Siger of Brabant

Siger of Brabant (Sigerus, Sighier, Sigieri or Sygerius de Brabantia; c. 1240 – before 10 November 1284) was a 13th-century philosopher from the southern Low Countries who was an important proponent of Averroism. He was considered a radical by the conservative members of the Roman Catholic Church, but it is suggested that he played as important a role as his contemporary Thomas Aquinas in the shaping of Western attitudes towards faith and reason.

Dante Pd10 Kopenhagen MS Thott 411.2
Dante and Beatrice in Paradise. Siger of Brabant is depicted with red cloak, top right (MS Thott 411.2, 15th century).


Early life

Little is known about many of the details of his life. In 1266, he was attached to the Faculty of Arts in the University of Paris at the time when a riot erupted between the French and Picard "nations" of students—a series of loosely organized fraternities. The papal legate threatened Siger with execution as the ringleader of the Picard attack on the French, but no further action was taken.


In the ten years following the riot, he wrote the six works which are ascribed to him and were published under his name by Pierre Mandonnet in 1899. The titles of these treatises are:

  • De anima intellectiva (1270)
  • Quaestiones logicales
  • Quaestiones naturales
  • De aeternitate mundi
  • Quaestio utrum haec sit vera: Homo est animal nullo homine existente
  • Impossibilia


In 1271, he was once more involved in a party struggle. The minority among the "nations" chose him as rector in opposition to the elected candidate, Aubri de Rheims. For three years the strife continued, and was probably based on the opposition between the Averroists, Siger and Pierre Dubois, and the more orthodox schoolmen. The matter was settled by the Papal Legate, Simon de Brion, afterwards Pope Martin IV. Siger retired from Paris to Liège.

Time in Liège

Siger was accused of teaching "double truth"—that is, saying one thing could be true through reason, and that the opposite could be true through faith. Because Siger was a scholastic, he probably did not teach double truths but tried to find reconciliations between faith and reason.

In 1277, a general condemnation of Aristotelianism included a special clause directed against Boetius of Dacia and Siger of Brabant. Again Siger and Bernier de Nivelles were summoned to appear on a charge of heresy, especially in connection with the Impossibilia, where the existence of God is discussed. It appears, however, that Siger and Boetius fled to Italy and, according to John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, then perished miserably.


The manner of Siger's death, which occurred at Orvieto, is not known. A Brabantine chronicle says that he was stabbed by a seemingly-insane secretary (a clerico suo quasi dementi). The secretary is said to have used a pen as the murder weapon and his critics claimed since he had done so much damage with his pen, he deserved what was coming. Dante, in the Paradiso (x.134-6), says that he found "death slow in coming," and some have concluded that this indicates death by suicide. A 13th-century sonnet by one Durante (xcii.9-14) says that he was executed at Orvieto: "a ghiado it fe' morire a gran dolore, Nella corte di Roma ad Orbivieto." The date of this may have been 1283-1284 when Pope Martin IV was in residence at Orvieto. His fellow radicals were lying low in the face of the Condemnations of 1277 and there was no investigation into his murder.

In politics he held that good laws were better than good rulers, and criticised papal infallibility in temporal affairs. The importance of Siger in philosophy lies in his acceptance of Averroism in its entirety, which drew upon him the opposition of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas.

In December 1270, Averroism was condemned by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely philosophic opponents.

Cultural references

In Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy, Siger of Brabant is found in the Fourth Sphere of Paradise for being a positive example of Prudence, Justice, temperance, and Fortitude.

See also


  • On the Eternity of the World, trans. Lottie H.Kendzierski (Marquette UP, 1964) [mainly translations from Thomas Aquinas, but the book includes selections from Siger of Brabant]
  • Hissette, R. (1977) Enquête sur les 219 articles condamnés à Paris le 7 mars, 1277, Louvain: Publications Universitaires, Paris: Vander-Oyez.
  • Mandonnet, P. (1908–11) Siger de Brabant et l’averroïsme latin au XIIIe siècle, Les Philosophes Belges VI-VII, Louvain: Institut supérieur de philosophie, 2 vols.
  • Rubenstein, Richard E. Aristotle's Children: How Christians, Muslims, and Jews Rediscovered Ancient Wisdom and Illuminated the Middle Ages. New York: Harcourt, 2003.
  • Van Steenberghen, F. (1977) Maître Siger de Brabant, Louvain: Publications universitaires, Paris: Vander-Oyez.
  • Tony Dodd: The life and thought of Siger of Brabant, thirteenth-century Parisian philosopher: an examination of his views on the relationship of philosophy and theology. E. Mellen Press, Lewiston 1998, ISBN 0-7734-8477-9
  • A. W. DeAnnuntis, Master Siger's Dream, What Books Press, Los Angeles 2010, ISBN 978-0-9823542-7-8
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Siger de Brabant" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links

Active intellect

The active intellect (Latin: intellectus agens; also translated as agent intellect, active intelligence, active reason, or productive intellect) is a concept in classical and medieval philosophy. The term refers to the formal (morphe) aspect of the intellect (nous), in accordance with the theory of hylomorphism.

The nature of the active intellect was the subject of intense discussion in medieval philosophy, as various Muslim, Jewish and Christian thinkers sought to reconcile their commitment to Aristotle's account of the body and soul to their own theological commitments. At stake in particular was in what way Aristotle's account of an incorporeal soul might contribute to understanding of the nature of eternal life.

Averroes' theory of the unity of the intellect

The unity of the intellect is a philosophical theory proposed by the Muslim medieval Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198), which asserted that all humans share the same intellect. Averroes expounded his theory in his long commentary of On the Soul to explain how universal knowledge is possible within the Aristotelian theory of mind. Averroes' theory was influenced by related ideas by previous thinkers such as Aristotle, Plotinus, Al-Farabi, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Avempace (Ibn Bajja).

When Averroes' works were translated into Latin, this theory was taken up and expanded by Averroists in Western Europe in the following centuries, such as Siger of Brabant, John of Jandun and John Baconthorpe. It also influenced the secularist political philosophy of Dante Alighieri in the fourteenth century. However, it was rejected by other philosophers—including Thomas Aquinas, who wrote a detailed critique—and received condemnation by Catholic Church authorities. In modern times, it is no longer seen as a tenable theory and is considered a product of Averroes' time.[says who?]


Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.

Latin translations of Averroes' work became widely available at the universities which were springing up in Western Europe in the 13th century, and were received by scholasticists such as Siger of Brabant, Boetius of Dacia who examined Christian doctrines through reasoning and intellectual analysis.The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas in the restricted sense of the Averroists' "unity of the intellect" doctrine in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas.

Based on this, Averroism came to be near-synonymous with atheism in late medieval usage.As a historiographical category, Averroism was first defined by Ernest Renan in Averroès et l'averroïsme (1852) in the sense of

radical or heterodox Aristotelianism.The reception of Averroes in Jewish thought has been termed "Jewish Averroism".

Jewish Averroist thought flourished in the later 14th century, and gradually declined in the course of the 15th century.

The last representative of Jewish Averroism was Elia del Medigo, writing in 1485.

Boetius of Dacia

Boetius de Dacia, OP (also spelled Boethius de Dacia) was a 13th-century Danish philosopher.

Catholic moral theology

Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics. Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory. It can be distinguished as dealing with "how one is to act", in contrast to dogmatic theology which proposes "what one is to believe".

Condemnations of 1210–1277

The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. These included a number of medieval theological teachings, but most importantly the physical treatises of Aristotle. The investigations of these teachings were conducted by the Bishops of Paris. The Condemnations of 1277 are traditionally linked to an investigation requested by Pope John XXI, although whether he actually supported drawing up a list of condemnations is unclear.

Approximately sixteen lists of censured theses were issued by the University of Paris during the 13th and 14th centuries. Most of these lists of propositions were put together into systematic collections of prohibited articles. Of these, the Condemnations of 1277 are considered particularly important by those historians who consider that they encouraged scholars to question the tenets of Aristotelian science. From this perspective, some historians maintain that the condemnations had positive effects on the development of science, perhaps even representing the beginnings of modern science.

Deaths of philosophers

The documented history of philosophy is often said to begin with the notable death of Socrates. Since that time, there have been many other noteworthy deaths of philosophers.

435 BCE According to legend, Empedocles leapt to his death into the crater of Etna.

420 BCE According to some reports, Protagoras died in a shipwreck.

399 BCE Socrates, condemned to death for corrupting the young, drank hemlock amongst his friends as described in Plato’s Phaedo.

348 BCE Plato either died while being serenaded by a Thracian flute-playing girl, or at a wedding feast.

338 BCE According to legend, Isocrates starved himself to death.

323 BCE Accounts differ regarding the death of Diogenes of Sinope. He is alleged to have died from eating raw octopus, from being bitten by a dog, and from holding his breath. He left instructions for his corpse to be left outside the city walls as a feast for the animals and birds.

320 BCE Ancient sources tell us that Nicocreon the tyrant had Anaxarchus pounded to death in a mortar with iron pestles; Anaxarchus is said to have made light of the punishment.

314 BCE Xenocrates died when he hit his head after tripping over a bronze pot.

270 BCE Epicurus died of kidney stones.

262 BCE Zeno of Citium founder of the Stoic philosophical school tripped and broke his toe and then died from holding his breath.

207 BCE Chrysippus is said to have died from laughter after giving wine to his donkey and seeing it attempt to eat figs.

52 BCE Lucretius is alleged to have killed himself after being driven mad by taking a love potion.

65 CE Seneca was forced to commit suicide after falling out with Emperor Nero.

415 Hypatia was killed by a mob of Christians.

430 Saint Augustine died in Hippo while the city was under siege by the Vandals.

526 Boethius was strangled on the orders of the Ostrogoth king Theodoric by whom he was employed.

1141 Judah Halevi was killed on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

1180 Abraham ibn Daud was martyred.

1277 Pope John XXI (usually identified with the logician Peter of Spain) was killed by the collapse of a roof.

1284 Siger of Brabant was stabbed to death by his clerk.

1415 Jan Hus was executed at the Council of Constance.

1487 John Argyropoulos supposedly died of consuming too much watermelon.

1535 Thomas More was executed by beheading in 1535 after he had fallen out of favour with King Henry VIII.

1572 Girolamo Maggi was executed by strangulation on the orders of a prison captain in Constantinople; Maggi had been incarcerated after being arrested during the Turkish siege of Famagusta.

1572 Peter Ramus was killed in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

1600 Giordano Bruno was burnt by the Inquisition.

1619 Lucilio Vanini was also burnt by the Inquisition.

1626 Francis Bacon died of pneumonia, contracted while stuffing snow into a chicken as an experiment in refrigeration.

1640 Uriel da Costa, after being beaten and trampled by a religious group he had offended, went home and shot himself.

1650 René Descartes was killed by a cold acquired through his rising early to instruct Queen Christina of Sweden.

1677 Baruch Spinoza died of a pulmonary ailment, thought to be either tuberculosis or silicosis, brought on by inhaling glass dust while working as a lens grinder.

1683 Algernon Sidney was executed for treason.

1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz died in Hanover on 14 November 1716 after a prolonged case of arthritis and gout. The only one to attend his funeral was his secretary, Johann Georg von Eckhart.

1794 The Marquis de Condorcet died in prison.

1814 Johann Gottlieb Fichte died of typhus in Berlin, during the campaign against Napoleon.

1831 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel died of a gastrointestinal disease during a cholera outbreak in Berlin.

1837 Giacomo Leopardi died in Naples during a cholera epidemic, maybe by pulmonary edema.

1866 William Whewell was thrown from his horse and sustained fatal injuries.

1876 Philipp Mainländer hanged himself in his residence in Offenbach, using a pile of copies of The Philosophy of Redemption as a platform.

1882 William Jevons was drowned while bathing.

1900 Friedrich Nietzsche died after a mental breakdown.

1901 Paul Rée fell to his death from a mountain.

1903 Otto Weininger committed suicide by shooting himself.

1906 Ludwig Boltzmann hanged himself.

1910 Carlo Michelstaedter killed himself with a pistol he had in his house.

1911 Paul Lafargue died with his wife, Laura Marx, in a suicide pact.

1915 Emil Lask was killed in action as soldier in World War I.

1917 Adolf Reinach fell outside Diksmuide in Flanders during World War I.

1928 Alexander Bogdanov died as a result of one of his experiments in blood transfusion.

1930 Frank P. Ramsey died after "contracting jaundice" at the age of 26. (Jaundice by itself is not a cause of death but instead indicates hemolytic or hepatic disease.)

1931 Jacques Herbrand died in a mountaineering accident in the Alps at the age of 23.

1936 Moritz Schlick was murdered by an insane student.

1937 Gustav Shpet was executed after being accused of involvement in an anti-Soviet organization.

1937 Antonio Gramsci died during his imprisonment by Benito Mussolini.

1939 Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz committed suicide by taking an overdose of Veronal and trying to slit his wrists a day after the Soviet invasion of Poland; it was planned to be a joint suicide with a close friend of his but she survived the attempt.

1940 Walter Benjamin committed suicide at the Spanish-French border, after attempting to flee from the Nazis.

1940 Leon Trotsky was assassinated on Stalin's orders in Mexico, by Soviet agent Ramón Mercader, along with most of his family.

1941 Henri Bergson died of pneumonia in occupied Paris, which he supposedly contracted after standing in a queue for several hours in order to register as a Jew.

1941 Kurt Grelling was killed by the Nazis.

1941 Edith Stein died in a gas chamber in the Auschwitz concentration camp.

1943 Simone Weil starved herself to death.

1944 Jean Cavaillès was shot by the Gestapo.

1944 Marc Bloch was shot by the Gestapo for his work in the French Resistance.

1944 Giovanni Gentile was murdered by communist partisans.

1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer was executed by hanging.

1945 Gerhard Gentzen was detained in a prison camp by the Russian forces, where he died of malnutrition.

1945 Ernst Bergmann committed suicide after the Allied forces captured Leipzig.

1945 Johan Huizinga died in De Steeg in Gelderland, near Arnhem, where he was held in detention by the Nazis.

1945 Miki Kiyoshi died in prison; he had been imprisoned after helping a friend on the run from the authorities.

1948 Mohandas Gandhi was shot and killed by a Hindu zealot.

1951 Ludwig Wittgenstein died of cancer in Ireland, three days after his 62nd birthday. His last words: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life."

1954 Alan Turing ate a cyanide-poisoned apple. He was believed at the time to have committed suicide due to chemical depression, but his death was possibly just an accident.

1960 Albert Camus died in an automobile accident.

1961 Maurice Merleau-Ponty died of a stroke while preparing a lecture on Descartes.

1969 Theodor Adorno developed heart palpitations after attempting to climb a 3000-metre mountain, and subsequently suffered a heart attack.

1970 Bertrand Russell died of the flu in Wales. There was no religious ceremony.

1971 Richard Montague was beaten to death, presumably by a male prostitute.

1973 Amílcar Cabral was assassinated while fighting for the independence of Portuguese colonies in Africa.

1977 Jan Patočka died of an apoplexy after having been interrogated by the Czechoslovak secret police for eleven hours.

1978 Kurt Gödel starved himself to death by refusing to eat for fear of being poisoned.

1979 Evald Ilyenkov committed suicide.

1979 Nicos Poulantzas committed suicide by jumping out of the twentieth floor of his apartment building.

1980 Roland Barthes was struck in the street by a laundry van after leaving a luncheon with French President François Mitterrand.

1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, a notorious chain-smoker, died of an edema of the lung.

1983 Arthur Koestler committed joint suicide with his third wife, Cynthia, by taking an overdose of drugs after a painful struggle with disease.

1984 Michel Foucault was the first high-profile French personality to die of AIDS after contracting HIV.

1986 Simone de Beauvoir died of pneumonia.

1990 Louis Althusser died of a heart attack.

1994 David Stove committed suicide by hanging himself after a painful struggle with disease.

1994 Sarah Kofman committed suicide on Nietzsche’s birthday.

1994 Guy Debord committed suicide by shooting himself after a painful struggle with polyneuritis.

1995 Gilles Deleuze committed suicide by jumping out of his fourth-storey apartment window.

1998 Dimitris Liantinis committed suicide on the mountains of Taygetos.

2001 David Lewis died of diabetes related complications.

2004 Jacques Derrida died of pancreatic cancer.

2007 André Gorz committed joint suicide with his wife by lethal injection.

Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature and one of the greatest works of world literature. The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written (also in most present-day Italian-market editions), as the standardized Italian language. It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.

The narrative describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise or Heaven, while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God. Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy, especially Thomistic philosophy derived from the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. Consequently, the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse". In Dante's work, Virgil is presented as human reason and Beatrice is presented as divine knowledge.The work was originally simply titled Comedìa (pronounced [komeˈdiːa]; so also in the first printed edition, published in 1472), Tuscan for "Comedy", later adjusted to the modern Italian Commedia. The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, and the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce, published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.

Dominic of Flanders

Dominic of Flanders (Latin: Dominicus de Flandria, French: Dominique de Flandre) (ca. 1425–1479) was a French-Flemish Dominican philosopher and Scholastic author, known to have been a renowned Thomist. His commentaries on Aristotle and on Thomas Aquinas were frequently printed, the most famous being his commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. This Commentaria is commonly known to have been dedicated to Lorenzo de’ Medici.

Double truth

Double-truth theory is the view that religion and philosophy, as separate sources of knowledge, might arrive at contradictory truths without detriment to either.

Emmanuel Mounier

Emmanuel Mounier (; French: [munje]; 1 April 1905 – 22 March 1950) was a French philosopher, theologian, teacher and essayist.

Index of medieval philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri


Abner of Burgos

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham ibn Daud

Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī

Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abu Yaqub Sijistani

Acharya Hemachandra

Active intellect

Actus et potentia

Actus primus

Actus purus

Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio

Adam de Buckfield

Adam de Wodeham

Adam of Łowicz

Adam Parvipontanus

Adam Pulchrae Mulieris

Adelard of Bath

Adi Shankara

Ahmad Sirhindi






Al Amiri

Alain de Lille

Albert of Saxony (philosopher)

Albertus Magnus


Alessandro Achillini

Alexander Bonini

Alexander Neckam

Alexander of Hales

Alfred of Sareshel



Amalric of Bena

André of Neufchâteau

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Laon

Antonio Beccadelli

Arab transmission of the Classics to the West

Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī

Auctoritates Aristotelis

Augustine Eriugena

Augustine of Hippo




Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani

Barlaam of Seminara

Bartholomew of Bologna (philosopher)

Bartolommeo Spina

Basilios Bessarion

Bernard of Chartres

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Trilia

Bernard Silvestris

Berthold of Moosburg


Boetius of Dacia


Brethren of Purity

Brunetto Latini

Byzantine philosophy

Byzantine rhetoric

Cahal Daly


Cardinal virtues

Carolus Sigonius

Catherine of Siena

Celestial spheres

Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)

Choe Chung

Christine de Pizan

Condemnations of 1210–1277

Consolation of Philosophy

Constantine of Kostenets

Contra principia negantem disputari non potest


Cosmographia (Bernard Silvestris)

Credo ut intelligam

Cristoforo Landino

Daniel of Morley

Dante Alighieri

David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

De divisione naturae

Demetrius Chalcondyles

Denis the Carthusian

Divine apathy

Doctrine of the Mean


Dominicus Gundissalinus

Duns Scotus

Dynamics of the celestial spheres

Early Islamic philosophy

Elia del Medigo

Ethica thomistica

Étienne Tempier

Eustratius of Nicaea

Euthymius of Athos

Everard of Ypres

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Federico Cesi

Five wits

Francesco Filelfo

Francis of Marchia

Francis of Mayrone

Francis Robortello

Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco Suárez

Franciscus Bonae Spei

Fujiwara Seika

Gabriel Biel

Galileo Galilei

Garlandus Compotista

Gasparinus de Bergamo

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers

Gemistus Pletho

George of Trebizond

Gerard of Abbeville

Gerard of Bologna

Gerard of Brussels

Gerard of Cremona

Gerardus Odonis


Gilbert de la Porrée

Giles of Lessines

Giles of Rome

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Godfrey of Fontaines

Gonsalvus of Spain

Great chain of being

Gregor Reisch

Gregory of Rimini

Grzegorz of Stawiszyn

Guarino da Verona

Guido Terrena

Guillaume Pierre Godin

Guru Nanak Dev



Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Henry Aristippus

Henry Harclay

Henry of Ghent

Herman of Carinthia

Hermannus Alemannus

Hervaeus Natalis

Heymeric de Campo

Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi



How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

Hugh of Saint Victor

Hugh of St Cher


Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn al-Rawandi

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Bajjah

Ibn Hazm

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Masarrah

Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Tufail

Immanuel the Roman



Intelligible form

Ioane Petritsi


Isaac Abrabanel

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon


Isotta Nogarola

Jacob ben Nissim

Jacopo Zabarella

Jakub of Gostynin

Jan Szylling


Jean Buridan

Jean Capréolus

Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi



Jiva Goswami

Jocelin of Soissons

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Argyropoulos

John Blund

John de Sècheville

John Dumbleton

John Halgren of Abbeville

John Hennon

John Italus

John Major (philosopher)

John of Damascus

John of Głogów

John of Jandun

John of Mirecourt

John of Paris

John of Salisbury

John of St. Thomas

John Pagus

John Peckham

Joseph Albo

Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta

Judah ben Moses Romano

Judah Halevi

Julius Caesar Scaliger

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Kwon Geun

Lambert of Auxerre

Lambertus de Monte

Leo the Mathematician

Leon Battista Alberti

Leonardo da Vinci

List of scholastic philosophers

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī



Manuel Chrysoloras

Marcus Musurus

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilius of Inghen

Marsilius of Padua

Matheolus Perusinus

Matthew of Aquasparta

Medieval philosophy

Meister Eckhart

Michael of Ephesus

Michael of Massa

Michael Psellos

Michał Falkener


Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in

Moralium dogma philosophorum

Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi



Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Nasir Khusraw


Niccolò Machiavelli


Nicholas of Autrecourt

Nicholas of Kues

Nicole Oresme

Nikephoros Choumnos

Odo of Châteauroux

Omar Khayyám

Oxford Calculators

Oxford Franciscan school

Palla Strozzi

Paolo da Pergola

Passive intellect

Patriarch Gennadios II of Constantinople

Paul of Venice

Peripatetic axiom

Peter Abelard

Peter Aureol

Peter Ceffons

Peter Crockaert

Peter de Rivo

Peter Helias

Peter Lombard

Peter of Auvergne

Peter of Capua

Peter of Corbeil

Peter of Poitiers

Peter of Spain (author)

Peter Olivi


Petrus Aureolus

Petrus Ramus

Photios I of Constantinople

Pierre d'Ailly

Pierre de Bar

Pietro Alcionio

Pietro d'Abano


Porphyrian tree


Primum movens

Problem of universals


Qotb al-Din Shirazi


Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Radulfus Ardens

Radulphus Brito

Ralph of Longchamp

Ralph Strode



Ramon Llull

Remigius of Auxerre


Renaissance humanism

Renaissance philosophy

Richard Brinkley

Richard Kilvington

Richard of Campsall

Richard of Middleton

Richard of Saint Victor

Richard Rufus of Cornwall

Richard Swineshead

Richard Wilton

Robert Alyngton

Robert Cowton

Robert Grosseteste

Robert Holcot

Robert Kilwardby

Robert of Melun

Robert Pullus

Rodolphus Agricola

Roger Bacon

Roland of Cremona

Roscelin of Compiègne


Rota Fortunae


School of Saint Victor


Sensus communis



Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi


Siger of Brabant

Simon of Faversham

Simon of Tournai

Solomon ibn Gabirol


Sperone Speroni

Stephen of Alexandria

Substantial form

Sum of Logic


Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica

Summum bonum

Supposition theory


Temporal finitism

Term logic

Theodore Metochites

Thierry of Chartres

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Gallus

Thomas of Sutton

Thomas of Villanova

Thomas of York (Franciscan)

Thomas Wilton


Thought of Thomas Aquinas

Timeline of Niccolò Machiavelli

Ulrich of Strasburg

University of Constantinople


Urso of Calabria

Vācaspati Miśra


Vincent Ferrer

Vital du Four

Voluntarism (metaphysics)

Voluntarism (theology)

Walter Burley

Walter Chatton

Walter of Bruges

Walter of Mortagne

Walter of St Victor

Walter of Winterburn

Wang Yangming

William Crathorn

William de la Mare

William of Alnwick

William of Auvergne (bishop)

William of Auxerre

William of Champeaux

William of Conches

William of Falgar

William of Heytesbury

William of Lucca

William of Moerbeke

William of Ockham

William of Saint-Amour

William of Sherwood

William of Ware

Works by Thomas Aquinas

Yi Hwang

Yohanan Alemanno

Zhang Zai

Zhu Xi

Johann Baptist Metz

Johann Baptist Metz (born 5 August 1928) is a German Catholic theologian. He is Ordinary Professor of Fundamental Theology, Emeritus, at Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster, Germany.

List of rectors of the University of Paris

This is a list of rectors of the University of Paris (the Sorbonne), a foundation of the middle of the twelfth century with a charter from 1200. The office of rector emerged in the middle of the thirteenth century. Since the rector, initially the “rector of the nations”, was elected by the students and faculty, his position was very different from the appointed chancellor of the university (who was in fact the ecclesiastical chancellor of Notre Dame de Paris, whose power came to be divided also with the chancellor of the Abbey of St Genevieve). The rector became the representative of the faculty of the arts; it required another century for the recognition of the rector as representing also the other three faculties (law, medicine and theology). From the middle of the fourteenth century the rector had the status of head of the university, but limited powers.The rectorship for most of its history was an elected position, of high academic prestige, and held in practice for a single term of one year. The formal position was that the term was of three months, so in some years there were several rectors elected. In the medieval and early Renaissance periods many holders of the post were from outside France. The reorganization of 1970 divided the historical university into thirteen parts. The office of rector still exists, with title Recteur de l'Académie de Paris.

List of scholastic philosophers

This is a list of philosophers and scholars working in the Christian tradition in Western Europe during the medieval period, including the early Middle Ages. See also scholasticism.

Luigi Taparelli

Luigi Taparelli (born Prospero Taparelli d'Azeglio; 1793–1862) was an Italian Catholic scholar of the Society of Jesus who coined the term social justice.

Minima naturalia

Minima naturalia ("natural minima") were theorized by Aristotle as the smallest parts into which a homogeneous natural substance (e.g., flesh, bone, or wood) could be divided and still retain its essential character. In this context, "nature" means formal nature. Thus, "natural minimum" may be taken to mean "formal minimum": the minimum amount of matter necessary to instantiate a certain form.

Speculation on minima naturalia in late Antiquity, in the Islamic world, and by Scholastic and Renaissance thinkers in Europe provided a conceptual bridge between the atomism of ancient Greece and the mechanistic philosophy of early modern thinkers like Descartes, which in turn provided a background for the rigorously mathematical and experimental atomism of modern science.

Pierre Mandonnet

Pierre Mandonnet (26 February 1858, Beaumont, Puy-de-Dôme – 4 January 1936, Le Saulchoir, Belgium) was a French-born, Belgian Dominican historian, important in the neo-Thomist trend of historiography and the recovery of medieval philosophy. He made his reputation with a study of Siger of Brabant.In 1887 he was ordained as a priest, and from 1891 to 1919, was a professor of church history at the University of Fribourg. In 1902/03 he served as university rector.

Steady-state model

In cosmology, the steady state model is an alternative to the Big Bang theory of the evolution of the universe. In the steady state model, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter, thus adhering to the perfect cosmological principle, a principle that asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.

While the steady state model enjoyed some minority support in the scientific mainstream until the mid-20th century, it is now rejected by the vast majority of cosmologists, astrophysicists and astronomers, as the observational evidence points to a hot Big Bang cosmology with a finite age of the universe, which the steady state model does not predict.

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