Side-striped jackal

The side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) is a species of jackal, native to east and southern Africa.[2][1] Unlike its cousin, the smaller black-backed jackal, which dwells in open plains, the side-striped jackal primarily dwells in woodland and scrub areas.[3]

Side-striped jackal
Temporal range: Pliocene - recent
Side-striped Jackal (Canis adustus)- rare sighting of this nocturnal animal ... (13799300905)
On the S131 Road West of Letaba, Kruger National Park, South Africa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species:
C. adustus
Binomial name
Canis adustus
(Sundevall, 1847)[2]
Side-striped Jackal area
Side-striped jackal range

Taxonomy and evolution

Phylogenetic tree of the extant wolf-like canids
Caninae 3.5 Ma
3.0
2.7
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1

Dog Tibetan mastiff (white background).jpg

Gray wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).jpg

Himalayan wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III).jpg

Coyote Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IX).jpg

African golden wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

Ethiopian wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate VI).jpg

Golden jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate X).jpg

Dhole Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLI).jpg

African wild dog Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIV).jpg

2.6

Side-striped jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIII).jpg

Black-backed jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XII).jpg

Phylogenetic relationships between the extant wolf-like clade of canids based on nuclear DNA sequence data taken from the cell nucleus,[4][5] except for the Himalayan wolf, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.[5][6] Timing in millions of years.[5]

Fossil remains of C. adustus date back to the Pliocene era.[7] A mitochondrial DNA sequence alignment for the wolf-like canids gave a phylogenetic tree with the side-striped jackal and the black-backed jackal being the most basal members of this clade, which means that this tree is indicating an African origin for the clade.[4][8]

Description

The side-striped jackal is a medium-sized canid, which tends to be slightly larger on average than the black-backed jackal. Body mass ranges from 6.5 to 14 kg (14 to 31 lb), head-and-body length from 69 to 81 cm (27 to 32 in) and tail length from 30 to 41 cm (12 to 16 in).[9] Shoulder height can range from 35 to 50 cm (14 to 20 in).[10] Its pelt is coloured buff-grey. The back is darker grey than the underside, and the tail is black with a white tip. Indistinct white stripes are present on the flanks, running from elbow to hip. The boldness of the markings varies between individuals, with those of adults being better defined than those of juveniles.[3]

The side-striped jackal's skull is similar to that of the black-backed jackal's, but is flatter, with a longer and narrower rostrum. Its sagittal crest and zygomatic arches are also lighter in build. Due to its longer rostrum, its third upper premolar lies almost in line with the others, rather than at an angle. Its dentition is well suited to an omnivorous diet. The long, curved canines have a sharp ridge on the posterior surface, and the outer incisors are canine-like. Its carnassials are smaller than those of the more carnivorous black-backed jackal. Females have four inguinal teats.[3]

Dietary habits

The side-striped jackal tends to be less carnivorous than other jackal species, and is a highly adaptable omnivore whose dietary preferences change in accordance to seasonal and local variation.[11] It tends to forage solitarily, though family groups of up to 12 jackals have been observed to feed together in western Zimbabwe. In the wild, it feeds largely on invertebrates during the wet season and small mammals, such as the springhare, in the dry months. It frequently scavenges from campsites and the kills of larger predators. In the wild, fruit is taken exclusively in season, while in ruralised areas, it can account for 30% of their dietary intake. The side-striped jackal tends to be comparatively less predatory when compared to other jackal species. It typically does not target prey exceeding the size of neonatal antelopes, and one specimen was recorded to have entered a duck's pen to eat their feed, whilst ignoring the birds.[3]

Social behaviour and reproduction

The side-striped jackal lives both solitarily and in family groups of up to seven individuals. The family unit is dominated by a breeding pair, which remains monogamous for a number of years.[3]

The breeding season for this species depends on where they live; in southern Africa, breeding starts in June and ends in November. The side-striped jackal has a gestation period of 57 to 70 days, with average litter of three to six young. The young reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and typically begin to leave when 11 months old. The side-striped jackal is among the few mammal species that mate for life, forming monogamous pairs.

Subspecies

There are seven recognized subspecies of side-striped jackal:[2][12]

  • Canis adustus adustus (Western Africa to most of Angola) – Sundevall jackal
  • Canis adustus bweha (Eastern Africa, Kisumu, Kenya)
  • Canis adustus centralis (Central Africa, Cameroon, near the Uham River)
  • Canis adustus grayi (Morocco and Tunisia)
  • Canis adustus kaffensis (Kaffa, southwestern Ethiopia) – Kafue jackal
  • Canis adustus lateralis (Kenya, Uasin Gishu Plateau, south of Gabon)
  • Canis adustus notatus (Kenya, Loita Plains, Rift Valley Prov.) – East African jackal, East African side-striped jackal

References

  1. ^ a b Atkinson RPD & Loveridge AJ (2008). "Canis adustus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
  2. ^ a b c Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b c d e IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group. "Side-Striped Jackal". Wildlife Conservation Research Unit. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  4. ^ a b Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, C. M.; Mikkelsen, T. S.; Karlsson, E. K.; Jaffe, D. B.; Kamal, M.; Clamp, M.; Chang, J. L.; Kulbokas, E. J.; Zody, M. C.; Mauceli, E.; Xie, X.; Breen, M.; Wayne, R. K.; Ostrander, E. A.; Ponting, C. P.; Galibert, F.; Smith, D. R.; Dejong, P. J.; Kirkness, E.; Alvarez, P.; Biagi, T.; Brockman, W.; Butler, J.; Chin, C. W.; Cook, A.; Cuff, J.; Daly, M. J.; Decaprio, D.; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  5. ^ a b c Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J.; Godinho, R.; Robinson, J.; Lea, A.; Hendricks, S.; Schweizer, R. M.; Thalmann, O.; Silva, P.; Fan, Z.; Yurchenko, A. A.; Dobrynin, P.; Makunin, A.; Cahill, J. A.; Shapiro, B.; Álvares, F.; Brito, J. C.; Geffen, E.; Leonard, J. A.; Helgen, K. M.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; Wayne, R. K. (2015-08-17). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–65. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.
  6. ^ Werhahn, Geraldine; Senn, Helen; Kaden, Jennifer; Joshi, Jyoti; Bhattarai, Susmita; Kusi, Naresh; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (2017). "Phylogenetic evidence for the ancient Himalayan wolf: Towards a clarification of its taxonomic status based on genetic sampling from western Nepal". Royal Society Open Science. 4 (6): 170186. Bibcode:2017RSOS....470186W. doi:10.1098/rsos.170186. PMC 5493914. PMID 28680672.
  7. ^ Garrido, Guiomar; Arribas, Alfonso (2008). "Canis accitanus nov. sp., a new small dog (Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) from the Fonelas P-1 Plio-Pleistocene site (Guadix basin, Granada, Spain)". Geobios. 41 (6): 751. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2008.05.002.
  8. ^ Juliane Kaminski & Sarah Marshall-Pescini (2014). "Chapter 1 - The Social Dog:History and Evolution". The Social Dog:Behavior and Cognition. Elsevier. p. 4. ISBN 9780124079311.
  9. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  10. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal". Botswana Travel Guide. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  11. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal in the Kruger Park". www.krugerpark.co.za. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  12. ^ "Canis adustus". Planet-mammiferes.org. Retrieved 2009-09-07.

Further reading

  • The New Encyclopedia of Mammals edited by David Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-19-850823-9
  • Cry of the Kalahari, by Mark and Delia Owens, Mariner Books, 1992.
  • The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores, by David MacDonald, BBC Books, 1992.
  • Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World, by David Alderton, Facts on File, 2004.
Aberdare National Park

The Aberdare National Park is a protected area in the Aberdare Mountain Range in central Kenya located east of the East African Rift Valley. It covers the higher areas and the Aberdare Salient to the east.

Angolan miombo woodlands

Angolan miombo woodlands cover most of central Angola and extend into the Democratic Republic of Congo. This is part of the larger miombo ecosystem that covers much of eastern and southern Africa.

Black-backed jackal

The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is a canid native to two areas of Africa, separated by roughly 900 km.

One region includes the southernmost tip of the continent, including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. The other area is along the eastern coastline, including Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. It is listed by the IUCN as least concern, due to its widespread range and adaptability, although it is still persecuted as a livestock predator and rabies vector.Compared to other members of the genus Canis, the black-backed jackal is a very ancient species, and has changed little since the Pleistocene, being the most basal wolf-like canine, alongside the closely related side-striped jackal. It is a fox-like animal with a reddish coat and a black saddle that extends from the shoulders to the base of the tail. It is a monogamous animal, whose young may remain with the family to help raise new generations of pups. The black-backed jackal is not a fussy eater, and feeds on small to medium-sized animals, as well as plant matter and human refuse.

Canid hybrid

Canid hybrids are the result of interbreeding between different species of the canine (dog) family (genus Canis). They often occur in the wild, in particular between domestic or feral dogs and wild native canids.

Canidae

The biological family Canidae

(from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (, ).The cat-like feliforms and dog-like caniforms emerged within the Carnivoramorpha 43 million years before present. The caniforms included the fox-like genus Leptocyon whose various species existed from 34 million years ago (Mya) before branching 11.9 Mya into Vulpini (foxes) and Canini (canines).Canids are found on all continents, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size from the 2-m-long (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 24-cm-long (9.4 in) fennec fox. The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. They are mostly social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving co-operatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations. They are very intelligent. One canid, the domestic dog, long ago entered into a partnership with humans and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

Canis

Canis is a genus of the Canidae containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, coyotes, jackals, dingoes, and dogs. Species of this genus are distinguished by their moderate to large size, their massive, well-developed skulls and dentition, long legs, and comparatively short ears and tails.

Cozumel fox

The Cozumel fox is an undescribed species of fox in the genus Urocyon, which is apparently close to extinction or already extinct. It is (or was until recently) found on the island of Cozumel, Mexico. The last reported sighting was in 2001, but surveys focusing on this species have not yet been carried out. The Cozumel fox, which has not been scientifically described to date, is a dwarf form like the island fox but slightly larger, being up to three-quarters the size of the gray fox. It had been isolated on the island for at least 5,000 years, and probably far longer. This would indicate that the colonization of the island of Cozumel by Urocyon predates that of humans.

Golden jackal

The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia. Compared with the Arabian wolf, which is the smallest of the gray wolves (Canis lupus), the jackal is smaller and possesses shorter legs, a shorter tail, a more elongated torso, a less-prominent forehead, and a narrower and more pointed muzzle. The golden jackal's coat can vary in color from a pale creamy yellow in summer to a dark tawny beige in winter. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its widespread distribution and high density in areas with plenty of available food and optimum shelter.

The ancestor of the golden jackal is believed to be the extinct Arno river dog that lived in Mediterranean Europe 1.9 million years ago. It is described as having been a small, jackal-like canine. Genetic studies indicate that the golden jackal expanded from India around 20,000 years ago towards the end of the last ice age. The oldest golden jackal fossil, found at the Ksar Akil rock shelter near Beirut, Lebanon, is 20,000 years old. The oldest golden jackal fossils in Europe were found in Greece and are 7,000 years old. There are seven subspecies of the golden jackal. The golden jackal is more closely related to the gray wolf, coyote, African golden wolf, and Ethiopian wolf than it is to the African black-backed jackal or side-striped jackal. It is capable of producing fertile hybrids with both the gray wolf and the African golden wolf. Jackal–dog hybrids called Sulimov dogs are in service at the Sheremetyevo Airport near Moscow where they are deployed by the Russian airline Aeroflot for scent-detection.

Golden jackals are abundant in valleys and beside rivers and their tributaries, canals, lakes, and seashores. They are rare in foothills and low mountains. The golden jackal is a social species, the basic social unit of which consists of a breeding pair and any young offspring. It is very adaptable, with the ability to exploit food ranging from fruit and insects to small ungulates. They will attack domestic fowl and domestic mammals up to the size of domestic water buffalo calves. The jackal's competitors are the red fox, wolf, jungle cat, forest wildcat, and, in the Caucasus, the raccoon, and, in Central Asia, the steppe wildcat. The jackal is expanding beyond its native grounds in Southeast Europe into Central Europe, occupying areas where there are few or no wolves.

Jackal

Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog. While the word "jackal" has historically been used for many small canids, in modern use it most commonly refers to three species: the closely related black-backed jackal and side-striped jackal of sub-Saharan Africa, and the golden jackal of south-central Eurasia, which is more closely related to other members of the genus Canis.

Jackals and coyotes (sometimes called the "American jackal") are opportunistic omnivores, predators of small to medium-sized animals and proficient scavengers. Their long legs and curved canine teeth are adapted for hunting small mammals, birds, and reptiles, and their large feet and fused leg bones give them a physique well-suited for long-distance running, capable of maintaining speeds of 16 km/h (9.9 mph) for extended periods of time. Jackals are crepuscular, most active at dawn and dusk.

Their most common social unit is a monogamous pair, which defends its territory from other pairs by vigorously chasing intruding rivals and marking landmarks around the territory with their urine and feces. The territory may be large enough to hold some young adults, which stay with their parents until they establish their own territories. Jackals may occasionally assemble in small packs, for example, to scavenge a carcass, but they normally hunt either alone or in pairs.

List of Canis species and subspecies

Canis, the genus of mammals commonly known as wolves, dingos, dogs, coyotes, and jackals, contains several living species, many divided into numerous subspecies, as well as numerous recently extinct and extinct prehistoric species.

Domestic dogs are not usually granted taxonomic variety names below the level of either their species name, or subspecies name so they do not appear here with their popular breed names as individual entries. The New Guinea singing dog and any other varieties of subspecies appear as individual entries here when their taxonomic considerations now suggest that they are varieties of subspecies other than domestic dogs, such as of dingoes.

References for taxonomic classification, issues, and current considerations, especially in light of DNA revelations year to year, are found in the articles on individual canids; as this article is only a list, the extensive literature and specifics of these issues for each canid are beyond the scope of reference notes here. Furthermore, articles on the species in this list's section headings, and details of their evolutionary, divergent, interbreeding, geolocational and human-culture mediated shifts contain references on which this list relies when including and positioning its entries. References to this article are thus of two sorts, those pertaining to wholesale sourcing of entries, especially those that don't yet have their own Wikipedia articles, and the far more extensive references in existing Wikipedia articles for each entry, header species, and other relevant taxon.

List of fauna of Sudan and South Sudan

Fauna of Sudan and South Sudan include:

Aardvark

Aardwolf

African buffalo

African bush elephant

African civet

African golden wolf

African leopard

Ball Python

Banded mongoose

Lion

Barbary sheep

Black-backed jackal

Blue duiker

Bohor reedbuck

Bongo

Bushbuck

Cape hyrax

Common duiker

Common genet

Congo lion

Dama gazelle

Dorcas gazelle

Dugong

Gemsbok

Giant eland

Giant forest hog

Grant's gazelle

Grant's zebra

Greater kudu

Grevy's zebra

Hartebeest

Hippopotamus

Klipspringer

Kob

Maneless zebra

Marsh mongoose

Nile lechwe

North African ostrich

Northern white rhinoceros

Nubian giraffe

Nubian wild ass

Okapi

Oribi

Pale fox

Plains zebra

Red fox

Red river hog

Roan antelope

Rothschild's giraffe

Rueppell's fox

Side-striped jackal

Sitatunga

Somali wild ass

Somali wild dog

Spotted hyena

Striped hyena

Sudan cheetah

Temminck's pangolin

Thomson's gazelle

Warthog

Waterbuck

Yellow-backed duiker

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mephitis (genus)

The genus Mephitis is one of several genera of skunks, which has two species and a North American distribution.

Nsumbu National Park

Nsumbu National Park (also called Sumbu) lies on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika near its southern extremity, in Zambia's Northern Province. It covers about 2000 km² and has some 80 km of lake shore including four bays (Kasaba, Kala, Nkamba and Sumbu), and Nundo Head Peninsula.

Ogooué-Leketi National Park

The Ogooué-Leketi National Park is a national park in the Republic of the Congo, established on 9th of November 2018. This site has an area of 3,500 km² on the border with Gabon's Batéké Plateau National Park.

Sabi Sabi

Sabi Sabi is a private game reserve in South Africa, situated in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve which flanks the south western section of the Kruger National Park. The Sabi Sand Reserve is one of the parks that make up the Greater Kruger National Park.

It is a conservation area where the big five game (lion, leopard, rhinoceros, buffalo, elephant) occur naturally.

Wajee Nature Park

Wajee Nature Park is a bird conservancy and nature park in Mukuruwe-ini, central Kenya. It is set between Mount Kenya and the Aberdare Range 160 m (520 ft) north of Nairobi. The park, which covers 10 ha (25 acres) of unspoilt natural forest, was set aside for conservation by Reverend Wajee. It is home to two rare species: the Hinde's babbler and the side-striped jackal.

Extant Carnivora species

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.