Siger of Brabant (Sigerus, Sighier, Sigieri or Sygerius de Brabantia; c. 1240 – before 10 November 1284) was a 13th-century philosopher from the southern Low Countries who was an important proponent of Averroism. He was considered a radical by the conservative members of the Roman Catholic Church, but it is suggested that he played as important a role as his contemporary Thomas Aquinas in the shaping of Western attitudes towards faith and reason.
Little is known about many of the details of his life. In 1266, he was attached to the Faculty of Arts in the University of Paris at the time when a riot erupted between the French and Picard "nations" of students—a series of loosely organized fraternities. The papal legate threatened Siger with execution as the ringleader of the Picard attack on the French, but no further action was taken.
In the ten years following the riot, he wrote the six works which are ascribed to him and were published under his name by Pierre Mandonnet in 1899. The titles of these treatises are:
In 1271, he was once more involved in a party struggle. The minority among the "nations" chose him as rector in opposition to the elected candidate, Aubri de Rheims. For three years the strife continued, and was probably based on the opposition between the Averroists, Siger and Pierre Dubois, and the more orthodox schoolmen. The matter was settled by the Papal Legate, Simon de Brion, afterwards Pope Martin IV. Siger retired from Paris to Liège.
Siger was accused of teaching "double truth"—that is, saying one thing could be true through reason, and that the opposite could be true through faith. Because Siger was a scholastic, he probably did not teach double truths but tried to find reconciliations between faith and reason.
In 1277, a general condemnation of Aristotelianism included a special clause directed against Boetius of Dacia and Siger of Brabant. Again Siger and Bernier de Nivelles were summoned to appear on a charge of heresy, especially in connection with the Impossibilia, where the existence of God is discussed. It appears, however, that Siger and Boetius fled to Italy and, according to John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, then perished miserably.
The manner of Siger's death, which occurred at Orvieto, is not known. A Brabantine chronicle says that he was stabbed by a seemingly-insane secretary (a clerico suo quasi dementi). The secretary is said to have used a pen as the murder weapon and his critics claimed since he had done so much damage with his pen, he deserved what was coming. Dante, in the Paradiso (x.134-6), says that he found "death slow in coming," and some have concluded that this indicates death by suicide. A 13th-century sonnet by one Durante (xcii.9-14) says that he was executed at Orvieto: "a ghiado it fe' morire a gran dolore, Nella corte di Roma ad Orbivieto." The date of this may have been 1283-1284 when Pope Martin IV was in residence at Orvieto. His fellow radicals were lying low in the face of the Condemnations of 1277 and there was no investigation into his murder.
In politics he held that good laws were better than good rulers, and criticised papal infallibility in temporal affairs. The importance of Siger in philosophy lies in his acceptance of Averroism in its entirety, which drew upon him the opposition of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas.
In December 1270, Averroism was condemned by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely philosophic opponents.
The active intellect (Latin: intellectus agens; also translated as agent intellect, active intelligence, active reason, or productive intellect) is a concept in classical and medieval philosophy. The term refers to the formal (morphe) aspect of the intellect (nous), in accordance with the theory of hylomorphism.
The nature of the active intellect was the subject of intense discussion in medieval philosophy, as various Muslim, Jewish and Christian thinkers sought to reconcile their commitment to Aristotle's account of the body and soul to their own theological commitments. At stake in particular was in what way Aristotle's account of an incorporeal soul might contribute to understanding of the nature of eternal life.Averroes' theory of the unity of the intellect
The unity of the intellect is a philosophical theory proposed by the Muslim medieval Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198), which asserted that all humans share the same intellect. Averroes expounded his theory in his long commentary of On the Soul to explain how universal knowledge is possible within the Aristotelian theory of mind. Averroes' theory was influenced by related ideas by previous thinkers such as Aristotle, Plotinus, Al-Farabi, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Avempace (Ibn Bajja).
When Averroes' works were translated into Latin, this theory was taken up and expanded by Averroists in Western Europe in the following centuries, such as Siger of Brabant, John of Jandun and John Baconthorpe. It also influenced the secularist political philosophy of Dante Alighieri in the fourteenth century. However, it was rejected by other philosophers—including Thomas Aquinas, who wrote a detailed critique—and received condemnation by Catholic Church authorities. In modern times, it is no longer seen as a tenable theory and is considered a product of Averroes' time.[says who?]Averroism
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Latin translations of Averroes' work became widely available at the universities which were springing up in Western Europe in the 13th century, and were received by scholasticists such as Siger of Brabant, Boetius of Dacia who examined Christian doctrines through reasoning and intellectual analysis.The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas in the restricted sense of the Averroists' "unity of the intellect" doctrine in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas.
Based on this, Averroism came to be near-synonymous with atheism in late medieval usage.As a historiographical category, Averroism was first defined by Ernest Renan in Averroès et l'averroïsme (1852) in the sense of
radical or heterodox Aristotelianism.The reception of Averroes in Jewish thought has been termed "Jewish Averroism".
Jewish Averroist thought flourished in the later 14th century, and gradually declined in the course of the 15th century.
The last representative of Jewish Averroism was Elia del Medigo, writing in 1485.Boetius of Dacia
Boetius de Dacia, OP (also spelled Boethius de Dacia) was a 13th-century Danish philosopher.Catholic moral theology
Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics. Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory. It can be distinguished as dealing with "how one is to act", in contrast to dogmatic theology which proposes "what one is to believe".Condemnations of 1210–1277
The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. These included a number of medieval theological teachings, but most importantly the physical treatises of Aristotle. The investigations of these teachings were conducted by the Bishops of Paris. The Condemnations of 1277 are traditionally linked to an investigation requested by Pope John XXI, although whether he actually supported drawing up a list of condemnations is unclear.
Approximately sixteen lists of censured theses were issued by the University of Paris during the 13th and 14th centuries. Most of these lists of propositions were put together into systematic collections of prohibited articles. Of these, the Condemnations of 1277 are considered particularly important by those historians who consider that they encouraged scholars to question the tenets of Aristotelian science. From this perspective, some historians maintain that the condemnations had positive effects on the development of science, perhaps even representing the beginnings of modern science.Deaths of philosophers
The documented history of philosophy is often said to begin with the notable death of Socrates. Since that time, there have been many other noteworthy deaths of philosophers.
435 BCE According to legend, Empedocles leapt to his death into the crater of Etna.
420 BCE According to some reports, Protagoras died in a shipwreck.
399 BCE Socrates, condemned to death for corrupting the young, drank hemlock amongst his friends as described in Plato’s Phaedo.
348 BCE Plato either died while being serenaded by a Thracian flute-playing girl, or at a wedding feast.
338 BCE According to legend, Isocrates starved himself to death.
323 BCE Accounts differ regarding the death of Diogenes of Sinope. He is alleged to have died from eating raw octopus, from being bitten by a dog, and from holding his breath. He left instructions for his corpse to be left outside the city walls as a feast for the animals and birds.
320 BCE Ancient sources tell us that Nicocreon the tyrant had Anaxarchus pounded to death in a mortar with iron pestles; Anaxarchus is said to have made light of the punishment.
314 BCE Xenocrates died when he hit his head after tripping over a bronze pot.
270 BCE Epicurus died of kidney stones.
262 BCE Zeno of Citium founder of the Stoic philosophical school tripped and broke his toe and then died from holding his breath.
207 BCE Chrysippus is said to have died from laughter after giving wine to his donkey and seeing it attempt to eat figs.
52 BCE Lucretius is alleged to have killed himself after being driven mad by taking a love potion.
65 CE Seneca was forced to commit suicide after falling out with Emperor Nero.
415 Hypatia was killed by a mob of Christians.
430 Saint Augustine died in Hippo while the city was under siege by the Vandals.
526 Boethius was strangled on the orders of the Ostrogoth king Theodoric by whom he was employed.
1141 Judah Halevi was killed on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
1180 Abraham ibn Daud was martyred.
1277 Pope John XXI (usually identified with the logician Peter of Spain) was killed by the collapse of a roof.
1284 Siger of Brabant was stabbed to death by his clerk.
1415 Jan Hus was executed at the Council of Constance.
1487 John Argyropoulos supposedly died of consuming too much watermelon.
1535 Thomas More was executed by beheading in 1535 after he had fallen out of favour with King Henry VIII.
1572 Girolamo Maggi was executed by strangulation on the orders of a prison captain in Constantinople; Maggi had been incarcerated after being arrested during the Turkish siege of Famagusta.
1572 Peter Ramus was killed in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.
1600 Giordano Bruno was burnt by the Inquisition.
1619 Lucilio Vanini was also burnt by the Inquisition.
1626 Francis Bacon died of pneumonia, contracted while stuffing snow into a chicken as an experiment in refrigeration.
1640 Uriel da Costa, after being beaten and trampled by a religious group he had offended, went home and shot himself.
1650 René Descartes was killed by a cold acquired through his rising early to instruct Queen Christina of Sweden.
1677 Baruch Spinoza died of a pulmonary ailment, thought to be either tuberculosis or silicosis, brought on by inhaling glass dust while working as a lens grinder.
1683 Algernon Sidney was executed for treason.
1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz died in Hanover on 14 November 1716 after a prolonged case of arthritis and gout. The only one to attend his funeral was his secretary, Johann Georg von Eckhart.
1794 The Marquis de Condorcet died in prison.
1814 Johann Gottlieb Fichte died of typhus in Berlin, during the campaign against Napoleon.
1831 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel died of a gastrointestinal disease during a cholera outbreak in Berlin.
1837 Giacomo Leopardi died in Naples during a cholera epidemic, maybe by pulmonary edema.
1866 William Whewell was thrown from his horse and sustained fatal injuries.
1876 Philipp Mainländer hanged himself in his residence in Offenbach, using a pile of copies of The Philosophy of Redemption as a platform.
1882 William Jevons was drowned while bathing.
1900 Friedrich Nietzsche died after a mental breakdown.
1901 Paul Rée fell to his death from a mountain.
1903 Otto Weininger committed suicide by shooting himself.
1906 Ludwig Boltzmann hanged himself.
1910 Carlo Michelstaedter killed himself with a pistol he had in his house.
1911 Paul Lafargue died with his wife, Laura Marx, in a suicide pact.
1915 Emil Lask was killed in action as soldier in World War I.
1917 Adolf Reinach fell outside Diksmuide in Flanders during World War I.
1928 Alexander Bogdanov died as a result of one of his experiments in blood transfusion.
1930 Frank P. Ramsey died after "contracting jaundice" at the age of 26. (Jaundice by itself is not a cause of death but instead indicates hemolytic or hepatic disease.)
1931 Jacques Herbrand died in a mountaineering accident in the Alps at the age of 23.
1936 Moritz Schlick was murdered by an insane student.
1937 Gustav Shpet was executed after being accused of involvement in an anti-Soviet organization.
1937 Antonio Gramsci died during his imprisonment by Benito Mussolini.
1939 Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz committed suicide by taking an overdose of Veronal and trying to slit his wrists a day after the Soviet invasion of Poland; it was planned to be a joint suicide with a close friend of his but she survived the attempt.
1940 Walter Benjamin committed suicide at the Spanish-French border, after attempting to flee from the Nazis.
1940 Leon Trotsky was assassinated on Stalin's orders in Mexico, by Soviet agent Ramón Mercader, along with most of his family.
1941 Henri Bergson died of pneumonia in occupied Paris, which he supposedly contracted after standing in a queue for several hours in order to register as a Jew.
1941 Kurt Grelling was killed by the Nazis.
1941 Edith Stein died in a gas chamber in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1943 Simone Weil starved herself to death.
1944 Jean Cavaillès was shot by the Gestapo.
1944 Marc Bloch was shot by the Gestapo for his work in the French Resistance.
1944 Giovanni Gentile was murdered by communist partisans.
1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer was executed by hanging.
1945 Gerhard Gentzen was detained in a prison camp by the Russian forces, where he died of malnutrition.
1945 Ernst Bergmann committed suicide after the Allied forces captured Leipzig.
1945 Johan Huizinga died in De Steeg in Gelderland, near Arnhem, where he was held in detention by the Nazis.
1945 Miki Kiyoshi died in prison; he had been imprisoned after helping a friend on the run from the authorities.
1948 Mohandas Gandhi was shot and killed by a Hindu zealot.
1951 Ludwig Wittgenstein died of cancer in Ireland, three days after his 62nd birthday. His last words: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life."
1954 Alan Turing ate a cyanide-poisoned apple. He was believed at the time to have committed suicide due to chemical depression, but his death was possibly just an accident.
1960 Albert Camus died in an automobile accident.
1961 Maurice Merleau-Ponty died of a stroke while preparing a lecture on Descartes.
1969 Theodor Adorno developed heart palpitations after attempting to climb a 3000-metre mountain, and subsequently suffered a heart attack.
1970 Bertrand Russell died of the flu in Wales. There was no religious ceremony.
1971 Richard Montague was beaten to death, presumably by a male prostitute.
1973 Amílcar Cabral was assassinated while fighting for the independence of Portuguese colonies in Africa.
1977 Jan Patočka died of an apoplexy after having been interrogated by the Czechoslovak secret police for eleven hours.
1978 Kurt Gödel starved himself to death by refusing to eat for fear of being poisoned.
1979 Evald Ilyenkov committed suicide.
1979 Nicos Poulantzas committed suicide by jumping out of the twentieth floor of his apartment building.
1980 Roland Barthes was struck in the street by a laundry van after leaving a luncheon with French President François Mitterrand.
1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, a notorious chain-smoker, died of an edema of the lung.
1983 Arthur Koestler committed joint suicide with his third wife, Cynthia, by taking an overdose of drugs after a painful struggle with disease.
1984 Michel Foucault was the first high-profile French personality to die of AIDS after contracting HIV.
1986 Simone de Beauvoir died of pneumonia.
1990 Louis Althusser died of a heart attack.
1994 David Stove committed suicide by hanging himself after a painful struggle with disease.
1994 Sarah Kofman committed suicide on Nietzsche’s birthday.
1994 Guy Debord committed suicide by shooting himself after a painful struggle with polyneuritis.
1995 Gilles Deleuze committed suicide by jumping out of his fourth-storey apartment window.
1998 Dimitris Liantinis committed suicide on the mountains of Taygetos.
2001 David Lewis died of diabetes related complications.
2004 Jacques Derrida died of pancreatic cancer.
2007 André Gorz committed joint suicide with his wife by lethal injection.Divine Comedy
The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature and one of the greatest works of world literature. The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written (also in most present-day Italian-market editions), as the standardized Italian language. It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
The narrative describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise or Heaven, while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God. Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy, especially Thomistic philosophy derived from the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. Consequently, the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse". In Dante's work, Virgil is presented as human reason and Beatrice is presented as divine knowledge.The work was originally simply titled Comedìa (pronounced [komeˈdiːa]; so also in the first printed edition, published in 1472), Tuscan for "Comedy", later adjusted to the modern Italian Commedia. The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, and the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce, published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.Dominic of Flanders
Dominic of Flanders (Latin: Dominicus de Flandria, French: Dominique de Flandre) (ca. 1425–1479) was a French-Flemish Dominican philosopher and Scholastic author, known to have been a renowned Thomist. His commentaries on Aristotle and on Thomas Aquinas were frequently printed, the most famous being his commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. This Commentaria is commonly known to have been dedicated to Lorenzo de’ Medici.Double truth
Double-truth theory is the view that religion and philosophy, as separate sources of knowledge, might arrive at contradictory truths without detriment to either.Emmanuel Mounier
Emmanuel Mounier (; French: [munje]; 1 April 1905 – 22 March 1950) was a French philosopher, theologian, teacher and essayist.Index of medieval philosophy articles
This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.
Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri
Abner of Burgos
Abraham bar Hiyya
Abraham ibn Daud
Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī
Abu Rayhan Biruni
Abu Yaqub Sijistani
Actus et potentia
Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio
Adam de Buckfield
Adam de Wodeham
Adam of Łowicz
Adam Pulchrae Mulieris
Adelard of Bath
Alain de Lille
Albert of Saxony (philosopher)
Alexander of Hales
Alfred of Sareshel
Amalric of Bena
André of Neufchâteau
Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Laon
Arab transmission of the Classics to the West
Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī
Augustine of Hippo
Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani
Barlaam of Seminara
Bartholomew of Bologna (philosopher)
Bernard of Chartres
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Trilia
Berthold of Moosburg
Boetius of Dacia
Brethren of Purity
Catherine of Siena
Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)
Christine de Pizan
Condemnations of 1210–1277
Consolation of Philosophy
Constantine of Kostenets
Contra principia negantem disputari non potest
Cosmographia (Bernard Silvestris)
Credo ut intelligam
Daniel of Morley
David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas
De divisione naturae
Denis the Carthusian
Doctrine of the Mean
Dynamics of the celestial spheres
Early Islamic philosophy
Elia del Medigo
Eustratius of Nicaea
Euthymius of Athos
Everard of Ypres
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
Francis of Marchia
Francis of Mayrone
Francisco de Vitoria
Franciscus Bonae Spei
Gasparinus de Bergamo
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers
George of Trebizond
Gerard of Abbeville
Gerard of Bologna
Gerard of Brussels
Gerard of Cremona
Gilbert de la Porrée
Giles of Lessines
Giles of Rome
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Godfrey of Fontaines
Gonsalvus of Spain
Great chain of being
Gregory of Rimini
Grzegorz of Stawiszyn
Guarino da Verona
Guillaume Pierre Godin
Guru Nanak Dev
Hayy ibn Yaqdhan
Henry of Ghent
Herman of Carinthia
Heymeric de Campo
Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi
How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?
Hugh of Saint Victor
Hugh of St Cher
Immanuel the Roman
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon
Jacob ben Nissim
Jakub of Gostynin
Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi
Jocelin of Soissons
Johannes Scotus Eriugena
John de Sècheville
John Halgren of Abbeville
John Major (philosopher)
John of Damascus
John of Głogów
John of Jandun
John of Mirecourt
John of Paris
John of Salisbury
John of St. Thomas
Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta
Judah ben Moses Romano
Julius Caesar Scaliger
Lambert of Auxerre
Lambertus de Monte
Leo the Mathematician
Leon Battista Alberti
Leonardo da Vinci
List of scholastic philosophers
Marsilius of Inghen
Marsilius of Padua
Matthew of Aquasparta
Michael of Ephesus
Michael of Massa
Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in
Moralium dogma philosophorum
Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi
Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nicholas of Autrecourt
Nicholas of Kues
Odo of Châteauroux
Oxford Franciscan school
Paolo da Pergola
Patriarch Gennadios II of Constantinople
Paul of Venice
Peter de Rivo
Peter of Auvergne
Peter of Capua
Peter of Corbeil
Peter of Poitiers
Peter of Spain (author)
Photios I of Constantinople
Pierre de Bar
Problem of universals
Qotb al-Din Shirazi
R. De Staningtona
Ralph of Longchamp
Remigius of Auxerre
Richard of Campsall
Richard of Middleton
Richard of Saint Victor
Richard Rufus of Cornwall
Robert of Melun
Roland of Cremona
Roscelin of Compiègne
School of Saint Victor
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Siger of Brabant
Simon of Faversham
Simon of Tournai
Solomon ibn Gabirol
Stephen of Alexandria
Sum of Logic
Summa contra Gentiles
Thierry of Chartres
Thomas of Sutton
Thomas of Villanova
Thomas of York (Franciscan)
Thought of Thomas Aquinas
Timeline of Niccolò Machiavelli
Ulrich of Strasburg
University of Constantinople
Urso of Calabria
Vital du Four
Walter of Bruges
Walter of Mortagne
Walter of St Victor
Walter of Winterburn
William de la Mare
William of Alnwick
William of Auvergne (bishop)
William of Auxerre
William of Champeaux
William of Conches
William of Falgar
William of Heytesbury
William of Lucca
William of Moerbeke
William of Ockham
William of Saint-Amour
William of Sherwood
William of Ware
Works by Thomas Aquinas
Zhu XiJohann Baptist Metz
Johann Baptist Metz (born 5 August 1928) is a German Catholic theologian. He is Ordinary Professor of Fundamental Theology, Emeritus, at Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster, Germany.List of rectors of the University of Paris
This is a list of rectors of the University of Paris (the Sorbonne), a foundation of the middle of the twelfth century with a charter from 1200. The office of rector emerged in the middle of the thirteenth century. Since the rector, initially the “rector of the nations”, was elected by the students and faculty, his position was very different from the appointed chancellor of the university (who was in fact the ecclesiastical chancellor of Notre Dame de Paris, whose power came to be divided also with the chancellor of the Abbey of St Genevieve). The rector became the representative of the faculty of the arts; it required another century for the recognition of the rector as representing also the other three faculties (law, medicine and theology). From the middle of the fourteenth century the rector had the status of head of the university, but limited powers.The rectorship for most of its history was an elected position, of high academic prestige, and held in practice for a single term of one year. The formal position was that the term was of three months, so in some years there were several rectors elected. In the medieval and early Renaissance periods many holders of the post were from outside France. The reorganization of 1970 divided the historical university into thirteen parts. The office of rector still exists, with title Recteur de l'Académie de Paris.List of scholastic philosophers
This is a list of philosophers and scholars working in the Christian tradition in Western Europe during the medieval period, including the early Middle Ages. See also scholasticism.Luigi Taparelli
Luigi Taparelli (born Prospero Taparelli d'Azeglio; 1793–1862) was an Italian Catholic scholar of the Society of Jesus who coined the term social justice.Minima naturalia
Minima naturalia ("natural minima") were theorized by Aristotle as the smallest parts into which a homogeneous natural substance (e.g., flesh, bone, or wood) could be divided and still retain its essential character. In this context, "nature" means formal nature. Thus, "natural minimum" may be taken to mean "formal minimum": the minimum amount of matter necessary to instantiate a certain form.
Speculation on minima naturalia in late Antiquity, in the Islamic world, and by Scholastic and Renaissance thinkers in Europe provided a conceptual bridge between the atomism of ancient Greece and the mechanistic philosophy of early modern thinkers like Descartes, which in turn provided a background for the rigorously mathematical and experimental atomism of modern science.Pierre Mandonnet
Pierre Mandonnet (26 February 1858, Beaumont, Puy-de-Dôme – 4 January 1936, Le Saulchoir, Belgium) was a French-born, Belgian Dominican historian, important in the neo-Thomist trend of historiography and the recovery of medieval philosophy. He made his reputation with a study of Siger of Brabant.In 1887 he was ordained as a priest, and from 1891 to 1919, was a professor of church history at the University of Fribourg. In 1902/03 he served as university rector.Steady-state model
In cosmology, the steady state model is an alternative to the Big Bang theory of the evolution of the universe. In the steady state model, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter, thus adhering to the perfect cosmological principle, a principle that asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.
While the steady state model enjoyed some minority support in the scientific mainstream until the mid-20th century, it is now rejected by the vast majority of cosmologists, astrophysicists and astronomers, as the observational evidence points to a hot Big Bang cosmology with a finite age of the universe, which the steady state model does not predict.
See also Renaissance philosophy
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Mysticism and reforms|