Coordinates: 36°24′36.9″N 29°11′30.1″E / 36.410250°N 29.191694°E Sidyma (Ancient Greek: Σίδυμα), was a town of ancient Lycia, at what is now the small village of Dudurga Asari in Muğla Province, Turkey. It lies on the southern slope of Mount Cragus, to the north-west of the mouth of the Xanthus.


Sidyma was mentioned in the 1st century BC by Alexander Polyhistor, and later by Pliny the Elder, Stephanus of Byzantium, the Synecdemus, and the Notitiae Episcopatuum. Its extant remains are of the time of the Roman Empire, when it was an unimportant but flourishing city, and no Lycian inscriptions have been discovered there and there are no Lycian rock tombs, but its name seems to indicate an earlier origin. Above the present ruins, which lie in a valley, is a wall that may indicate the existence on the hill of a city of which no traces remain.[1][2]

The one coin of Sidyma that has been found is of the type of the Lycian League.[1]

It is related that the future Byzantine Emperor Marcian, when still a simple soldier, fell asleep while resting on a hunt near Sidyma, and was found to be sheltered by a large eagle, a presage of his future elevation.[3]


The ruins of Sidyma, high up on the southern slope of Mount Cragus, were first discovered by Charles Fellows, who described them as consisting chiefly of splendidly built tombs, abounding in Greek inscriptions. The town itself, he said, appeared to have been very small, and the theatre, agora and temples, were of diminutive size, but of great beauty.[2][4] The theatre is now "badly damaged",[5] "in wretched condition".[1]

Ecclesiastical history


Sidyma became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the Metropolitan see of Mira, the capital of the Roman province of Lycia. The bishop of Sidyma ranked tenth under the metropolitan of Myra.[6]

The diocese continued to appear in the Notitiae Episcopatuum until the 13th century.[7][8][9]

Titular see

No longer a residential bishopric, Sidyma is today listed by the Catholic Church as a Latin titular bishopric,[10] the diocese being nominally revived in the 19th century.

Pierre-Flavien Turgeon
Bishop Turgeon.

It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

  • Antoine Missirli (1808.03.18 – 1824.10.16)
  • Pierre-Flavien Turgeon (1834.02.28 – 1850.10.03), as Coadjutor Archbishop of Québec (Canada) (1834.02.28 – 1850.10.03), later succeeded as Metropolitan Archbishop of Québec (1850.10.03 – 1867.08.25)
  • Joseph Freusberg (1854.04.07 – 1889.11.14)
  • Theophile Meerschaert (1891.06.02 – 1905.08.23)
  • János Ivánkovits (1905.12.11 – 1910.03.31)
  • Paul-Leon-Cornelius Montaigne (满德胎), Lazarists (C.M.) (1924.11.25 – 1962.01.09)
  • Michele Federici (1962.09.22 – 1963.10.27) as Coadjutor Bishop of Melfi (Italy) (1962.09.22 – 1963.10.27), later Archbishop of Santa Severina (Italy) (1963.10.27 – 1973.12.21), Archbishop-Bishop of Ferentino (Italy) (1973.12.21 – 1980.11.23), Archbishop-Bishop of Veroli–Frosinone (Italy) (1973.12.21 – 1980.11.23)
  • Karl Reiterer, Mill Hill Missionaries (M.H.M.) (1967.02.09 – 1974.12.30)


  1. ^ a b c O.G. Bean, "SIDYMA (Dudurga Asari) Lycia, Turkey" in Richard Stillwell et alii, The Princeton Encyclopaedia of Classical Sites (Princeton University Press 1976)
  2. ^ a b William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)
  3. ^ Explore Turkey, Lycia, Sidyma
  4. ^ C. Fellows, Lycia (1840) 151-56; E. Petersen & F. von Luschan, Reisen in Lykien (1889) I 57-83; TAM II.1 (1920) 60-62.
  5. ^ James Bainbridge, Lonely Planet Guide to Turkey 2010 ISBN 9781742203867), p. 372
  6. ^ O E Bean, Sidmya at The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites.
  7. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 973-974
  8. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 449
  9. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, v. Sidyma, Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XIII, New York 1912
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 971

Sources and external links

Antiochia ad Cragum

Antiochia ad Cragum (Greek: Αντιόχεια του Κράγου) also known as Antiochetta or Latin: Antiochia Parva (meaning "Little Antiochia") is an ancient Hellenistic city on Mount Cragus overlooking the Mediterranean coast, in the region of Cilicia, in Anatolia. In modern-day Turkey the site is encompassed in the village of Güneyköy, District of Gazipaşa, Antalya Province.

The city was founded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes around 170 BC. It minted coins from the mid-first to the mid-second centuries, the last known of which were issued under Roman Emperor Valerian. The city became part of the kingdom of Lesser Armenia in the 12th century. In 1332, the Knights Hospitallers took the city, after which it was known variously as Antiochetta, Antiocheta, Antiocheta in Rufine (Papal bull of Pope John XXII), and Antiochia Parva.

Some scholars claim an identity of Antiochia ad Cragum with the city Cragus (Kragos), or although it lies more than 100 km away, with Sidyma, which some scholars assert was the Lycian Cragus (Kragos).Ruins of the city remain, and include fortifications, baths, chapels, the Roman necropolis, and the largest Roman mosaic found in Turkey.In 2018, latrine mosaics with dirty jokes about Narcissus and Ganymede were discovered in Antiochia ad Cragum.


Araxa (Ancient Greek: Ἄραξα) was a city of ancient Lycia, according to Alexander Polyhistor, in the second book of his Lysiaca. Ptolemy places it near Sidyma. It is located at place called Ören, near Fethiye, on the upper portion of the Xanthus River. An inscription in honour of a local citizen, Orthagoras, provides some details of its history in the 2nd century B.C.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

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Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cragus (Lycia)

Cragus or Cragos or Kragos (Greek: Κράγος) was an city of ancient Lycia, Asia Minor near or on Mount Cragus; its location is in modern-day Turkey (most likely in Muğla Province). Strabo, describes Cragus as a city amidst Mount Cragus. There are coins of the town Cragus of the Roman imperial period, with the epigraph Λυκιων Κρ. or Κρα. or Κραγ. The site of Cragus has not been determined. William Martin Leake (Geog. Journal, vol. xii. p. 164) conjectures that Cragus may be the same city as Sidyma, a place that is first mentioned by Pliny the Elder.

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Lycian Way

The Lycian Way is a long-distance footpath in Turkey around part of the coast of ancient Lycia. It is approximately 540 km long and stretches from Ölüdeniz, near Fethiye, to Geyikbayırı, about 20 kilometers from Antalya. It is waymarked with red and white stripes, the Grande Randonnee convention.

It takes its name from the ancient civilisation, which once ruled the area.

Lycian Way Ultramarathon

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The route starts at Ölüdeniz in Fethiye district of Muğla Province. Following the Turkish Riviera coastline, it passes through Sidyma and then in Antalya Province the places Kaş, Simena, Finike, Olympos and Phaselis. The race ends in Antalya.The fourth edition of the event in 2013 was cancelled because many foreign ultra runners stayed away or annulled their entry due to perceived risks in connection with the 2013 protests in Turkey and 2012 Syrian–Turkish border clashes. The cancellation caused reaction by local athletes, who had already arranged their training, holiday and airline tickets in accordance with the race term.

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Sidyma albifinis

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Sidyma apicalis

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