Sierra de la Laguna

The Sierra de la Laguna is a mountain range at the southern end of the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico, and is the southernmost range of the Peninsular Ranges System.

It is located in La Paz Municipality and Los Cabos Municipality of southern Baja California Sur state.

The "Sierra de la Laguna High Point", at 6,857 feet (2,090 m) in elevation, is the highest point of the range and in Baja California Sur state. [1]

Sierra de la Laguna
Sierra de la Laguna is located in Baja California Sur
Sierra de la Laguna
Sierra de la Laguna
Sierra de la Laguna is located in Mexico
Sierra de la Laguna
Sierra de la Laguna
Highest point
PeakSierra de la Laguna High Point
Elevation6,857 ft (2,090 m)
StateBaja California Sur
MunicipalityLa Paz Municipality and Los Cabos Municipality
Type of rockPeninsular Ranges
Sierra de la Laguna


The southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, including the Sierra de la Laguna, was formerly an island in prehistoric times. It has a distinctive flora and fauna, with many affinities to Southwestern Mexico. The Sierra is home to many endemic species and subspecies.

The dry San Lucan xeric scrub ecoregion extends from the sea level at the coast to 250 metres (820 ft) in elevation. The Sierra de la Laguna dry forests ecoregion occupy lower portion of the range, from 250–800 metres (820–2,620 ft) in elevation.

Above 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation, the dry forests transition to the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests ecoregion. The composition of the pine-oak forests varies with elevation; oak woodlands predominate from 800–1,200 metres (2,600–3,900 ft) in elevation, with oak-pine woodlands between 1,200–1,600 metres (3,900–5,200 ft) in elevation, transitioning to pine-oak forests above 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) in elevation. The predominant pine is a local subspecies of Mexican Pinyon, Pinus cembroides subsp. lagunae.

The forests are exploited commercially for timber, and cattle-raising is common in the oak woodland and dry forest zones.

Biosphere reserve

UNESCO has designated the Sierra de la Laguna a global biosphere reserve: "This semi arid to temperate subhumid climate area represents highly important and contrasted ecosystems, including arid zones, matorrales, low deciduous forest type, evergreen oak: Quercus devia (“encino”) woods, pine-evergreen oak mix woods and oases with palms and “guerivos” situated throughout the gallery forest following the long river basins." The Biosphere reserve was established by a Mexican presidential decree of 6 June 1994, which designated a core area and buffer zones.

The core area is centered on the higher-elevation oak-pine forests, while the transition area includes the communities of Todos Santos, El Pescadero, El Triunfo, San Antonio, San Bartolo, Buena Vista, Los Barriles, Las Cuevas, Santiago and Miraflores.


The climate is influenced by its altitude. At higher altitudes, it has a subtropical highland climate with cool temperatures year round and higher amounts of precipitation.


  1. ^ Sierra de la Laguna High Point - Baja California Sur, Mexico
  2. ^ "Normales climatológicas para Sierra de la Laguna, B.C.S" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  3. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved January 17, 2013.

External links

Coordinates: 23°34′N 110°00′W / 23.567°N 110.000°W

Baja California Peninsula

The Baja California Peninsula (English: Lower California Peninsula, Spanish: Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km (775 miles) from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km (25 miles) at its narrowest to 320 km (200 miles) at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km (1,900 miles) of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California and the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert.

El Pescadero, Baja California Sur

El Pescadero is a small village in the municipality of La Paz in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur.

It is located at km 64 on Federal Highway 19 on the Pacific Ocean about 8 kilometers South of Todos Santos which is about a one-hour drive north of Cabo San Lucas. The Mexican census of 2015 reported a population of 3,151 inhabitants.

List of Ultras of Mexico

The following sortable table comprises the 26 ultra-prominent summits of México. Each of these peaks has at least 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) of topographic prominence.The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation.Pico de Orizaba exceeds 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) of topographic prominence, Popocatépetl exceeds 3,000 meters (9,800 feet), and Nevado de Colima exceeds 2,500 meters (8,200 feet). Seven mountain peaks of México exceed 2,000 meters (6,600 feet), the following 26 ultra-prominent summits exceed 1,500 meters (4,920 feet), and 42 summits exceed 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of topographic prominence.

List of ecoregions in Mexico

This is a list of ecoregions of Mexico as defined by the World Wildlife Fund. A different system of ecoregional analysis is used by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, a trilateral body linking Mexican, Canadian and United States environmental regime.

Los Barriles, Baja California Sur

Los Barriles ("The Barrels") is a town (population 1,174) in La Paz Municipality, Baja California Sur, Mexico. It is situated along Highway 1, 40 miles (64 km) north of San José del Cabo and 65 miles (105 km) south of La Paz. Punta Pescadero Airstrip is 9 miles (14 km) to the north; Rancho Leonero, a vacation resort, is to the south. Adjacent to Buena Vista, the rural towns straddle the head of Bahía las Palmas on the Gulf of California, where winter westerlies average 20–25 knots (37–46 km/h; 23–29 mph). Los Barriles is within the transition area of the Baja California peninsula's Sierra de la Laguna where the hills become sandy flats.

Known for its flyfishing, Los Barriles is also Baja's kitesurfing and windsurfing capital. The town's port was closed on 2 September during the 2013 Pacific hurricane season's Tropical Storm Lorena. In 2006, the Shakespeare Theatre Association's annual conference was held in Los Barriles.

Madrean pine-oak woodlands

The Madrean pine-oak woodlands is an ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, located in North America. They are subtropical woodlands found in the mountains of Mexico and the southwestern United States.

Conservation International estimates the woodlands' original area at 461,265 km². The woodlands are surrounded at lower elevations by other ecoregions, mostly tropical and subtropical deserts and xeric shrublands, forests, and grasslands. Woodland areas were isolated from one another and from the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental to the south by the warming and drying of the climate since the 1st century CE.

Miraflores, Baja California Sur

Miraflores is a small town in the Municipality of Los Cabos (Baja California Sur). Miraflores is located about 45 miles north of San Jose del Cabo, 2 km west of Highway 1, just to the east of the Sierra de la Laguna. Miraflores is 220 meters above sea level. As of 2010, the town had a population of 1,384.

Misión Estero de las Palmas de San José del Cabo Añuití

Mission San José del Cabo (est. 1730) was the southernmost of the Jesuit missions on the Baja California peninsula, located near the modern city of San José del Cabo in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

The southern cape of the Baja California peninsula had been an often-visited landmark for Spanish navigators (as well as English privateers) for nearly two centuries when a mission was finally established at the Pericú settlement of Añuití in 1730 by Nicolá Tamaral. The Río San José, or San José River, stops just shy of the ocean, with a one km long sand bar creating an estuary, the third largest in Mexico. This pooling of brackish water has created an oasis in the surrounding Sarcocaule desert. The Río San José flows largely underground for 40 kilometres (25 mi) from its origin in the Sierra de la Laguna (Laguna Mountains). For more than 250 years it has furnished drinking and irrigation water for the town of San Jose del Cabo, beginning as a source of fresh water for Spanish galleons traveling back from the Philippines. Over the sand bar from the estuary is a bay referred to by early Spanish explorers, including Sebastian Vizcaino, as the Bahía de San Bernabé or Bay of San Bernabé (now the Bay of San José del Cabo). Initially located near the beach, the station was subsequently moved inland about 8 kilometers. The mission was founded in 1730 on the west bank of the nearby Río San José, and its full name is taken for the life-giving freshwater estuary.

In 1734 the Pericú Revolt broke out, Tamaral was killed, and the mission was destroyed. In 1735–1736, the reestablished outpost was moved back closer to the coast, but it served as a visita for Mission Santiago and as the site of a Spanish presidio. In 1753, San José del Cabo was again moved inland. In 1795, under the Dominicans, the surviving native population of Mission Santiago was transferred to San José del Cabo. The mission was finally closed in 1840.

Parategeticula ecdysiastica

Parategeticula ecdysiastica is a moth of the family Prodoxidae. It is found in the Sierra de la Laguna Mountains of the Cape region of Baja California, Mexico

The wingspan is about 25 mm. The forewings are tannish white, with a very light scattering of linear white scales. The hindwings are clear-translucent, with very scattered white linear scales above and below. Adults are possibly on wing in July.

The larvae feed on Yucca capensis. Young larvae feed inside gall-like tissue modified from three seeds. Full-grown larvae prepare exit paths to the fruit surface, and have been observed consuming five developed seeds adjacent to the site of the consumed, modified tissue.

Peninsular Ranges

The Peninsular Ranges (also called the Lower California province) are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 500 to 10,834 feet (152 to 3,302 m).

Pinus cembroides

Pinus cembroides, also known as pinyon pine, Mexican pinyon, Mexican nut pine, and Mexican stone pine, is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to western North America. It grows in areas with low levels of rainfall and its range extends southwards from Arizona, Texas and New Mexico in the United States into Mexico. It typically grows at altitudes between 1,600 and 2,400 metres (5,200 and 7,900 ft). It is a small pine growing to about 20 m (66 ft) with a trunk diameter of up to 50 cm (20 in). The seeds are large and form part of the diet of the Mexican jay and Abert's squirrel. They are also collected for human consumption, being the most widely used pine nut in Mexico. This is a common pine with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Quercus devia

Quercus devia is a species of oak tree in the Fagaceae family, native to northwestern Mexico.

The tree is endemic to the Sierra de la Laguna range of the Peninsular Ranges system, located in the southern part of the Baja California Sur state of Mexico. It grows in Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests habitats.

It is an IUCN Red List Vulnerable species, threatened by habitat loss.

San Lucan xeric scrub

The San Lucan xeric scrub is a xeric shrubland ecoregion of the southernmost Baja California Peninsula, in Los Cabos Municipality and eastern La Paz Municipality of southern Baja California Sur state, Mexico.

San Pedro, Baja California Sur

San Pedro is a small town in the Sierra de la Laguna Mountains in La Paz Municipality near the southern end of Baja California Sur. It is located a few miles north of the junction of Highway 1 and Highway 19. It had a 2010 census population of 568 inhabitants, and is situated at an elevation of 200 meters (656 ft.) above sea level.Both of these roads eventually lead to Cabo San Lucas, but Highway 19 goes by way of Todos Santos and then

down Pacific coast. Highway 1 goes down the Gulf of California side to San José del Cabo.

It is near the center of the Baja California Peninsula, equally distant from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California.

Sierra de la Laguna dry forests

The Sierra de la Laguna dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion of the southern Baja California Peninsula in Mexico.

Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests

The Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests is a subtropical coniferous forest ecoregion, found in the Sierra de la Laguna mountain range at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.

It is found within Los Cabos Municipality and eastern La Paz Municipality of southern Baja California Sur state.

Todos Santos, Baja California Sur

Todos Santos (Spanish [ˌtoðos 'santos] ) is a small coastal town in the foothills of the Sierra de la Laguna Mountains, on the Pacific coast side of the Baja California Peninsula, about an hour's drive north of Cabo San Lucas on Highway 19 and an hour's drive southwest from La Paz. Todos Santos is located very near the Tropic of Cancer in the municipality of La Paz. The population was 6,485 at the census of 2015. It is the second-largest town in the municipality.

Warbling vireo

The warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) is a small North American songbird.

Its breeding habitat is open deciduous and mixed woods from Alaska to Mexico and the Florida Panhandle. It often nests along streams. It migrates to Mexico and Central America.

Adults are 12 cm (4.7 in) long and weigh 12 g (0.42 oz). They are mainly olive-grey on the head and upperparts with white underparts; they have brown eyes and the front of the face is light. There is a white supercilium. They have thick blue-grey legs and a stout bill. Western birds are generally smaller and have darker grey crowns.

Warbling vireos forage for insects in trees, hopping along branches and sometimes hovering. They also eat berries, especially before migration and in winter quarters, where they are – like other vireos – apparently quite fond of gumbo-limbo seeds, though they will not venture into human-modified habitat to get them.

They make a deep cup nest suspended from a tree branch or shrub, placed relatively high in the east and lower in the west. The male helps with incubation and may sing from the nest.

The warbling vireo's song is a cheerful warble, similar to that of the painted bunting. There are subtle differences in song between eastern and western birds, at least where the ranges meet in Alberta. Some authorities split the eastern and western races of this species into separate species:

The western warbling vireo, V. swainsoni, includes V. g. swainsoni, which breeds from southeastern Alaska and southwestern Northwest Territories to the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, and V. g. brewsteri, which breeds from southern Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana to south-central Oaxaca. These two subspecies winter in Mexico. The swainsoni group also includes V. g. victoriae, an isolated population breeding in the Sierra de la Laguna, Baja California Sur, and migrating to unknown wintering grounds.The eastern warbling vireo, V. gilvus, breeds from central Alberta and northern Montana east and south through most of the United States and parts of southern Canada, outside the range of the previous group. It winters south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from south-central Chiapas to Nicaragua. It completes its autumn molt on the breeding grounds, while the swainsonii group completes it after leaving.The brown-capped vireo (Vireo leucophrys), resident in Central America and northern South America, is sometimes considered conspecific with the warbling vireo.

Climate data for Sierra de la Laguna, elev. 1,906 metres (6,253 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
Average high °C (°F) 15.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.92 1.32 0.78 0.37 0.18 0.90 7.62 11.91 9.45 4.65 1.86 2.60 43.56
Average snowy days 0 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04
Source #1: Colegio de Postgraduados[2]
Source #2: Servicio Meteorológico National (extremes)[3]

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