Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, and the last male member of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396 he led the Crusade of Nicopolis, which attempted to liberate Bulgaria and save the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople from Ottoman rule. Afterwards, he founded the Order of the Dragon to fight the Turks. He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages (among them French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin) and was an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.
|Holy Roman Emperor|
|Coronation||31 May 1433 in Rome|
|King of Hungary and Croatia|
|Coronation||31 March 1387 in Székesfehérvár|
|King of Germany|
|Coronation||8 November 1414 in Aachen|
|King of Bohemia|
|Coronation||27 July 1420 in Prague|
|Born||15 February 1368|
Nuremberg, Kingdom of Germany
|Died||9 December 1437 (aged 69)|
Znojmo, Kingdom of Bohemia
Nagyvárad (today Oradea)
|Issue||Elizabeth of Luxembourg|
|Father||Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Elizabeth of Pomerania|
Born in Nuremberg, Sigismund was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, and of his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania, who was the granddaughter of King Casimir III of Poland and the great-granddaughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas. He was named after Saint Sigismund of Burgundy, the favourite saint of Sigismund's father. From Sigismund's childhood he was nicknamed the "ginger fox" (liška ryšavá) in the Crown of Bohemia, on account of his hair colour.
King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland always had a good and close relationship with Emperor Charles IV, and Sigismund was betrothed to Louis' eldest daughter, Mary, in 1374, when he was six years old. Upon his father's death in 1378, young Sigismund became Margrave of Brandenburg and was sent to the Hungarian court, where he soon learnt the Hungarian language and way of life, and became entirely devoted to his adopted country. King Louis named him as his heir and appointed him his successor as King of Hungary.
In 1381, the then 13-year-old Sigismund was sent to Kraków by his eldest half-brother and guardian Wenceslaus, King of Germany and Bohemia, to learn Polish and to become acquainted with the land and its people. King Wenceslaus also gave him Neumark to facilitate communication between Brandenburg and Poland.
The disagreement between Polish landlords of Lesser Poland on one side and landlords of Greater Poland on the other, regarding the choice of the future King of Poland, finally ended in choosing the Lithuanian side. The support of the lords of Greater Poland was however not enough to give Prince Sigismund the Polish crown. Instead, the landlords of Lesser Poland gave it to Mary's younger sister Jadwiga I of Poland, who married Jogaila of Lithuania.
On the death of her father in 1382, his betrothed, Mary, became queen of Hungary and Sigismund married her in 1385 in Zólyom (today Zvolen). The next year, he was accepted as Mary's future co-ruler by the Treaty of Győr. However, Mary was captured, together with her mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia, who had acted as regent, in 1387 by the rebellious House of Horvat, Bishop Paul Horvat of Mačva, his brother John Horvat and younger brother Ladislav. Sigismund's mother-in-law was strangled, while Mary was liberated.
Having secured the support of the nobility, Sigismund was crowned King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár on 31 March 1387. Having raised money by pledging Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia (1388), he was engaged for the next nine years in a ceaseless struggle for the possession of this unstable throne. The central power was finally weakened to such an extent that only Sigismund's alliance with the powerful Czillei-Garai League could ensure his position on the throne. It was not for entirely selfless reasons that one of the leagues of barons helped him to power: Sigismund had to pay for the support of the lords by transferring a sizeable part of the royal properties. (For some years, the baron's council governed the country in the name of the Holy Crown). The restoration of the authority of the central administration took decades of work. The bulk of the nation headed by the House of Garai was with him; but in the southern provinces between the Sava and the Drava, the Horvathys with the support of King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, Mary's maternal uncle, proclaimed as their king Ladislaus, king of Naples, son of the murdered Charles II of Hungary. Not until 1395 did Nicholas II Garay succeed in suppressing them. Mary died heavily pregnant in 1395.
To ease the pressure from Hungarian nobles, Sigismund tried to employ foreign advisors, which was not popular, and he had to promise not to give land and nominations to other than Hungarian nobles. However, this was not applied to Stibor of Stiboricz, who was Sigismund's closest friend and advisor. On a number of occasions, Sigismund was imprisoned by nobles, but with help of the armies of Garai and Stibor of Stiboricz, he would regain power.
In 1396, Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope Boniface IX, was very popular in Hungary. The nobles flocked in their thousands to the royal standard, and were reinforced by volunteers from nearly every part of Europe. The most important contingent being that of the French led by John the Fearless, son of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. Sigismund set out with 90,000 men and a flotilla of 70 galleys. After capturing Vidin, he camped with his Hungarian armies before the fortress of Nicopolis. Sultan Bayezid I raised the siege of Constantinople and, at the head of 140,000 men, completely defeated the Christian forces in the Battle of Nicopolis fought between the 25 and 28 September 1396. Sigismund returned by sea and through the realm of Zeta, where he ordained a local Montenegrin lord Đurađ II with the islands of Hvar and Korčula for resistance against the Turks; the islands were returned to Sigismund after Đurađ's death in April 1403.
The disaster at Nicopolis angered several Hungarian lords, leading to instability in the kingdom. Deprived of his authority in Hungary, Sigismund then turned his attention to securing the succession in Germany and Bohemia, and was recognized by his childless half-brother Wenceslaus IV as Vicar-General of the whole Empire. However, he was unable to support Wenceslaus when he was deposed in 1400, and Rupert of Germany, Elector Palatine, was elected German king in his stead.
On his return to Hungary in 1401, Sigismund was imprisoned once and deposed twice. In 1401, Sigismund helped an uprising against Wenceslaus, during the course of which the Bohemian king was taken prisoner, and Sigismund ruled Bohemia for nineteen months. He released Wenceslaus in 1403. In the meantime, a group of Hungarian noblemen swore loyalty to the last Anjou monarch, Ladislaus of Naples, putting their hands on the relic of Saint Ladislas of Hungary in Nagyvárad. Ladislaus was the son of the murdered Charles II of Hungary, and thus a distant relative of the long dead King Louis I of Hungary. Ladislaus captured Zadar in 1403, but soon stopped any military advance. This struggle in turn led to a war with the Republic of Venice, as Ladislaus had sold the Dalmatian cities to the Venetians for 100,000 ducats before leaving for his own land. In the following years Sigismund acted indirectly to thwart Ladislaus' attempts to conquer central Italy, by allying with the Italian cities resisting him and by applying diplomatic pressure on him.
Due to his frequent absences attending to business in the other countries over which he ruled, he was obliged to consult Diets in Hungary with more frequency than his predecessors and institute the office of Palatine as chief administrator while he was away. In 1404, Sigismund introduced the Placetum Regium. According to this decree, Papal bulls could not be pronounced in Hungary without the consent of the king.
During his long reign, the royal castle of Buda became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages.
In about 1406, Sigismund married Mary's cousin Barbara of Celje (Barbara Celjska, nicknamed the "Messalina of Germany"), daughter of Count Hermann II of Celje. Hermann's mother Katarina Kotromanić (of the House of Kotromanic) and Mary's mother Queen Elizabeta (Elisabeth of Bosnia) were sisters, or cousins who were adoptive sisters. Tvrtko I was their first cousin and adopted brother, and perhaps even became heir apparent to Queen Mary. Tvrtko may have been murdered in 1391 on Sigismund's order.
Sigismund managed to establish control in Slavonia. He did not hesitate to use violent methods (see Bloody Sabor of Križevci), but from the river Sava to the south his control was weak. Sigismund personally led an army of almost 50,000 "crusaders" against the Bosnians, culminating with the Battle of Dobor in 1408, a massacre of about 200 noble families.
Threatened by Ottoman expansion, king Sigismund managed to strengthen the security of southern Hungarian borders by entering into a defensive alliance with despot Stefan Lazarević of Serbia. In 1403, Hungarian possessions in northwestern regions of Serbia (city of Belgrade and the Banate of Macsó), were given to despot Stefan, who pledged his allegiance to king Sigismund, remaining kings loyal vassal until death in 1427. Stefan's successor George Branković of Serbia also pledged his allegiance to Sigismund, returning Belgrade to the king. By maintaining close relations with Serbian rulers, Sigismund succeeded in securing southern borders of his realm.
Sigismund founded his personal order of knights, the Order of the Dragon, after the victory at Dobor. The main goal of the order was fighting the Ottoman Empire. Members of the order were mostly his political allies and supporters. The main members of the order were Sigismund's close allies Nicholas II Garay, Hermann II of Celje, Stibor of Stiboricz, and Pippo Spano. The most important European monarchs became members of the order. He encouraged international trade by abolishing internal duties, regulating tariffs on foreign goods and standardizing weights and measures throughout the country.
After the death of King Rupert of Germany in 1410, Sigismund – ignoring the claims of his half-brother Wenceslaus – was elected as successor by three of the electors on 10 September 1410, but he was opposed by his cousin Jobst of Moravia, who had been elected by four electors in a different election on 1 October. Jobst's death 18 January 1411 removed this conflict and Sigismund was again elected king on 21 July 1411. His coronation was deferred until 8 November 1414, when it took place at Aachen.
On a number of occasions, and in 1410 in particular, Sigismund allied himself with the Teutonic Knights against Władysław II of Poland. In return for 300.000 ducats he would attack Poland from the south after the truce on St. John's Day, 24 June expired. Sigismund ordered his most loyal friend Stibor of Stiboricz to set up the attack on Poland. Stibor of Stiboricz was of Polish origin and from the main line of the powerful Clan of Ostoja that had also been against choosing Jagiello as King of Poland. With the support of Sigismund, Stibor become one of the most influential men in late medieval Europe, holding titles as Duke of Transylvania and owning about 25% of modern-day Slovakia, including 31 castles of which 15 were situated around the 406 km long Váh river with surrounding land that was given to him by Sigismund. In the diplomatic struggle to prevent war between Poland-Lithuania, which was supported by the Muscovites, and the Teutonic Knights, Sigismund used Stibor's fine diplomacy to gain financially. The Polish side appointed several negotiators and most of them were also from the Clan of Ostoja, distant relations of the Stibors. However, those "family meetings" could not prevent the war and an alliance of twenty-two western states formed an army against Poland in the Battle of Grunwald in July 1410. Stibor attacked then Nowy Sącz and burned it to the ground, but after that he returned with his army back to the Beckov Castle. After the Polish-Lithuanian victory in the Battle of Grunwald, the Teutonic knights had to pay a huge sum of silver to Poland as reparation and again, through diplomacy of his friend Stibor, Sigismund was able to borrow all this silver from King Władysław II of Poland on good conditions. In the light of facts about the diplomatic work of Stibor and the Clan of Ostoja that was following the politics of King Sigismund, one can question whether Sigismund actually joined the anti-Polish alliance.
From 1412 to 1423, Sigismund campaigned against the Venetians in Italy. The king took advantage of the difficulties of Antipope John XXIII to obtain a promise that a council should be called in Constance in 1414 to settle the Western Schism. He took a leading part in the deliberations of this assembly, and during the sittings made a journey to France, England and Burgundy in a vain attempt to secure the abdication of the three rival popes. The council ended in 1418, solving the Schism and — of great consequence to Sigismund's future career — having the Czech religious reformer, Jan Hus, burned at the stake for heresy in July 1415. The complicity of Sigismund in the death of Hus is a matter of controversy. He had granted him a safe-conduct and protested against his imprisonment; and the reformer was burned during his absence.
It was also at this Council that a cardinal ventured to correct Sigismund's Latin (he had construed the word schisma as feminine rather than neuter). To this Sigismund replied, in Latin:
I am king of the Romans and above grammar.
An alliance with England against France, and a failed attempt, owing to the hostility of the princes, to secure peace in Germany by a league of the towns, were his main acts during these years. Also, Sigismund granted control of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (which he had received back after Jobst's death) to Frederick I of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg (1415). This step made the Hohenzollern family one of the most important in Germany.
Sigismund began to shift his alliance from France to England after the French defeat at the Battle of Agincourt. The Treaty of Canterbury (August 15, 1416) culminated diplomatic efforts between Henry V of England and Sigismund and resulted in a defensive and offensive alliance against France. This, in turn, led the way to the resolution of the papal schism.
In 1419, the death of Wenceslaus IV left Sigismund titular King of Bohemia, but he had to wait for seventeen years before the Czech Estates would acknowledge him. Although the two dignities of King of the Romans and King of Bohemia added considerably to his importance, and indeed made him the nominal temporal head of Christendom, they conferred no increase of power and financially embarrassed him. It was only as King of Hungary that he had succeeded in establishing his authority and in doing anything for the order and good government of the land. Entrusting the government of Bohemia to Sofia of Bavaria, the widow of Wenceslaus, he hastened into Hungary.
The Bohemians, who distrusted him as the betrayer of Hus, were soon in arms; and the flame was fanned when Sigismund declared his intention of prosecuting the war against heretics. Three campaigns against the Hussites ended in disaster although the army of his most loyal ally Stibor of Stiboricz and later his son Stibor of Beckov could hold the Hussite side away from the borders of the Kingdom. The Turks were again attacking Hungary. The king, unable to obtain support from the German princes, was powerless in Bohemia. His attempts at the diet of Nuremberg in 1422 to raise a mercenary army were foiled by the resistance of the towns; and in 1424 the electors, among whom was Sigismund's former ally, Frederick I of Hohenzollern, sought to strengthen their own authority at the expense of the king. Although the scheme failed, the danger to Germany from the Hussites led to the Union of Bingen, which virtually deprived Sigismund of the leadership of the war and the headship of Germany.
In 1428, Sigismund led another campaign against the Turks, but again with few results. In 1431, he went to Milan where on 25 November he received the Iron Crown as King of Italy; after which he remained for some time at Siena, negotiating for his coronation as emperor and for the recognition of the Council of Basel by Pope Eugenius IV. He was crowned emperor in Rome on 31 May 1433, and after obtaining his demands from the Pope returned to Bohemia, where he was recognized as king in 1436, though his power was little more than nominal. Shortly after he was crowned, Pope Eugenius began attempts to create a new anti-Ottoman alliance. This was sparked by an Albanian revolt against the Ottomans, which had begun in 1432. In 1435, Sigismund sent Fruzhin, a Bulgarian nobleman, to negotiate an alliance with the Albanians. He also sent Daud, a pretender to the Ottoman throne, in early 1436. However, following the defeat of the rebels in 1436, plans for an anti-Ottoman alliance ended.
Sigismund died on 9 December 1437 at Znojmo (German: Znaim), Moravia (now Czech Republic), and as ordered in life, he was buried at Nagyvárad, Hungary (today Oradea, Romania), next to the tomb of the king Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, who was the ideal of the perfect monarch, warrior and Christian for that time and was deeply venerated by Sigismund. By his second wife, Barbara of Celje, he left an only daughter, Elisabeth of Luxembourg, who was married to Albert V, duke of Austria (later German king as Albert II) whom Sigismund named as his successor. As he left no sons, his line of the House of Luxembourg became extinct on his death.
Sigismund married twice but had little luck in securing the succession to his crowns. Each of his two marriages resulted in the birth of one child. His first-born child, probably a son, was born prematurely as a result of a horse riding accident suffered by Queen Mary of Hungary when she was well advanced in pregnancy. Mother and child both died shortly after the birth in the hills of Buda on 17 May 1395. This caused a deep succession crisis because Sigismund ruled over Hungary by right of his wife, and although he managed to keep his power, the crisis lasted until his second marriage to Barbara of Celje. Barbara's only child, born in the purple on 7 October 1409, probably in the castle of Visegrád, was Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the future queen consort of Hungary, Germany, and Bohemia. Queen Barbara was unable to give birth to any further issue. Elisabeth of Bohemia was thus the only surviving legitimate offspring of Sigismund.
Sigismund was known to speak fluent Hungarian, wore Hungarian-style royal clothes, and even grew his beard in the Hungarian fashion. He also spent huge amounts of money during his reign to rebuild the Gothic castles of Buda and Visegrád in the Kingdom of Hungary, ordering the transportation of materials from Austria and Bohemia.
His many affairs with women led to the birth of several legends, as the one that existed decades later during the reign of the King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. According to this, John Hunyadi was Sigismund's illegitimate son. Sigismund gave a ring to the boy's mother when he was born, but one day in the forest a raven stole it from her, and the ring was only recovered after the bird was hunted down. It is said that this incident inspired the coat of arms of the Hunyadis, and later also appeared in the coat of arms of Matthias "Corvinus".
Sigismund adopted the Hungarian reverence for Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, who was considered to be an ideal Christian knight at that time. He went on pilgrimage several times to his tomb in Nagyvárad. Before Sigismund died, he ordered to be buried next to the king saint.
The Reformatio Sigismundi appeared in connection with efforts to reform the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Emperor Sigismund (1410–1437). It was presented in 1439 at the Council of Basel, published by an anonymous author, and referred to the injustice of the German rulers. It included a vision of Sigismund's about the appearance of a priest-king, Frederick, as well as plans for a wide reform of the monarchy and emperorship and the German empire.
Sigismund, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Italy, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria; Duke of Silesia and Luxembourg; Margrave of Moravia, Lusatia and Brandenburg.
Sigismund has been portrayed in several films:
Media related to Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor at Wikimedia Commons
Sigismund, Holy Roman EmperorBorn: 15 February 1368 Died: 9 December 1437
| King of Hungary and Croatia
| German King|
(formally King of the Romans)
contested by Jobst
| King of Bohemia|
| Elector of Brandenburg
| Elector of Brandenburg
| Holy Roman Emperor
Year 1437 (MCDXXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Adolf, Duke of Jülich-Berg
Adolf, Duke of Jülich-Berg (c. 1370 – 14 July 1437), was the first Duke of the combined duchies of Jülich and Berg. He was the son of William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg and Anna of the Palatinate.In 1397, Adolf rebelled against his father along with his brother William, ravaged Düsseldorf and imprisoned his father. He was outlawed and was subsequently subdued in 1405. Upon his father's death in 1408, Adolf became the 2nd Duke of Berg. Adolf fought against Lorraine and other pretenders for Bar but surrendered after his capture in 1417. His father's cousin, Reginald, Duke of Jülich and Guelders, had no heirs and upon his death in 1423, Adolf succeeded him in three-fourths of the Duchy, the fourth quarter (called Jülicher Quart) was inherited by John II of Loon, Lord of Heinsberg and Löwenberg, grandson of the first duke of Jülich, William V. The dukedom of Jülich passed to Adolf, thus becoming the first duke of the combined duchies of Jülich and Berg. John II. of Loon-Heinsberg was than also called Lord of Jülich. Adolf also began a year-long hereditary war against the House of Egmond for the dukedom of Guelders but could not win even with financial support from Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who supported Adolf in this fight despite Adolf's opposition to Sigismund's coronation at Aachen in 1414. Adolf supported the Roman candidate in the Council of Constance which ended the Western Schism. He traditionally fought against the Archbishop of Cologne. He later secured Monschau-Montjoie and in 1428 he seized Lievandal-Wevelinghoven.
Adolf had only one son who died before him so after Adolf's death in 1437, the dukedom of Jülich-Berg passed to his nephew Gerhard, son of his brother William. Adolf died in Cologne on 14 July 1437 and is buried at Great St. Martin Church, Cologne.Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia
Anne of Bohemia and Austria (12 April 1432 – 13 November 1462) was a Duchess of Luxembourg in her own right and, as a consort, Landgravine of Thuringia and of Saxony.
She was the eldest daughter of Albert of Austria, the future Emperor-Elect and Elisabeth, queen of Bohemia, the sole descendant of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.
Her posthumous brother Ladislaus, Duke of Austria (1440–57) succeeded, very underage, as king of Bohemia and later also as king of Hungary. Anne also had a younger sister, Elisabeth, who was to become later a queen of Poland and grand duchess of Lithuania.
On 2 June 1446 the young Anne was married to William "the Brave" of Saxony (1425–82), Landgrave of Thuringia, a younger son of Frederick I "the Warlike" of Saxony.
In right of Anne, William became Duke of Luxembourg from 1457 when Anne's brother Ladislaus died childless. Though, their rights to the land were disputed by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1469, William concluded that the possession's keeping was untenable against Burgundian attacks, and retreated to his Thuringian lands – that however took place when Anne was already dead.
They had two surviving daughters:
Margaret of Thuringia (1449 – 13 July 1501), who married John II, Elector of Brandenburg, and whose direct main heirs have been Electors of Brandenburg, then Kings of Prussia, and then German Emperors.
Katharina of Thuringia (1453 – 10 July 1534), who married Duke Henry II of Münsterberg and who has surviving descendants, mainly among Bohemian high nobility.Battle of Vítkov Hill
The Battle of Vítkov Hill was a part of the Hussite Wars. The battle pitted the forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, against Hussite forces under command of Jan Žižka (in English, John Zizka). Vítkov Hill was located on the edge of the city of Prague and the battle occurred in a vineyard established by Sigismund's father, Charles IV. It ended with a decisive Hussite victory.Cetin Castle
The fortress of Cetin is situated 5 kilometres (3 mi) south of Cetingrad above the village of Podcetin, in Croatia. The date when Cetin was founded is unknown. There are some indications that a settlement existed there in the times of the Roman Empire. The Parish of All Saints, in which the fortress is situated, was first mentioned in 1334. In 1387, king Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor gifted Cetin to Ivan Krčki. Thereby it became the property of the Frankopan family.
The Middle Ages were the golden era of Cetin. There was a Franciscan monastery and several churches near the fortress. In the 15th century, the Cetinski branch of Frankopan family was formed. It only lasted a hundred years. Ivan Frankopan Cetinski died in the Battle of Krbava field. His brother Grgur and son Franjo Frankopan became archbishops of Kalocsa. Franjo Frankopan was the last member of the Frankopan Cetinski family. After him, the fortress became property of the Frankopan Slunjski family.
Cetin played an important role in the history of Croatia. After the defeat at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Croatian nobility gathered at the Parliament on Cetin (Cetinski sabor). On 1 January 1527, they elected Ferdinand Habsburg, Archduke of Austria as the king of Croatia. The chart signed by Croatian nobles and representatives of Ferdinand of Habsburg is among the most important documents of Croatian statehood and is preserved in the Austrian State Archives in Vienna.
In the following centuries, Cetin was part of the Military Frontier, the borderland between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. During this period, Ottoman army took control of it several times. The fortress was often damaged and repaired. Two stone plates with Arabic inscriptions in the Croatian History Museum testify about reconstructions made during this period. In 1790, Austrian troops under the command of general Walisch finally won back Cetin for the Habsburg monarchy. The siege took one month, and after the battle several officers were decorated, including Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein. Cetin's status was finally confirmed during the peace conference in Svishtov. In 1809, Ottoman forces once again occupied Cetin but they withdrew the following year under the threats of Marshal Marmont, governor-general of Illyrian provinces. Once the Ottoman threat petered out the fortress was abandoned and turned into a quarry. Administrative control of the surrounding area was transferred to the village of Cetingrad, which developed north of Cetin.Elisabeth of Bohemia (1358–1373)
Elisabeth of Bohemia (1358–1373) was the daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Schweidnitz. She was named after her paternal grandmother, Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330).
She had a brother, Wenceslaus, King of the Romans, and one half sister, Katharine of Bohemia, whose mother was Blanche of Valois who was Charles IV's previous wife. Elisabeth had another half sister who was the daughter of Blanche, Margaret of Bohemia but she died in 1349, so Elisabeth never knew her.
After the death of her mother, Charles remarried for the last time to Elizabeth of Pomerania. Elisabeth gained six half-siblings from the marriage: Anna, Queen of England, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret "the younger" of Bohemia, John of Görlitz, Charles, and Henry.
Elisabeth married when she was only eight in 1366 to Albert III, Duke of Austria. Elisabeth and Albert had no children and she died aged only fifteen in 1373; she was buried with Albert's parents in Gaming Charterhouse in Lower Austria.
Her husband remarried to Beatrix of Nuremberg and they were parents of Albert IV, Duke of Austria.Hussite Wars
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Christian Hussites and the combined Christian Catholic forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves. After initial clashes, the Utraquists changed sides in 1423 to fight alongside Roman Catholics and opposed the Taborites and other Hussite spinoffs. These wars lasted from 1419 to approximately 1434.
The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia and formed a major spontaneous military power. They defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope (1420, 1421, 1422, 1427, 1431), and intervened in the wars of neighboring countries. The Hussite Wars were notable for the extensive use of early hand-held firearms such as hand cannons.
The fighting ended after 1434, when the moderate Utraquist faction of the Hussites defeated the radical Taborite faction. The Hussites agreed to submit to the authority of the King of Bohemia and the Roman Catholic Church, and were allowed to practice their somewhat variant rite.Hussites of Žatec and Louny
Hussites of Žatec and Louny, officially Union of Žatec and Louny (Czech: Žatecko-lounský svaz), were Hussites notable for defeating a large Imperial army sent to pacify them by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor on request of the Papacy in October 1421.This struggle became known as the second crusade against the Hussites. Their victory paved the way for a further Hussite takeover of the Kingdom of Bohemia.Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
Joanna Sophia of Bavaria (c. 1373 – 15 November 1410) was the youngest daughter of Albert I, Duke of Bavaria and his first wife Margaret of Brieg. She was a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
On 13 June 1395, Joanna Sophia married Albert IV, Duke of Austria in Vienna. The marriage between the two ended a feud between Joanna Sophia's father and Albert's father, Albert III of Austria. Joanna Sophia's father agreed to the payment of 10,000 Pfennige and he gave Albert III the fortress of Natternberg and the town of Deggendorf.
The marriage produced two children; both of whom survived to adulthood. They were:
Albert V (16 August 1397–27 October 1439, Neszmély, Hungary).
Margaret (26 June 1395, Vienna–24 December 1447), married in Landshut 25 November 1412 to Duke Henry XVI of Bavaria.Albert would often quarrel with members of Joanna Sophia's family, such as their brother-in-law Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and his half-brother Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor. This ended only when Albert died in 1404. Joanna Sophia arranged marriages for her children. She made negotiations with Frederick, Duke of Bavaria, to marry her daughter, Margaret to his son, Henry XVI, Duke of Bavaria. Henry and Margaret married two years after Joanna Sophia's death.
Her son Albert married Elizabeth of Luxembourg, the only child of Emperor Sigismund.
Joanna Sophia died aged thirty-six or thirty-seven in Vienna.Margareta of Celje
Margareta of Celje (German: Margareta von Cilly, Polish: Małgorzata Cylejska, Slovene: Margareta Celjska) (1411 – 22 July 1480) was a noblewoman member of the Slovenian House of Celje and by marriage Duchess of both half Głogów and Ścinawa.
She was the only child of Herman III, Count of Celje (b. 1380? - d. after falling from his horse, 30 July 1426), by his first wife, Elisabeth (b. 1377? - d. bef. 1423), daughter of Baron Johann II of Abensberg and widow of Ulrich II of Schauenburg. From her mother's first marriage, Margareta had two older half-brothers, Johann I (d. 16 November 1453) and George I of Schauenburg (d. young, 1404).From her father's side, she was a niece of Barbara of Celje, known as the Messalina of Germany, second and last wife of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia.Mikołaj Błociszewski
Mikołaj Błociszewski (Nicholas de Błociszewo) of Ostoja coat of arms (d. 1419) - the court knight and deputy of King Jogaila (Władysław Jagiełło) to negotiate with the Teutonic Knights. He was Castellan of Sanok (1401–1415) judge of Poznań (1415–1419) and Lord of Greater Poland.He was born in one of the ancestral villages, which among others included Brodnica today part of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Błociszewo in Śrem County and Rąbiń in Kościan County, Greater Poland Voivodeship . Mikołaj was the son of Świętomir Błociszewski de Błociszewo of the Clan of Ostoja. He married Dorothy, daughter of Dominic Jeżewski.Together with his brother Jan he originally owned properties estates of Błociszewo, Brodnica and Grabianowa. In 1408 he received permission from Wojciech Jastrzębiec, the bishop of Poznań to build a church in Błociszewo, although the property estate of Błociszewo was lately passed to his older brother Jan. Their sister was probably Formosa de Rąbin that around the start of the 15th century led a process for payment of her part of the property. Mikołaj Błociszewski received nomination to Castellan of Sanok in 1401 and was in charge of it to 1415 as he then became judge of Poznań and Lord of Greater Poland (Wielmoża Wielkopolski).He was sent by polish King to negotiate peace treaty with Teutonic Knights and negotiations with King Sigismund von Luxemburg (Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor) that mediated between parts. On the polish side Mikołaj Błociszewski was negotiating together with Mikołaj Bydgoski, Castellan of Bydgoszcz and Hungarian baron, also from the Clan of Ostoja. On behalf of King Sigismund von Luxemburg the negotiations where led by Stibor of Stiboricz of the Clan of Ostoja. As the negotiations failed, war with the Teutonic Knights had to take place at the Battle of Grunwald (1410).Nicholas III Zorzi
Nicholas III (or II) Zorzi or Giorgi (Italian: Niccolò) was the Marquess of Bodonitsa, a member of the Zorzi family of the Republic of Venice, from 1416 to 1436, though the title was purely nominal by then. Before becoming marquess in an exchange with his nephew Nicholas II, he was the baron of Carystus (from 1410). He was a son of Guglielma Pallavicini and Marquess Nicholas I Zorzi.
He spent most of his adult career acting as a functionary of the Republic of Venice. He was an ambassador to the courts of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary, and Murad II, the Ottoman sultan. He was poisoned, perhaps by Murad's men, in 1436.
His daughter, Chiara, married Nerio II of Athens.Robert Hallam
Robert Hallam (a.k.a. Alum or Halam; died 4 September 1417) was an English churchman, Bishop of Salisbury and English representative at the Council of Constance. He was Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1403 to 1405.Hallam was originally from Cheshire in northern England and was educated at Oxford University. As Chancellor he, the Proctors, and all others in the University were pardoned by King Henry IV. On leaving the chancellorship, he was nominated in May 1406 by Pope Innocent VII as Archbishop of York, but the appointment was vetoed by King Henry IV in the same year. However, in 1407 he was consecrated by Pope Gregory XII at Siena as Bishop of Salisbury. As bishop, Hallam supported various churches and shrines in his diocese with grants of episcopal indulgences.At the Council of Pisa in 1409, Hallam was one of the English representatives. On 6 June 1411, Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cardinal Cossa) purported to make Hallam a pseudocardinal, but this title was not recognised.
At the Council of Constance, in November 1414, Hallam was the chief English envoy. There he took a prominent position, as an advocate of Church reform and of the superiority of the council to the pope. He played a leading part in the discussions leading to the deposition of Antipope John XXIII on 29 May 1415, but was less concerned with the trials of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, through whose influence the council had been assembled, was absent during the whole of 1416 on a diplomatic mission in France and England; but when he returned to Constance in January 1417, as the open ally of the English king, Hallam as Henry V's trusted representative obtained increased importance, and contrived to emphasise English prestige by delivering the address of welcome to Sigismund. Afterwards, under Henry's direction, he supported the emperor in trying to secure a reform of the Church, before the council proceeded to the election of a new pope. This matter was still undecided when Hallam died suddenly on 4 September 1417. His executors were Masters Richard Hallum, John Fyton, John Hikke, with William Clynt, Thomas Hallum, Thomas Faukys, clerk, & Humfrey Rodeley After Hallam's death the cardinals were able to secure the immediate election of a new pope, Martin V, who was elected on 11 November: it has been said that the abandonment of the reformers by the English was due entirely to Hallam's death; but it is more likely that Henry V, foreseeing the possible need for a change of front, had given Hallam discretionary powers which the bishop's successors used. Hallam himself had the confidence of Sigismund and was generally respected for his straightforward independence. He was buried in Constance Cathedral, where his tomb near the high altar is marked by a brass of English workmanship.Sigismund
Sigismund (variants: Sigmund, Siegmund) is a German proper name, meaning "protection through victory", from Old High German sigu "victory" + munt "hand, protection". Tacitus Latinises it Segimundus. There appears to be an older form of the High German word "Sieg" (victory): sigis, obviously Gothic and an inferred Germanic form, and there is a younger form: sigi, which is Old Saxon or Old High German sigu (both from about 9th century). A 5th century Prince of Burgundy was known both as Sigismund and Sigimund (see Ernst Förstemann, Altdeutsche Personennamen, 1906; Henning Kaufmann, Altdeutsche Personennamen, Ergänzungsband,1968).
Its Hungarian equivalent is Zsigmond.
A Lithuanian name Žygimantas, meaning "wealth of (military) campaign", from Lithuanian žygis "campaign, march" + manta "goods, wealth" has been a substitution of the name Sigismund in the Lithuanian language, from which it was adopted by the Ruthenian language as Жыгімонт (such are the cases of Sigismund Kestutaitis, Sigismund Korybut, Sigismund I the Old, Sigismund II Augustus). The Polish spelling is Zygmunt, and the Croatian variant is Žigmund.
Sigismund was the name of various European rulers:
Saint Sigismund of Burgundy (died 523), King of the Burgundians
Sigismund I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (died 1405)
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (1368–1437), also King of Hungary and King of Bohemia
Sigismund Kęstutaitis (c. 1365–1440), Grand Duke of Lithuania
Sigismund Korybut (c. 1395-c. 1435), Lithuanian duke who participated in Hussite Wars
Sigismund II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (died after 1452)
Sigismund, Archduke of Austria (1427–1496), ruler of Further Austria
Sigismund of Bavaria (1439–1501), Duke of Bavaria
Sigismund I the Old (1467–1548), King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Sigismund von Herberstein (1486–1566), Carniolan diplomat, writer, historian and member of the Holy Roman Empire Imperial Council
Sigismund II Augustus (1520–1572), King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Sigismund of Brandenburg (1538–1566), Prince-Archbishop of Magdeburg and Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt
Sigismund Rákóczi (died 1608), briefly Prince of Transylvania
Sigismund III Vasa (1566–1632), King of Poland, Sweden and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Sigismund Báthory (1572–1613), Prince of Transylvania
John Sigismund (1572-1618), Elector of Brandenburg
Sigismund Francis of Austria (1630–1665), ruler of Further Austria
Prince Sigismund of Prussia (1864-1866)
Prince Sigismund of Prussia (1896–1978)
Ishak Bey Kraloğlu or Sigismund of Bosnia (born in the 1450s?), son of King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia
Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany (born 1966)Others named Sigismund include:
Sigismund Albicus (c. 1360–1427), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Prague
Sigismund Bachrich (1841–1913), Hungarian composer, violinist and violist
Sigismund Payne Best (1885–1978), British secret agent during the First and Second World Wars
Sigismund von Braun (1911–1998), German diplomat and Secretary of State
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), Austrian founder of psychoanalysis born Sigismund Schlomo Freud
Sigismund Gelenius (1497–1554), eminent Greek scholar and humanist
Sigismund von Götzen (1576–1650), German diplomat and politician
Sigismund Ernst Hohenwart (1745–1825), Bishop of Linz
Sigismund Koelle (1820–1902), German missionary and pioneer scholar of African languages
Sigismund Ernst Richard Krone (1861–1917), German naturalist, zoologist, spelunker, archaeologist and researcher
Sigismund Mendl (1866—1945), British politician
Sigismund von Neukomm (1778–1858), Austrian composer and pianist
Sigismund Felix Freiherr von Ow-Felldorf (1855–1936), Bishop of Passau
Sigismund von Reitzenstein (1766–1847), first minister of state of the Grand Duchy of Baden
Sigismund von Schlichting (1829–1909), Prussian general and military theorist
Sigismund von Schrattenbach (1698–1771), Archbishop of Salzburg
Sigismund Streit (1687–1775), German merchant and art patron in Venice
Sigismund Zaremba (1861–1915), Ukrainian and Russian composer
Sigismund Zinzan, an equerry to Queen Elizabeth I of EnglandSigismund may also refer to fictional characters:
Segismundo, main character of Calderón de la Barca's La vida es sueño.
Segismundo, 21st-century hero of the dramatic novel "United States of Banana" by Giannina Braschi, based on Calderón de la Barca's Life is a Dream.
Sigismund, a Space Marine character from the Warhammer 40,000 novel series, The Horus Heresy.Other things named Sigismund:
Sigismund Bell, a famous bell in the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków, cast in 1520Sigismund I
Sigismund I may refer to:
Sigismund of Burgundy (died 524), King of the Burgundians
Sigismund I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (died 1405)
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (1368–1437)
Sigismund I of Lithuania (c. 1365 – 1440)
Sigismund, Archduke of Austria (1427–1496)
Sigismund of Bavaria (1439–1501), Duke of Bavaria
Sigismund I the Old (1467–1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of LithuaniaSimon Rozgonyi
Simon Rozgonyi (died March 1414) was a Hungarian nobleman and judge royal, who supported Ladislaus of Naples against Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor. He had two wives, Anna and Margit, and five children. His son Simon was bishop of Eger (1440–1444) and was killed in the Battle of Varna.The Tale of Two Lovers
The Tale of Two Lovers (Latin: Historia de duobus amantibus) written in 1444 was one of the bestselling books of the fifteenth century, even before its author, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, became Pope Pius II. It is one of the earliest examples of an epistolary novel, full of erotic imagery. The first printed edition was published by Ulrich Zell in Cologne between 1467 and 1470.
The novel is set in Siena, Italy and centres around the love story of Lucretia, a married woman, and Euryalus, one of the men waiting on the Duke of Austria. After an uncertain beginning, in which each is in love but unaware that it is reciprocated, they begin a correspondence, which takes up much of the rest of the novel. Before writing his first love-letter, Euryalus quotes Virgil in defence of his position, Amor vincit omnia et nos cedamus amori (translated: "Love conquers all; let us all yield to love!").The lovers were identified by some with Kaspar Schlick, the chancellor of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and a daughter of the elder Mariano Sozzini, Aeneas' law teacher at the University of Siena. This equation of characters is no longer accepted.The Latin text was edited most recently in 2001. Translations have been made into several languages, including English.Treaty of Canterbury (1416)
The Treaty of Canterbury was a diplomatic agreement concluded between Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry V of England on 15 August 1416. The treaty resulted in a defensive and offensive alliance against France.Žižkov
Žižkov is a cadastral district of Prague, Czech Republic. Most of Žižkov lies in the municipal and administrative district of Prague 3, except for very small parts which are in Prague 8 and Prague 10. Prior to 1922, Žižkov was an independent city.
The district is named after Hussite military leader Jan Žižka. It is situated south of Vitkov hill, site of the Battle of Vitkov Hill on 14 July 1420, where Žižka's peasant army decisively defeated the forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.
|Heraldry of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Ancestors of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Holy Roman Empire|
|House of Árpád|
|House of Přemysl|
|House of Wittelsbach|
|Capetian House of Anjou|
|House of Luxembourg|
|House of Habsburg|
|House of Jagiellon|
|House of Hunyadi|
|House of Jagiellon|
|House of Zápolya|
|House of Habsburg|
|House of Habsburg-Lorraine|
Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.
|East Francia within the|
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
|East Francia (911–962)|
|Kingdom of Germany within the|
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
|Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)|
|German Confederation (1815–1848)|
|German Empire (1848/1849)|
|German Confederation (1850–1866)|
|North German Confederation (1867–1871)|
|German Empire (1871–1918)|