing the Marine. He was arrested for DWI and felony death by vehicle.
In 2015, Sigma Nu suspended its chapter at Old Dominion University pending an investigation after they placed banners with slogans like "Rowdy and Fun, Hope Your Baby Girl is Ready for a Good Time..." and the story went viral. The national fraternity stated they condemned the derogatory and demeaning language used by the fraternity members in the banners.
In 2015, the fraternity at Miami University was suspended until 2018 for violating social probation. There were also allegations of forcing underage pledges to consume large amounts of alcohol and banning pledges from shaving and showering.
In August 2016, a Sigma Nu member at Texas A&M University died of an illegal drug overdose in the fraternity house. Six members were arrested for possession and distribution of illegal drugs on campus such as cocaine, meth, LSD, MDMA, marijuana, heroin, and ecstasy. In October 2017, the deceased member's father, Eugene Gridnev, instituted a wrongful death suit against the fraternity itself, as well as several of the members present during his son's death.
In October 2017, Sigma Nu suspended its chapter at Indiana University Bloomington for alcohol and hazing-related violations. According to the Indiana Daily Student, Sigma Nu was on probation since 2016 and was the fourth IU social organization to be suspended during 2017, the other organizations being sororities Delta Delta Delta, Sigma Gamma Rho, and the Delta Tau Delta fraternity.
Alpha Sigma Nu (ΑΣΝ) is the honor society of Jesuit colleges and universities. ΑΣΝ is a member of the Association of College Honor Societies. It was founded in 1915 at Marquette University, as Alpha Sigma Tau and was renamed Alpha Sigma Nu in 1930. It is open to both men and women of every academic discipline in the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and other Jesuit higher education institutions worldwide. It is present in 28 Jesuit institutions of higher education in the United States, Campion College and Regis College in Canada, Loyola Andalucia in Spain, and Sogang University in South Korea. Alpha Sigma Nu's membership is around 80,000 members and around 2,000 members are inducted each year.Bobby LaKind
Robert Jay LaKind (November 3, 1945 – December 24, 1992) was a conga player, vocalist, songwriter and occasional backup drummer with The Doobie Brothers. Originally a lighting roadie for the band, he was invited to join as a sideman for studio sessions after band members noticed his talent when LaKind goofed around on the congas after a concert.LaKind was from Teaneck, New Jersey and graduated from Teaneck High School, Class of 1963. He attended the University of Kentucky and was a member of Sigma Nu fraternity, the Animal House of the university's fraternities during the 1960s. Also a member of Sigma Nu during this time was basketball player and future coach, Pat Riley.
He was a session man with the band from 1976 and joined them onstage as well. He was finally invited to join the band as a full member three years before their 1982 dissolution, though he was not credited as such until the Farewell Tour album in 1983. When the band reformed in 1988, he rejoined and was featured on the album Cycles, but he was soon forced into retirement by illness.
During the Doobie Brothers hiatus, and with some overlap, between approximately 1985 to 1991, he was also a member of local Santa Monica Afro-Cuban band, The Bonedaddys. He played Congas and other percussion and recorded at least two albums with them: "A-Koo-De-A" (1988) and "Worldbeatniks" (1991).
LaKind's former bandmates performed two benefit concerts in 1992 to raise money for a trust fund set up for LaKind's two sons, Nicky and Logan. He died from terminal colon cancer on Christmas Eve that year.Carl L. Clemans
Carl Lane "Clem" Clemans (June 1, 1871 – October 7, 1941) was an American football player and coach. He served as the head coach at the University of Washington in 1897 and at Stanford University in 1902, compiling a career record of 7–3.
Clemans played college football at Stanford in its first two years of existence, from 1891 to 1892, and served as the team's first captain. Clemans played in the first two games of what would become the Big Game between Stanford and Cal, and scored the first two touchdowns in that series.Clemens was also notable as the founder of the Stanford Beta Chi chapter of the Sigma Nu fraternity, which was notable as the first major west coast chapter. He subsequently organized the University of California, Berkeley Beta Psi chapter.Delta Theta Phi
Delta Theta Phi (ΔΘΦ) is a professional law fraternity and a member of the Professional Fraternity Association. Delta Theta Phi is the only one of the two major law fraternities to charter chapters (senates) in the United States at non-American Bar Association-approved law schools. Delta Theta Phi can trace its roots to Delta Phi Delta on September 15, 1900 at the then-named Cleveland Law School, now Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in Ohio. Delta Theta Phi has initiated more than 138,000 members across the country and in several other nations.
Delta Theta Phi is the only law fraternity with an authoritatively recognized law review, The Adelphia Law Journal. Membership is the only requirement to submit a note for consideration for publication.Einstein–Hilbert action
The Einstein–Hilbert action (also referred to as Hilbert action) in general relativity is the action that yields the Einstein field equations through the principle of least action. With the (− + + +) metric signature, the gravitational part of the action is given as
where is the determinant of the metric tensor matrix, is the Ricci scalar, and is Einstein's constant ( is the gravitational constant and is the speed of light in vacuum). If it converges, the integral is taken over the whole spacetime. If it does not converge, is no longer well-defined, but a modified definition where one integrates over arbitrarily large, relatively compact domains, still yields the Einstein equation as the Euler–Lagrange equation of the Einstein–Hilbert action.
The action was first proposed by David Hilbert in 1915.Greek life at the University of Georgia
Greek life at the University of Georgia comprises more than three dozen active chapters of social fraternities and sororities. While most of the groups are chapters of national organizations, including members of the North-American Interfraternity Conference, National Panhellenic Conference and National Pan-Hellenic Council, independent groups and those with other affiliations also exist. The Greek Life Office was located in Memorial Hall for many years but moved to the Tate Student Center in late 2008 as a result of the expansion to the Tate Center.
According to the 2017 UGA Factbook, students with Greek affiliation made up 26 percent (7,591 students) of the undergraduate student body as of Fall 2017, including 21 percent (2,587) of the males and 31 percent (5,004) of the females. Perhaps the most prominent features of Greek life at the University are the large, mostly Greek Revival and Victorian, mansions maintained by the national fraternities and sororities as chapter houses and lodges lining Milledge Avenue and South Lumpkin Street and the ubiquitous t-shirts worn by students on campus commemorating Greek social events.Greenfield Quarles
Greenfield Quarles (April 1, 1847 – January 14, 1921) was a Confederate States Army and United States Army soldier, judge, and one of the founders of the Sigma Nu fraternity.James Frank Hopkins
James Frank Hopkins (December 30, 1845 in Ripley, Mississippi – December 15, 1913) was a Confederate Army volunteer and founder of the Sigma Nu fraternity at the Virginia Military Institute.James McIlvaine Riley
James McIlvaine Riley (May 16, 1849 - May 6, 1911) is one of the founders of the Sigma Nu fraternity. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, he entered the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in the fall of 1866. Riley was a member of VMI's first baseball team in the fall of 1866, playing second base and eventually serving as the team's captain. While at VMI, James Frank Hopkins, Greenfield Quarles and Riley became close friends and founded Sigma Nu fraternity. Riley was elected the first Commander (or President) of the chapter at VMI, and served as the first Regent of Sigma Nu fraternity, a position he held for ten years. He died at age 61 and is buried in a plot in Bellefontaine Cemetery near the St. Louis Alumni chapter.List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology fraternities, sororities, and ILGs
The following is a list of MIT's fraternities, sororities and independent living groups.List of Nu Sigma Nu chapters
This Chapter and Colony Roll of the Nu Sigma Nu Medical Fraternity, a co-ed Professional fraternity for medical students and related sciences, is complete through circa 1953. While the national has disbanded, several chapters remain active. Inactive chapter are shown in italics.List of Sigma Nu chapters and colonies
This article lists the chapters of Sigma Nu fraternity. They are listed by school name, along with the chapter's Greek-letter designation and the year in which it was first chartered.
Note that for Sigma Nu chapters, the Greek letter order does not necessarily indicate the order in which the chapters were founded; for example, both Mu and Theta chapters are older than Delta chapter. Some chapters listed (including Virginia Military Institute's Alpha) are no longer active in the fraternity.
Also listed are the years the chapter has won the Rock Chapter Award (the highest award a Sigma Nu chapter can receive), the Pursuit of Excellence Award (recognized the top ten chapters between 2003 and 2008; currently recognizes any chapter receiving an overall level of excellence in any of the three standard areas: Values Based Leadership, Personal Development and Membership Value, and Operational Excellence), the LEAD Chapter of the Year award for the LEAD program, and the Gallaher Cup (the highest chapter GPA).
*Central College merged into Centre College in 1901.
^ The Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University merged to form Case Western Reserve University while Δ Z (Delta Zeta) was still dormant, rendering the chapter's dormancy permanent and making Δ Α (Delta Alpha) the only extant chapter from the two schools.
^^Δ Θ (Delta Theta) Chapter was founded at Lombard College, which closed in 1930.
† There is no longer a Greek system recognized at the Virginia Military Institute, South Carolina Military (The Citadel), Bowdoin College, or Norwich University.1Values Based Leadership2Personal Development and Membership Value3Operational ExcellenceMark Schlabach
Mark Schlabach (born in Knox, Indiana) is an American “sports journalist”, New York Times best-selling author, columnist, and reporter for ESPN.com.
Schlabach joined ESPN.com in July 2006 as a college football and college basketball columnist. He is notable during college football season for the weekly "On the Mark" column and is a regular contributor to ESPN programs like Outside the Lines, College Football Live, The Experts, and SportsCenter.
Schlabach graduated from the University of Georgia. He is a member of Sigma Nu fraternity. He spent nine years at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, covering University of Georgia, the Southeastern Conference, the NFL, and NASCAR. Later, Schlabach spent two years at The Washington Post covering college football, college basketball, and boxing.
Schlabach is the author of nearly one dozen books, including the New York Times best sellers Called to Coach: Reflections on Life, Faith, and Football, a collaboration with former Florida State football coach Bobby Bowden; The Duck Commander Family: How Faith, Family and Ducks Built a Dynasty, a collaboration with Duck Commander CEO Willie Robertson and his wife Korie Robertson; and Happy, Happy, Happy: My Life and Legacy as the Duck Commander, and unPHILtered: The Way I See It, which were collaborations with Duck Dynasty's Phil Robertson. Schlabach is also the co-author of the New York Times best seller, Sicology 1: Tales and Wisdom from Duck Dynasty's Favorite Uncle, a collaboration with Duck Dynasty star Si Robertson, and Good Call: Reflections on Faith, Family and Fowl, a collaboration with Duck Dynasty's Jase Robertson.
On May 19, 2013, Happy, Happy, Happy debuted as the No. 1 best-selling nonfiction book and e-book on The New York Times' Best Sellers list. In September 2013, Schlabach had three books he co-authored on the New York Times best sellers list simultaneously -- Sicology 1 was ranked No. 1, Happy, Happy, Happy was No. 3 and The Duck Commander Family was No. 9. Good Call: Reflections Faith, Family and Fowl debuted at No. 6 on May 25, 2014, and UnPhiltered debuted at No. 2 on September 21, 2014.
Schlabach is also the co-author of Heisman: The Man Behind the Trophy and other college football books about the University of Florida, Florida State University, University of Georgia, and Virginia Tech. Schlabach's tweets on DeAndre Ayton's wiretapping controversy came under some fire with some questioning Schlabach's knowledge ,involvement and motives for such tweets.Schlabach lives in Madison, Georgia with his wife and three children.Nu Sigma Nu
Nu Sigma Nu (ΝΣΝ) was an international professional fraternity for medicine, now existing as a handful of stable remaining chapters. It was founded on 2 March 1882 by five medical students at the University of Michigan, who identified as their immediate object "to further the best interests of our profession." Later, its purpose was more fully stated as, "To promote scholarship, the development of better teaching, and generally in raising medical education to a higher level.” As one of the earliest formed among all professional fraternities, Nu Sigma Nu was the first fraternal organization nationally to limit membership to medical students only. It can therefore claim that it was the first Medical Professional Fraternity.Palatini identity
In general relativity and tensor calculus, the Palatini identity is:
where denotes the variation of Christoffel symbols and indicates covariant differentiation.
A proof can be found in the entry Einstein–Hilbert action.
The "same" identity holds for the Lie derivative . In fact, one has:
where denotes any vector field on the spacetime manifold .Phi Sigma Nu
Phi Sigma Nu (ΦΣΝ) is a Native American fraternity founded on February 13, 1996 at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. It is the first national Native American Indian fraternity in the United States. It currently has 11 chapters. The fraternity uses no alcohol in its ceremonies or initiation, as it is viewed as a purifying process. The Fraternity is recognized by the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors.Sigma Nu Phi
Sigma Nu Phi (ΣΝΦ) was a professional law fraternity and a member of the Professional Fraternity Association.Variance gamma process
In the theory of stochastic processes, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the variance gamma process (VG), also known as Laplace motion, is a Lévy process determined by a random time change. The process has finite moments distinguishing it from many Lévy processes. There is no diffusion component in the VG process and it is thus a pure jump process. The increments are independent and follow a Variance-gamma distribution, which is a generalization of the Laplace distribution.
There are several representations of the VG process that relate it to other processes. It can for example be written as a Brownian motion with drift subjected to a random time change which follows a gamma process (equivalently one finds in literature the notation ):
An alternative way of stating this is that the variance gamma process is a Brownian motion subordinated to a Gamma subordinator.
Since the VG process is of finite variation it can be written as the difference of two independent gamma processes:
Alternatively it can be approximated by a compound Poisson process that leads to a representation with explicitly given (independent) jumps and their locations. This last characterization gives an understanding of the structure of the sample path with location and sizes of jumps.
On the early history of the variance-gamma process see Seneta (2000).
fraternities and sororities
|Latino and Puerto Rican|