Side, Turkey

Side is a city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. It includes the modern resort town and the ruins of the ancient city of Side one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya.[1]

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across.

Side
Σίδη
Sunrise apollo side
The Temple of Apollo is located at the end of Side's peninsula.
Side, Turkey is located in Turkey
Side, Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationAntalya Province, Turkey
RegionPamphylia
Coordinates36°46′00″N 31°23′20″E / 36.76667°N 31.38889°ECoordinates: 36°46′00″N 31°23′20″E / 36.76667°N 31.38889°E
TypeSettlement
History
Founded7th century BCE
CulturesGreek, Roman, Byzantine
Site notes
ConditionIn ruin

History

Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage.

Dating from the tenth century BC, its coinage bore the head of Athena, the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines.

Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, but it means pomegranate in Greek.

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty.

Alexander the Great

Side - Vespasian Gate
Vespasian Gate
Sidef 024
Temple of Apollo

Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which flourished from the 4th to the 1st century BC. After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural centre.

Side TH au
Walls of the ancient theatre of Side

In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom. This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia (the present Antalya), although Side already possessed an important harbour of its own. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).

In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade.

Romans

The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.[2]

Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity.

Antalya by Piri Reis
One of the maps (portolani) of Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, which Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.

Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the philosopher Troilus, of the fifth-century ecclesiastical writer Philip; of the famous lawyer Tribonian.[3]

Decline

Side began a steady decline from the 4th century on. Even defensive walls could not stop successive invasions of highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Side experienced a revival, and became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia. Arab fleets, nevertheless, raided and burned Side during the 7th century, contributing to its decline. The combination of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids, left the site abandoned by the 10th century, its citizens having emigrated to nearby Antalya.[2]

In the 12th century, Side temporarily established itself once more as a large city. An inscription found on the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine times. However, Side was abandoned again after being sacked. Its population moved to Antalya, and Side became known as Eski Adalia 'Old Antalya' and was buried.

Sidef 052
A hospital dating back to the 6th century.
Main Street in Side
This portion of the main street in Side is lined with the ruins of homes or shops, many of which feature their original mosaic tile flooring.

Ecclesiastical history

As capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima, Side was ecclesiastically the metropolitan see. The earliest known bishop was Epidaurus, presiding at the Synod of Ancyra, 314. Others are John, fourth century; Eustathius, 381; Amphilochius, 426-458, who played an important part in the history of the time; Conon, 536; Peter, 553; John, 680-692; Mark, 879; Theodore, 1027-1028; Anthimus, present at the synod held at Constantinople in 1054; John, then counsellor to the Emperor Michael VII Ducas, presided at a council on the worship of images, 1082; Theodosius and his successor Nicetas, twelfth century. John, present at a synod at Constantinople in 1156. The Notitiae Episcopatuum continued to mention Side as a metropolis of Pamphylia until the thirteenth century. It does not appear in the "Notitia" of Andronicus III. In 1397 the diocese was united with that of Attalia; in 1400 the Metropolitan of Perge and Attalia was at the same time the administrator of Side.[4]

No longer a residential see, Side is today included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[5]

Ruins

The great ruins are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. During medieval times, the wall and moat were repaired and the promontory houses a wealth of structures.

There are colossal ruins of a theatre complex, the largest in Pamphylia, built much like a Roman theatre that relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. The theatre is less well-preserved than the theatre at Aspendos, but it is almost as large, seating 15,000–20,000 people. With time and the shifting of the earth, the scaena wall has collapsed over the stage and the proscenium is in a cataract of loose blocks. It was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during Byzantine times (5th or 6th century).

Side Theatre panorama

Side Theatre

Side Theatre 4176

Side Theatre

Side Theatre 4192

Side Theatre

Side Theatre 4201

Side Theatre

The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of the ancient city, although this gate from the 2nd century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street, whose marble columns are no longer extant; all that remains are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd century BC), peripteral with twelve columns, in the middle. In later times it was used as a trading centre where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theatre, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theatre. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored.[2]

Side Nymphaeum 6240

Side Nymphaeum

Side Some remains 6245

Side City walls

Side some remains 6101

Side some remains

Side Colonnaded road 6235

Side Colonnaded road

Side Commercial agora panorama 2

Side Commercial agora panorama

Side Tyche temple on agora 6140

Side Tyche temple on commercial agora

Side Monumental Gate 6185

Side Monumental Gate

Side Apollo temple 4343

Side Apollo temple

Side Apollo temple 4346

Side Apollo temple

Side South Basilica 4319

Side South Basilica

Side South Basilica 4323

Side South Basilica

Side State Agora 4287

Side State Agora

Side State Agora 4293a

Side State Agora

Side South Gate 6264

Side South Gate

Side Harbour Baths 7042

Side Harbour Baths

Side Harbour Baths 7023

Side Harbour Baths

The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. Side's nymphaeum – a grotto with a natural water supply dedicated to the nymphs – was an artificial grotto or fountain building of elaborate design.

There is also a virtually unknown, but expansive site, up in the Taurus foothills, several miles inland, known locally as Seleucia. Virtually unknown to the outside world and not represented on the internet at all, it is the Roman fortress, built by Marc Antony to protect the city of Side. It covers at least a couple of square miles and is almost completely unexcavated, apart from two weeks in 1975, when the Turkish government funded two weeks of excavations. The site was, apparently, finally abandoned in the 7th century, when an earthquake caused the spring which fed the site with water to dry up completely. Many of the buildings are in remarkably good shape, particularly since, due to the lack of available stone, a significant quantity of the sites stonework contains egg and gravel based concrete blocks.

Excavation teams also found an ancient Greek brothel.[6]

Turkish archaeologists have been excavating Side since 1947 and intermittently continue to do so.[7]

Today

The central square of Side with the statue of Atatürk
The central square of Side with the statue of Atatürk

In 1895 Turkish Muslim refugees from Crete moved to the ruined town and called it Selimiye.[8][9][10] Today, Side has become a popular holiday destination as a result of the expansion of the Antalya coastal project and is experiencing a revival.

It was a popular spot for watching the solar eclipse of March 29, 2006.

The bustling street called Liman Caddesi connects the town bus station with the square on the seafront, where the statue of Atatürk is situated.[11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Ancient Library". Archived from the original on 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
  2. ^ a b c "Side - History of the City". Archived from the original on 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
  3. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1912, s.v. 'Sidon'
  4. ^ This section contains text from the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1907-1912, a work in the public domain
  5. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 971
  6. ^ Turkish archaeologist complains after sponsors refuse to fund brothel excavation
  7. ^ "Aspendos - Perge - Side". Retrieved 2006-11-19.
  8. ^ [1] From link: In 1895 Turkish people from Crete moved to the ruined town and called it Selimiye.
  9. ^ [2] Side Travel Guide
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2010-12-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Turkish Riviera - Side
  11. ^ "The town of Side, July 2017". Independent Travellers. independent-travellers.com. Retrieved May 23, 2018.

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Side". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

2014–15 PFC CSKA Sofia season

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2018 Turkish Women's Cup

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2018–19 ACS Poli Timișoara season

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2019 Turkish Women's Cup

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Death Defying

"Death Defying" was a single by iconic Australian rock group Hoodoo Gurus. It was released on Big Time Records in February, 1986; and was written by Dave Faulkner. "Turkey Dinner" (B side), was also written by Faulkner. The single peaked at No. 43 on the Kent Music Report Singles Chart.

"One of my favourite songs I've written... I have vivid memories of shooting the video in Kakadu National Park after having awoken to see the news footage of the Challenger Space Shuttle exploding during take-off." - Dave Faulkner.

Knockin' on Heaven's Door

"Knockin' on Heaven's Door" is a song by Bob Dylan, written for the soundtrack of the 1973 film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid. Released as a single two months after the film's release, it became a worldwide hit, reaching the Top 10 in several countries. The song became one of Dylan's most popular and most covered post-1960s compositions, spawning covers from Guns N' Roses, Eric Clapton, Randy Crawford and more. Described by Dylan biographer, Clinton Heylin, as "an exercise in splendid simplicity", the song features two verses, each of which represent the film's title characters and American frontier legends Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid.

List of twin towns and sister cities in Georgia (country)

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Local-express lanes

The local-express lane system is an arrangement of carriageways within a major highway where long distance traffic can use lanes with fewer interchanges compared to local traffic which use 'local' or 'collector' lanes that have access to all interchanges. This can also be called collector–distributor lanes within a single interchange. One of the longest examples is in Canada, on Ontario Highway 401 between Etobicoke and Pickering.

Where highway ramps between express and local/collector lanes cross over one another this is commonly known as braided ramps.Given the considerable overall width of this design, new suburban freeways are often designed with interchanges spaced far enough apart to avoid the need for parallel roadways.

This concept is different from Express Toll Lanes.

Pomegranate

The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m (16 and 33 ft) tall.

The fruit is typically in season in the Northern Hemisphere from September to February, and in the Southern Hemisphere from March to May. As intact arils or juice, pomegranates are used in baking, cooking, juice blends, meal garnishes, smoothies, and alcoholic beverages, such as cocktails and wine.

The pomegranate originated in the region extending from modern-day Iran to northern India, and has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region. It was introduced into Spanish America in the late 16th century and into California by Spanish settlers in 1769.Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Middle East and Caucasus region, north and tropical Africa, South Asia, Central Asia, the drier parts of southeast Asia, and parts of the Mediterranean Basin. It is also cultivated in parts of Arizona and California. In the 20th and 21st centuries, it has become more common in the shops and markets of Europe and the Western Hemisphere.

Rincon Mountains

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Rincón is Spanish for corner, denoting the primary shape of the mountain range. Mica Mountain (8,664 feet), the high-point of the Rincons forms the apex, with Rincon Peak (8,482 feet) forming the southern point, and Tanque Verde Peak (7,049 feet) forming the western point of the corner. The interior of the corner is Rincon Valley (south and west of Mica Mountain), primarily former ranchland currently being converted to tract housing. Colossal Cave county park, a limestone cave and popular destination, is located on the east end of the Rincon Valley, north of the community of Vail.

East of the Rincons are the Little Rincon Mountains. Between these two ranges is Happy Valley, a popular destination for locals for camping, hunting, and off-roading. Farther east is the San Pedro River of the San Pedro Valley, a holocene paleontology region.

South of the Rincon Mountains, beyond Rincon Valley is the Cienega Creek and Interstate 10.

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Solar Saros 139

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This series is currently producing total eclipses over 4 minutes long, with each one gradually increasing in length. It will continue to do so until July 16, 2186 when it will produce the longest total eclipse calculated for the ten millennia from 3999 BCE to 6000 CE. The last eclipse to occur was a total eclipse on March 29, 2006, lasting 4 minutes 7 seconds and passing over portions of Africa and western Asia. The next eclipse will occur on April 8, 2024, lasting 4 minutes 28 seconds over central North America, entering in Mexico, crossing the United States, and leaving in eastern Canada.

Solar eclipse of April 19, 2004

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It was largely visible over the south Atlantic Ocean and north shores of Antarctica, most prominently the Antarctic Peninsula. The eclipse was deep enough to be seen from a large portion of southern Africa, with over 50% totality at Cape Town, South Africa at approximately 4:10 PM. However, the eclipse remained visible to cities such as Harare, Maseru, Durban, and Bloemfontein, although to a much lesser extent.

The greatest eclipse of the Sun took place over a nigh inaccessible strip of ocean off the Antarctic coast; the maximum point displayed 73.5% totality, as compared to Cape Town's 51% totality.

Solar eclipse of April 8, 2005

A total solar eclipse occurred on April 8, 2005. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

This eclipse is a hybrid event, a narrow total eclipse, and beginning and ending as an annular eclipse.It was visible within a narrow corridor in the Pacific Ocean. The path of the eclipse started south of New Zealand and crossed the Pacific Ocean in a diagonal path and ended in the extreme northwestern part of South America. The total solar eclipse was not visible on any land, while the annular solar eclipse was visible in Southern tip of Puntarenas Province of Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Venezuela.

Solar eclipse of March 19, 2007

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This partial eclipse was visible from India at sunrise, across Asia, and ending near sunset over northern Alaska.

Solar eclipse of March 29, 2006

A total solar eclipse occurred on March 28–29, 2006. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. It was visible from a narrow corridor which traversed half the Earth. The magnitude, that is, the ratio between the apparent sizes of the Moon and that of the Sun, was 1.052, and it was part of Saros 139.

Solar eclipse of October 14, 2004

A partial solar eclipse occurred on October 13-14, 2004. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth. It was the 54th eclipse of the 124th Saros cycle, which began with a partial eclipse on March 6, 1049 and will conclude with a partial eclipse on May 11, 2347.

Solar eclipse of October 3, 2005

An annular solar eclipse occurred on Monday, October 3, 2005 with a magnitude of 0.958. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide.

It was visible from a narrow corridor through the Iberian peninsula and Africa. A partial eclipse was seen from the much broader path of the Moon's penumbra, including all of Europe, Africa and southwestern Asia.

It was the 43rd eclipse of the 134th Saros cycle, which began with a partial eclipse on June 22, 1248 and will conclude with a partial eclipse on August 6, 2510.

The path of the eclipse began in the North Atlantic ocean at 08:41 universal time (UT). The antumbra reached Madrid, Spain at 08:56 UT, lasting four minutes and eleven seconds and 90% of the Sun was covered by the Moon. The antumbra reached Algiers at 09:05 UT, then passed through Tunisia and Libya before heading southeast through Sudan, Kenya and Somalia. The shadow then moved out over the Indian Ocean until it terminated at sunset, 12:22 UT.The maximum eclipse duration occurred in central Sudan at 10:31:42 UT, where it lasted for 4m 31s when the Sun was 71° above the horizon.The motion of the shadow was supersonic and it generated gravity waves that were detectable as disturbances in the ionosphere. These gravity waves originate in the thermosphere at an altitude of about 180 km. Because of the obscuration of solar radiation, the ionization level dropped by 70% during the eclipse. The eclipse caused a 1–1.4 K drop in the temperature of the ionosphere.

Solar eclipse of September 22, 2006

An annular solar eclipse occurred on September 22, 2006. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. The path of annularity of this eclipse passed through Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, the northern tip of Roraima and Amapá of Brazil, and Southern Atlantic.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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