Siege of Vienna

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege came in the aftermath of the 1526 Battle of Mohács, which had resulted in the death of the King of Hungary and the descent of the kingdom into civil war, with rival factions supporting the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria and others supporting the Ottoman backed John Zápolya. The Ottoman attack on Vienna was part of their intervention into the Hungarian conflict, intended in the short term to secure Zápolya's position. Historians disagree in their interpretation of Ottoman long-term goals and regarding what motivations lay behind the choice of Vienna in particular as the target of the campaign. The failure of the siege marked the beginning of 150 years of bitter military tension and reciprocal attacks, culminating in a second siege of Vienna in 1683.

There is speculation by some historians[5] that Suleiman's main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary, the western part of which (known as Royal Hungary) was under Habsburg control. The decision to attack Vienna after such a long interval in Suleiman's European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary. Other scholars[5] theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a later, premeditated invasion of Europe.[5]

Siege of Vienna
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars
Siegeofvienna1529

Contemporary 1529 engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, by Bartel Beham
Date27 September–15 October 1529[1]
(2 weeks and 4 days)
Location
Vienna, Holy Roman Empire
(present-day Austria)
Result Habsburg victory, Ottoman withdrawal
Belligerents
 Holy Roman Empire
 Kingdom of Bohemia
Flag of The Electoral Palatinate (1604).svg Electorate of the Palatinate
 Spanish Empire
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire
 Principality of Moldavia
Commanders and leaders
Niklas Graf Salm (WIA)
Philipp der Streitbare
Wilhelm von Roggendorf
Suleiman the Magnificent
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
Strength
c. 17,000–21,000[2] c. 120,000–125,000 (some sources claiming 300,000)[3]
Casualties and losses
Unknown (heavy)[4] 15,000 wounded, dead or captured[4]

Background

In August 1526, Sultan Suleiman I decisively defeated the forces of King Louis II of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács, paving the way for the Ottomans to gain control of south-eastern Hungary; the childless King Louis was killed. His brother-in-law, Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, claimed the vacant Hungarian throne. Ferdinand won recognition only in western Hungary; while a noble called John Zápolya, from a power-base in Transylvania, challenged him for the crown and was recognised as king by Suleiman in return for accepting vassal status within the Ottoman Empire. Thus Hungary became divided into Royal Hungary and Ottoman Hungary until 1700.

Following the Diet of Pozsony (modern Bratislava) on 26 October,[6] Ferdinand was declared king of Royal Hungary due to the agreement between his and Louis's families, cemented by Ferdinand's marriage to Louis's sister Anna and Louis's marriage to Ferdinand's sister Mary. Ferdinand set out to enforce his claim on Hungary and captured Buda in 1527, only to relinquish his hold on it in 1529 when an Ottoman counter-attack stripped Ferdinand of all his territorial gains.[7]

Prelude

Ottoman army

Suleiman the Magnificent by Dell'Altissimo
Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent by Cristofano dell'Altissimo

In the spring of 1529, Suleiman mustered a great army in Ottoman Bulgaria, with the aim of securing control over all of Hungary and reducing the threat posed at his new borders by Ferdinand I and the Holy Roman Empire. Estimates of Suleiman's army vary widely from 120,000 to more than 300,000 men, as mentioned by various chroniclers.[8] As well as numerous units of Sipahi, the elite mounted force of the Ottoman cavalry, and thousands of janissaries, the Ottoman army incorporated a contingent from Moldavia and renegade Serbian warriors from the army of John Zápolya.[9] Suleiman acted as the commander-in-chief (as well as personally leading his force), and in April he appointed his Grand Vizier (the highest Ottoman minister), a Greek former slave called Ibrahim Pasha, as Serasker, a commander with powers to give orders in the sultan's name.[10]

Suleiman launched his campaign on 10 May 1529 and faced numerous obstacles from the onset.[11] The spring rains that are characteristic of south-eastern Europe and the Balkans were particularly heavy that year, causing flooding in Bulgaria and rendering parts of the route used by the army barely passable. Many large-calibre cannons and artillery pieces became hopelessly mired or bogged down, leaving Suleiman no choice but to abandon them, while camels brought from the empire's Eastern provinces, not used to the difficult conditions, were lost in large numbers. Sickness and poor health became common among the janissaries, claiming many lives along the perilous journey.

Suleiman arrived in Osijek on 6 August. On the 18th he reached the Mohács plain, to be greeted by a substantial cavalry force led by John Zápolya (which would later accompany Suleiman to Vienna), who paid him homage and helped him recapture several fortresses lost since the Battle of Mohács to the Austrians, including Buda, which fell on 8 September.[12] The only resistance came at Pozsony, where the Turkish fleet was bombarded as it sailed up the Danube.[11]

Defensive measures

Meldeman-Plan
Map of Vienna from 1530

As the Ottomans advanced towards Vienna, the city's population organised an ad-hoc resistance formed from local farmers, peasants and civilians determined to repel the inevitable attack. The defenders were supported by a variety of European mercenaries, namely German Landsknecht pikemen and Spanish musketeers sent by Charles V.[13][14]

The Hofmeister of Austria, Wilhelm von Roggendorf, assumed charge of the defensive garrison, with operational command entrusted to a seventy-year-old German mercenary named Nicholas, Count of Salm, who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Pavia in 1525.[11] Salm arrived in Vienna as head of the mercenary relief force and set about fortifying the three-hundred-year-old walls surrounding St. Stephen's Cathedral, near which he established his headquarters. To ensure the city could withstand a lengthy siege, he blocked the four city gates and reinforced the walls, which in some places were no more than six feet thick, and erected earthen bastions and an inner earthen rampart, levelling buildings where necessary to clear room for defences.[11]

Siege

Stephansdom B
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, used as the informal headquarters of the Austrian resistance by Niklas Graf Salm, appointed head of the mercenary relief force.

The Ottoman army that arrived in late September had been somewhat depleted during the long advance into Austrian territory, leaving Suleiman short of camels and heavy artillery. Many of his troops arrived at Vienna in a poor state of health after the tribulations of a long march through the thick of the European wet season. Of those fit to fight, a third were light cavalry, or Sipahis, ill-suited for siege warfare. Three richly dressed Austrian prisoners were dispatched as emissaries by the Sultan to negotiate the city's surrender; Salm sent three richly dressed Muslims back without a response.

As the Ottoman army settled into position, the Austrian garrison launched sorties to disrupt the digging and mining of tunnels below the city's walls by Ottoman sappers, and in one case almost capturing Ibrahim Pasha. The defending forces detected and successfully detonated several mines intended to bring down the city's walls, subsequently dispatching 8,000 men on 6 October to attack the Ottoman mining operations, destroying many of the tunnels, but sustaining serious losses when the confined spaces hindered their retreat into the city.[11]

Landsknechte
Depiction of German Landsknechts circa 1530, renowned mercenary infantry of the Medieval period famous for their long halberds and Zweihänder swords.

More rain fell on 11 October, and with the Ottomans failing to make any breaches in the walls, the prospects for victory began to fade rapidly. In addition, Suleiman was facing critical shortages of supplies such as food and water, while casualties, sickness, and desertions began taking a toll on his army's ranks. The janissaries began voicing their displeasure at the progression of events, demanding a decision on whether to remain or abandon the siege. The Sultan convened an official council on 12 October to deliberate the matter. It was decided to attempt one final, major assault on Vienna, an "all or nothing" gamble.[15] Extra rewards were offered to the troops. However, this assault was also beaten back as, once again, the arquebuses and long pikes of the defenders prevailed.[16]

Unseasonably heavy snowfall made conditions go from bad to worse. The Ottoman retreat turned into a disaster with much of the baggage and artillery abandoned or lost in rough conditions, as were many prisoners.

Aftermath

SiegeOfViennaByOttomanForces
An Ottoman depiction of the siege from the 16th century, housed in the Istanbul Hachette Art Museum

Some historians speculate that Suleiman's final assault was not necessarily intended to take the city but to cause as much damage as possible and weaken it for a later attack, a tactic he had employed at Buda in 1526. Suleiman would lead another campaign against Vienna in 1532, but it never truly materialised as his force was stalled by the Croatian Captain Nikola Jurišić during the Siege of Güns (Kőszeg).[4] Nikola Jurišić with only 700–800 Croatian soldiers managed to delay his force until winter closed in.[4][17] Charles V, now largely aware of Vienna's vulnerability and weakened state, assembled 80,000 troops to confront the Ottoman force. Instead of going ahead with a second siege attempt, the Ottoman force turned back, laying waste the south-eastern Austrian state of Styria in their retreat.[18] The two Viennese campaigns in essence marked the extreme limit of Ottoman logistical capability to field large armies deep in central Europe at the time.[19]

The 1529 campaign produced mixed results. Buda was brought back under the control of the Ottoman vassal John Zápolya, strengthening the Ottoman position in Hungary. The campaign left behind a trail of collateral damage in neighbouring Habsburg Hungary and Austria that impaired Ferdinand's capacity to mount a sustained counter-attack. However, Suleiman failed to force Ferdinand to engage him in open battle, and was thus unable to enforce his ideological claim to superiority over the Habsburgs. The attack on Vienna led to a rapprochement between Charles V and Pope Clement VII, and contributed to the Pope's coronation of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor on February 24, 1530. The outcome of the campaign was presented as a success by the Ottomans, who used the opportunity to show off their imperial grandeur by staging elaborate ceremonies for the circumcision of princes Mustafa, Mehmed, and Selim.[20]

Ferdinand I erected a funeral monument for the German mercenary Nicholas, Count of Salm, head of the mercenary relief force dispatched to Vienna, as a token of appreciation of his efforts. Nicholas survived the initial siege attempt, but had been injured during the last Ottoman assault and died on 4 May 1530.[21] The Renaissance sarcophagus is now on display in the baptistery of the Votivkirche cathedral in Vienna. Ferdinand's son, Maximilian II, later built the Castle of Neugebaeude on the spot where Suleiman is said to have pitched his tent during the siege.[22]

References

  1. ^ Shaw, Stanford J. (29 October 1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-29163-7. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  2. ^ Turnbull says the garrison was "over 16,000 strong". The Ottoman Empire, p 50; Keegan and Wheatcroft suggest 17,000. Who's Who in Military History, p 283; Some estimates are just above 20,000, for example: "Together with Wilhelm von Roggendorf, the Marshal of Austria, Salm conducted the defense of Vienna with 16,000 regulars and 5,000 militia." Dupuy, Trevor, et al., The Encyclopedia of Military Biography, p 653.
  3. ^ Turnbull suggests Suleiman had "perhaps 120,000" troops when he reached Osijek on 6 August. The Ottoman Empire, p 50; Christopher Duffy suggests "Suleiman led an army of 125,000 Turks". Siege Warfare: Fortresses in the Early Modern World 1494–1660, p 201. For higher estimates, see further note on Suleiman's troops.
  4. ^ a b c d Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699. New York: Osprey, 2003. p. 51
  5. ^ a b c It was an "afterthought towards the end of a season of campaigning". Riley-Smith, p 256; "A last-minute decision following a quick victory in Hungary". Shaw and Shaw, p 94; Other historians, for example Stephen Turnbull, regard the suppression of Hungary as the calculated prologue to an invasion further into Europe: "John Szapolya [sic] became a footnote in the next great Turkish advance against Europe in the most ambitious campaign of the great Sultan's reign." Turnbull, p 50.
  6. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699. New York: Osprey, 2003. p. 49
  7. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699. New York: Osprey, 2003. pp. 49–50
  8. ^ Turnbull suggests Suleiman had "perhaps 120,000" troops when he reached Osijek on 6 August. Turnbull, p 50; Very high figures appear in nineteenth-century histories, for example that of Augusta Theodosia Drane in 1858, "more than 300,000 men"; such estimates may derive from contemporary accounts: the Venetian diarist Marino Sanuto, on 29 October 1529, for example, recorded the Turkish army as containing 305,200 men (mentioned in Albert Howe Lyber's The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent, p 107). Modern books sometimes repeat the higher figures—for example, Daniel Chirot, in The Origins of Backwardness in Eastern Europe, 1980, p 183, says "some 300,000 men besieged Vienna in 1529"; an alternative figure appears in Islam at War: "The sultan's army of 250,000 appeared before the gates of Vienna in the first siege of that great city", Walton, et al., 2003, p 104.
  9. ^ E. Liptai: Magyarország hadtörténete I. Zrínyi Military Publisher 1984. ISBN 963-326-320-4 p. 165.
  10. ^ In April, the diploma by which Suleiman confirmed Ibrahim Pasha's appointment as serasker included the following: "Whatever he says and in whatever manner he decides to regard things, you are to accept them as if they were the propitious words and respect-commanding decrees issuing from my own pearl-dispensing tongue." Quoted by Rhoads Murphey in Ottoman Warfare 1500–1700, p 136.
  11. ^ a b c d e Turnbull, p 50-1.
  12. ^ Stavrianos, p 77.
  13. ^ Ferdinand I had withdrawn to the safety of Habsburg Bohemia following pleas for assistance to his brother, Emperor Charles V, who was too stretched by his war with France to spare more than a few Spanish infantry to the cause.
  14. ^ Reston, James Jr, Defenders of the Faith: Charles V, Suleyman the Magnificent, and the Battle for Europe, 1520–1536, Marshall Cavendish, 2009, pg. 288 ISBN 1-59420-225-7, ISBN 978-1-59420-225-4
  15. ^ Spielman, p 22.
  16. ^ Stavrianos, p 78.
  17. ^ Wheatcroft (2009), p. 59.
  18. ^ Tracy, p 140.
  19. ^ Riley-Smith, p 256.
  20. ^ Şahin, Kaya (2013). Empire and Power in the Reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1-107-03442-6.
  21. ^ Entry on Salm. Dupuy, et al., p 653.
  22. ^ Louthan, p 43.

Bibliography

  • Chirot, Daniel (1980). The Origins of Backwardness in Eastern Europe. ISBN 0-520-07640-0.
  • Dupuy, Trevor N.; Johnson, Curt; Bongard, David. L. (1992). The Encyclopedia of Military Biography. I.B.Tauris & Co. ISBN 1-85043-569-3.
  • Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (1979). The Middle East: A History (3rd ed.). Knopf. ISBN 0-394-32098-0.
  • Kann, Robert Adolf (1980). A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04206-9.
  • Keegan, John; Wheatcroft, Andrew (1996). Who's Who in Military History: From 1453 to the Present Day. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12722-X.
  • Louthan, Howard (1997). The Quest for Compromise: Peacemakers in Counter-Reformation Vienna. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58082-X.
  • Lyber, Albert Howe (1913). The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Harvard University Press.
  • Murphey, Rhoads (1999). Ottoman Warfare 1500–1700. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2685-X.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280312-3.
  • Şahin, Kaya (2013). Empire and Power in the Reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03442-6.
  • Shaw, Stanford Jay; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29163-1.
  • Spielman, John Philip (1993). The City and the Crown: Vienna and the Imperial Court. Purdue University Press. ISBN 1-55753-021-1.
  • Toynbee, Arnold (1987). A Study of History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505080-0.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2003). The Ottoman Empire: 1326–1699. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-569-4.
  • Tracy, James D. (2006). Europe's Reformations: 1450–1650. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3789-7.
  • Walton, Mark W.; Nafziger, George. F.; Mbanda, Laurent W. (2003). Islam at War: A History. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-98101-0.
  • Wheatcroft, Andrew (2009). The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans, and the Battle for Europe. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465013746.

Coordinates: 48°12′30″N 16°22′23″E / 48.2083°N 16.3731°E

1529

Year 1529 (MDXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Agostino Lamma

Agostino Lamma (1636–1700) was an Italian painter, active in Venice and specializing in battle paintings. He was trained under Antonio Calza, and his Siege of Vienna by the Turks, painted in the style of Mattias Stom. He died in Venice.

Ayas Mehmed Pasha

Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1483–1539) was an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1536 to 1539. He was an Albanian born in Himare region. His father was from city of Shkodra, in the north of Albania, and his mother was from Vlora, in the south of Albania. He was taken to Istambul under the Devşirme practice, and eventually became Agha of the Janissaries. He participated in the Battle of Chaldiran (1514), and Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17). During 1520–1521 he was beylerbey of Anatolia Eyalet and governor of Damascus. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, he served as beylerbey of Rumelia Eyalet and was made a vizier after the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes in 1522. He also participated in the Battle of Mohács, Siege of Vienna, and the war in Iraq (1534–1535).He became grand vizier in 1536 after the execution of Pargali Ibrahim Pasha and kept this position until his death in 1539. Under his administration, the Ottomans undertook the Corfu campaign (1537) and waged war against the Habsburgs in Vienna (1537–1540). Additionally, his native Vlore region was put under full Ottoman control, and the Sanjak of Delvina was created. He died of plague in Istanbul and was buried in the Eyüp Sultan Mosque.

Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna (German: Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg (Battle of the Bald Mountains); Polish: bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle was fought by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states. The battle marked the first time the Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world". In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost almost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.The battle was won by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the latter represented only by the forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (the march of the Lithuanian army was delayed, and they reached Vienna after it had been relieved). The Viennese garrison was led by Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, an Austrian subject of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. The overall command was held by the senior leader, the King of Poland, John III Sobieski, who led the relief forces.

The opposing military forces were those of the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman fiefdoms, commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Ottoman army numbered approximately 90,000 to 300,000 men (according to documents on the order of battle found in Kara Mustafa's tent, initial strength at the start of the campaign was 170,000 men). They began the siege on 14 July 1683. Ottoman forces consisted, among other units, of 60 ortas of Janissaries (12,000 men paper-strength) with an observation army of some 70,000 men watching the countryside. The decisive battle took place on 12 September, after the arrival of the united relief army.

Historians suggest the battle marked the turning point in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, a 300-year struggle between the Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires. During the 16 years following the battle, the Austrian Habsburgs gradually recovered and dominated southern Hungary and Transylvania, which had been largely cleared of Ottoman forces. The battle is noted for including the largest known cavalry charge in history.

Bocskai uprising

The Bocskai uprising (in Hungary Bocskai's War of Independence Hungarian: Bocskai szabadságharc, Bocskai-felkelés) was a great revolt in Hungary, Transylvania and modern Slovakia, between 1604 and 1606 against Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, during the Long Turkish War. The leader of the rebels was István Bocskai, a significant Protestant Hungarian nobleman. The great Ottoman war burdened the Hungarian Kingdom and led to famine and epidemics. The armies of the Christian states also destroyed as the Ottoman and Tatar forces.

Rudolf persecuted the Protestants and the rich Hungarian noblemen were falsely accused of treason. Because of injuries István Bocskai organized the revolt and persuaded the Hungarian military units, the Hajduks, to join. Bocskai defeated the imperial forces and foreign mercenaries, and the Hungarian nobility, the Hungarian soldiers and peasants, and also the minorities went over to Bocskai's Hajduk army. Bocskai was supported by the Ottoman Empire, the Crimean Khanate, Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia, but prevented a possible Ottoman siege of Vienna. Bocskai was declared for the Prince of Transylvania and Hungary, but recognized the fact that the challenge of independence of Hungary is not possible against the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. Bocskai marked the political route for his supporters, namely the preservation of the independent Transylvania, which may be a base for the unification of Hungary.

Bruck an der Leitha

Bruck an der Leitha ("Bridge on the Leitha") is a city in Lower Austria, Austria at the border to the Burgenland, which is marked by the Leitha river.

In and around Bruck parts of neolithic tools were found, which makes it likely that there was a settlement there at that time. In Roman time, there was the crossing of two major roads, one of them being the Amber Road, the other a link to the Via Militaris. The important Roman army camp Carnuntum was located only ten miles northeast of Bruck at the Amber Road. In Bruck a Roman fortification is said to have been at the place of "Schloss Prugg" (castle of Duke Harrach), of which one part still is named "Roman Tower" (though being built in the Middle Ages).

After the end of the Roman Empire, the first traces of new settlement date from around 900. Graves from this time show Hungarian and later Francian/Bavarian influence. In 1074 the settlement is first documented as "Aschirichesprucca" and elevated to the status of a city in 1239. During the 13th century Bruck was rebuilt according to a rectangular street-scheme north-east of the old settlement.

Though quite strongly fortified since, Bruck never played an important role in a military conflict. In the long period of wars with the Turkish Empire the fortifications were already outdated, so Bruck did not even try to resist Turkish troops when they approached Vienna in 1529 and 1683 (Siege of Vienna). Therefore, Bruck was not destroyed (unlike other towns like Hainburg).

After this period, Bruck prospered and became an important center of wine production and trade. In the Napoleonic Wars Bruck was a center of maneuvers for the Austrian army, which it remained during the 19th century. In 1867 an important permanent military base was erected. After the end of World War I in 1918 the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up. Most of Bruck belonged to Austria, but the military base and the main railway station was situated on the Hungarian side of the border (this part of Bruck is called Bruckneudorf).

In 1921, when the western parts of Hungary were integrated to Austrian territory under the name of "Burgenland", Bruck remained divided between the provinces of Lower Austria and Burgenland. Bruck an der Leitha became the capital of the same-named district. Despite the important military base neighbouring Bruck, the town was not much affected by World War II. Today, Bruck has about 7300 inhabitants and still is the administrative center of the district. Important sights are the city walls from the 13th century, the Baroque church and the old castle, Schloss Prugg, of the Dukes of Harrach.

Today, the town is prospering in the energy department. It has nearby a large wind farm (possibly 60MW), which generates all the electricity for the town. In fact, the wind farm produces more energy than the town

consumes, so the town profits off it through energy sales.

Jan Gniński

Jan Gniński (died c.1685) was a Polish-Lithuanian diplomat, Treasurer of the Crown Court. He was Vice-Chancellor of the Crown from 1681, voivode of Malbork in 1681, governor from 1668 to 1680 of Chelm and was an MP in the Sejm. He participated in the Polish-Swedish wars and the Siege of Vienna (1683) and was known to be an Ambassador to Turkey.

List of museums in Austria

This is a list of museums in Austria.

On War Against the Turk

On War Against the Turk (German: Vom Kriege wider die Türken) was a book written by Martin Luther in 1528 and published in 1529. It was one of several pamphlets and sermons by Martin Luther about Islam and resistance to the Ottoman Empire, during the critical period of territorial expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, marked by the capture of Buda in 1526 and the Siege of Vienna in 1529.

Ottoman–Habsburg wars

The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain. The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary, including Transylvania (today in Romania) and Vojvodina (today in Serbia), Croatia and central Serbia.

By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a serious threat to the European powers, with Ottoman ships sweeping away Venetian possessions in the Aegean and Ionian seas and Ottoman-supported Barbary pirates seizing Spanish possessions in the Maghreb. The Protestant Reformation, the French–Habsburg rivalry and the numerous civil conflicts of the Holy Roman Empire served as distractions to the Christians from their conflict with the Ottomans. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had to contend with the Persian Safavid Empire and to a lesser extent the Mamluk Sultanate, which was defeated and fully incorporated into the empire.

Initially, Ottoman conquests in Europe made significant gains with a decisive victory at Mohács reducing around one third (central) part of Kingdom of Hungary to the status of an Ottoman tributary. Later, the Peace of Westphalia and the Spanish War of Succession in the 17th and 18th centuries respectively left the Austrian Empire as the sole firm possession of the House of Habsburg. Following the Siege of Vienna in 1683 the Habsburgs were able to assemble a large coalition of European powers known as the Holy League, allowing them to effectively combat the Ottomans and to regain control over Hungary. The Great Turkish War ended with the decisive Holy League victory at Zenta. The wars came to an end following Austria's participation in the war of 1787-1791, which Austria fought in alliance with Russia. Intermittent tension between Austria and the Ottoman Empire continued throughout the nineteenth century, but they never again fought each other in a war and ultimately found themselves allied in World War I, in the aftermath of which both empires were dissolved.

Historians have devoted most of their attention to the second siege of Vienna of 1683, depicting it as a decisive Austrian victory that saved Western civilization and began the fall of the Ottoman Empire. However more recently historians have taken a broader perspective noting that the Habsburgs at the same time resisted internal separatist movements, and were battling Prussia and France for control of central Europe. The key advance made by the Europeans was an effective combined arms doctrine in which the infantry and artillery, supported by the cavalry, cooperated together to be triply effective. Nevertheless, the Ottomans were able to maintain military parity with the Habsburgs until the middle of the eighteenth century. Historian Gunther E. Rothenberg has emphasized the non-combat dimension of the conflict, whereby the Habsburgs built up military communities that protected their borders and produced a steady flow of well-trained, motivated soldiers.

Peace of Vasvár

The Peace of Vasvár was a treaty between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire which followed the Battle of Saint Gotthard of 1 August 1664 (near Mogersdorf, Burgenland), and concluded the Austro-Turkish War (1663–64). It held for about 20 years, until 1683, during which border skirmishing escalated to a full-scale war and culminated with the Ottoman's siege of Vienna for the second time.

At the time of signing, the military of the Habsburgs was in a better position than that of the Ottomans. Instead of maintaining initiative and momentum, negotiations began and fighting stopped. In fact, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor wanted peace to be signed so that he could be better prepared against France. However, factions within the monarchy insisted on further operations, particularly Croats and Hungarians, mainly because most of their territory was in Ottoman hands, and they wanted to use the opportunity to reclaim their land. Noble Croatian families, the Zrinski and the Frankopan, viewed the treaty as particularly supplicating to the Ottomans, as they actually having to give up territories that had just been liberated back to the Ottomans as terms of the treaty. Some of the territories had belonged to them before the occupation. The treaty caused internal strife and instability in the monarchy, which would eventually culminate with the rebellion of the two Croatian noble families and Hungarian nobles led by Ferenc Rákóczi I against the king of Hungary (also Emperor to the German states in the monarchy).

With the treaty, Ottoman control of Transylvania and Uyvar (administered as the Uyvar Eyalet of the Empire) was recognized, as well as both empires paying a financial tribute (presented as a "gift") to the other. That was the only time the French king, a traditional ally of the Ottomans since Francis I, fought against them. It was also one of the major factors in the Habsburgs' decision, as the much more valuable estates in the Holy Roman Empire and Italy were threatened by France. The concessions were very minor for the Austrians, as their emperor could now turn to western affairs. The Habsburgs also got some economic rights in the Ottoman realm.

Schloss Neugebäude

Neugebäude Palace (German: Schloss Neugebäude) is a large Mannerist castle complex in the Simmering dictrict of Vienna, Austria. It was built from 1569 onwards at the behest of the Habsburg emperor Maximilian II on the alleged site of Sultan Suleiman's tent city during the 1529 Siege of Vienna and apparently modeled after it.

It fell into disuse already in the 17th century and today stands in ruins. Under monumental protection since the 1970s, there are various efforts to restore the site.

In 1922, Clemens Holzmeister's architectural designs for Austria's first crematorium placed Feuerhalle Simmering into the walled gardens of the derelict Schloss Neugebäude, thus putting the former palace gardens with its many ancient trees (designated natural monuments) to new use as urn burial ground.

Siege of Vienna (1485)

The Siege of Vienna was a decisive siege in 1485 of the Austrian–Hungarian War. It was a consequence of the ongoing conflict between Frederick III and Matthias Corvinus. The fall of Vienna meant that it merged with Hungary from 1485 to 1490. Matthias Corvinus also moved his royal court to the newly occupied city.

Sultans Trail

The Sultans Trail is a long-distance footpath from Vienna to Istanbul. It is 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi) long. The path passes through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, East Macedonia and Thrace in northern Greece, and Turkey.

Sultans Trail [sic] (recte Sultan's) takes its name from sultan Süleyman Kanuni, Suleiman the Magnificent, of the Ottoman Empire who led Ottoman armies to conquer Belgrade and most of Hungary before his invasion was checked at the Siege of Vienna. The main path follows the route of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent on his way to Vienna. He started on 10 May 1529 from Istanbul and arrived 23 September 1529 in Vienna (141 days). It was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition to the west, but the Austrian garrison inflicted upon Suleiman his first defeat. A second attempt to conquer Vienna failed in 1532. In 1566, at the age of 60, the sultan led his army for the last time; he died close to Szigetvár in Hungary.

In contrast to its past the Sultan's Trail nowadays forms a path of peace, a meeting place for people of all faiths and cultures. The trail starts at St. Stephen's Cathedral in the centre of Vienna; the bells of this church are made from the melted iron of Ottoman cannons. It ends at the tomb of the Sultan in Istanbul. The Sultans Trail is developed by volunteers from the Netherlands-based NGO Sultans Trail - A European Cultural Route.

Apart from the Romanian and Bulgarian mountains, the trail can be walked all year round. Most parts of the route have ample accommodation such as hotels, pensions or private rooms. In parts of Hungary and Bulgaria a tent is necessary.

The Shadow of the Vulture

"The Shadow of the Vulture" is a short story by American writer Robert E. Howard, first published in The Magic Carpet Magazine, January 1934. The story introduces the character of Red Sonya of Rogatino, who later became the inspiration for the popular character Red Sonja, archetype of the chainmail-bikini clad female warrior.

Unlike Howard's better-known fantasy work, "The Shadow of the Vulture" is historical fiction, set in the 16th century. It uses the career of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (also known as Sultan Suleiman I), the aftermath of the Battle of Mohács (1526) and the later Siege of Vienna of 1529 as a backdrop for imaginary characters and events.

What Went Wrong?

What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response is a book by Bernard Lewis released in January 2002, shortly after the September 11 terrorist attack, but written shortly before. The nucleus of this book appeared as an article published in The Atlantic Monthly in January 2002.

The book's thesis is that throughout recent history, specifically beginning with the failure of the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683, the Islamic world has failed to modernize or to keep pace with the Western world in a variety of respects, and that this failure has been seen by many within the Islamic world as having allowed Western powers to acquire a disastrous position of dominance over those regions.

Wilhelm von Roggendorf

Wilhelm Freiherr von Roggendorf (1481–1541) was an Austrian military commander and Hofmeister.

He was a son of Kaspar von Roggendorf, and thus member of the ancient Von Roggendorf family from Styria, which ruled in Lower Austria since the middle of the 15th century.

Wilhelm von Roggendorf served the Habsburgs starting in 1491. He was Stadtholder of Friesland between 1517 and 1520, and was in the second half of the 1520s Hofmeister of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. During the Siege of Vienna in 1529 by the Turks, he served as commander of the heavy cavalry under his brother-in-law Nicholas, Count of Salm (1459–1530). In the following years he had an influential role at the Austrian court as Obersthofmeister. He resigned in 1539, but returned as commander of the Austrian Siege of Buda (1541), which ended in disaster. Von Roggendorf was wounded during this battle and died two days later of his wounds.

Çoban Mustafa Pasha

Çoban Mustafa Pasha ("Mustafa Pasha the Shepherd"; died 1529) was an Ottoman statesman. Likely born in Bosnia-Herzegovina or Serbian Sandzak, and collected through Devshirme to Janissaries, where he gradually raised through the ranks, he eventually served as kapıcıbaşı, vizier, and beylerbey for the Ottoman Empire during various parts of his life.

After serving as kapıcıbaşı ("chief gatekeeper") for some time, Mustafa was appointed a vizier in 1511, and finally beylerbey (governor) of the Egypt Eyalet (province) of the empire in 1522, serving for one year (1522–1523).Mustafa Pasha participated in the Siege of Belgrade in 1521 and the Siege of Rhodes the next year, both of them decisive Ottoman victories under sultan Suleiman I. During the Siege of Rhodes, he was the Serdar-ı Ekrem (the rank given to viziers in battle).

At some point, Mustafa Pasha had a bridge built in Svilengrad in southern Bulgaria, and it was named after him as Mustafa Pasha Bridge (now known as Old Bridge, Svilengrad).

Mustafa Pasha died in 1529 on the way to the Siege of Vienna. His mausoleum is in Gebze, Turkey, in a complex he had built himself and which was completed in 1522.

Ottoman Empire Major sieges by the Ottoman Empire by century
14th
15th
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20th

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