Sicyon

Sicyon (/ˈsɪʃiˌɒn, ˈsɪs-/; Greek: Σικυών; gen.: Σικυῶνος) or Sikyon was an ancient Greek city state situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia. An ancient monarchy at the times of the Trojan War, the city was ruled by a number of tyrants during the Archaic and Classical period and became a democracy in the 3rd century BC. Sicyon was celebrated for its contributions to ancient Greek art, producing many famous painters and sculptors. In Hellenistic times it was also the home of Aratus of Sicyon, the leader of the Achaean League.

Korinth Isthmus de
Location of Sicyon
Sikyon ancient theatre
The ancient theatre of Sikyon today.
Sikyon doric temple
Excavation site of a Doric temple in Sikyon.

History

Sikyon x
O: walking chimera; ΣΙ below R:flying dove; pellet above
silver hemidrachm struck in Sicyon 360–330 BC

ref.: BMC 124, Sear sg2774, SNG Cop. 64/65

Sicyon was built on a low triangular plateau about 3 kilometres (two miles) from the Corinthian Gulf. Between the city and its port lay a fertile plain with olive groves and orchards.[1]

In Mycenean times Sicyon had been ruled by a line of twenty-six mythical kings and then seven priests of Apollo. The king-list given by Pausanias[2] comprises twenty-four kings, beginning with the autochthonous Aegialeus. The penultimate king of the list, Agamemnon, compels the submission of Sicyon to Mycenae; after him comes the Dorian usurper Phalces. Pausanias shares his source with Castor of Rhodes, who used the king-list in compiling tables of history; the common source was convincingly identified by Felix Jacoby[3] as a lost Sicyonica by the late 4th-century poet Menaechmus of Sicyon.

After the Dorian invasion the city remained subject to Argos, whence its Dorian conquerors had come. The community was now divided into the ordinary three Dorian tribes and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class of serfs (κορυνηφόροι, korynēphóroi or κατωνακοφόροι, katōnakophóroi) lived on and worked the land.[1]

For some centuries the suzerainty remained, but after 676 BC Sicyon regained its independence under a line of tyrants called the Orthagorides after the name of the first ruler Orthagoras. The most important however was the founder's grandson Cleisthenes, the uncle of the Athenian legislator Cleisthenes, who ruled from 600 to 560 BC. Besides reforming the city's constitution to the advantage of the Ionians and replacing Dorian cults with the worship of Dionysus, Cleisthenes gained a reputation as the chief instigator and general of the First Sacred War (590 BC) in the interests of the Delphians.[1]

His successor Aeschines was expelled by the Spartans in 556 BC and Sicyon became an ally of the Lacedaemonians for more than a century. During this time, the Sicyonians developed the various industries for which they were known in antiquity. As the abode of the sculptors Dipoenus and Scyllis it gained pre-eminence in woodcarving and bronze work such as is still to be seen in the archaic metal facings found at Olympia. Its pottery, which resembled Corinthian ware, was exported with the latter as far as Etruria. In Sicyon also the art of painting was supposed to have been invented. After the fall of the tyrants their institutions survived until the end of the 6th century BC, when Dorian supremacy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta under the ephor Chilon, and the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League. Henceforth, its policy was usually determined either by Sparta or Corinth.[1]

During the Persian Wars, the Sicyonians participated with fifteen triremes in the Battle of Salamis and with 3,000 hoplites in the Battle of Plataea. On the Delphic Serpent Column celebrating the victory Sicyon was named in fifth place after Sparta, Athens, Corinth and Tegea. In September 479 BC a Sicyonian contingent fought bravely in the Battle of Mycale, where they lost more men than any other city.

Later in the 5th century BC, Sicyon, like Corinth, suffered from the commercial rivalry of Athens in the western seas, and was repeatedly harassed by squadrons of Athenian ships.[1] The Sicyonians fought two battles against the Athenians, first against their admiral Tolmides in 455 BC and then in a land battle against Pericles with 1000 hoplites in 453 BC.

In the Peloponnesian War Sicyon followed the lead of Sparta and Corinth. When these two powers quarrelled during the peace of Nicias, it remained loyal to the Spartans.[1] At the reprise of the war, during the Athenian expedition in Sicily, the Sicyonians contributed 200 pressed hoplites under their commander Sargeus to the force that relieved Syracuse. At the beginning of the 4th century, in the Corinthian war, Sicyon sided again with Sparta and became its base of operations against the allied troops round Corinth.[1]

In 369 BC Sicyon was captured and garrisoned by the Thebans in their successful attack on the Peloponnesian League.[1] From 368 to 366 BC Sicyon was ruled by Euphron who first favoured democracy, but then made himself tyrant. Euphron was killed in Thebes by a group af Sicyonian aristocrats, but his compatriots buried him in his home town and continued to honour him like the second founder of the city.

During the 4th century BC, the city reached its zenith as a centre of art: its school of painting gained fame under Eupompus and attracted the great masters Pamphilus and Apelles as students, while Lysippus and his pupils raised the Sicyonian sculpture to a level hardly surpassed anywhere else in Greece.[1] The tyrant Aristratus, a friend of the Macedonian royal family, had himself portrayed by the painter Melanthius aside the goddess of victory Nike on a chariot. In this period Sicyon was the undipusted center of Greek painting with its school attracting famous artists from all over Greece, including the celebrated Apelles and Pausias.

In 323 BC Euphron the Younger, a grandson of the tyrant Euphron, reintroduced a democracy, but was soon conquered by the Macedonians. When the Macedonian commander Alexander was murdered in Sicyon in 314 BC, his wife Cratesipolis took control of the city and ruled it for six years, until she was induced by king Ptolemy I to hand it over to the Egyptians.

In 303 BC Sicyon was conquered by Demetrius Poliorcetes who razed the ancient city in the plain and built a new wall on the ruins of the old Acropolis on the high triangular plateau which resulted sufficient for the reduced populace. The new agora was adorned by a "Painted Stoa" attributed to the king's mistress Lamia, a flute player. For a short time the town was now called "Demetrias", but eventually the old name prevailed.

Demetrius left a garrison in the castle to control the city, and the commander Cleon established another tyrannical regime. After some twenty years he was killed by two rivals, Euthydemus and Timocleidas, who became the new joint tyrants of Sicyon. Their rule ended, probably around the start of the Chremonidean War in 267 BC, when they were expelled by the people who elected their leader Cleinias to govern the city on a democratic ground. Two magistrates of these years were the hieromnemoi Sosicles and Euthydamos, known from an inscription at Delphi. The democratic government's most important achievement was the construction of the gymnasium which is attributed to Cleinias. During the same time Xenokrates of Sicyon published his history of art which contributed to spread the fame of Sicyion as an undisputed capital of ancient art.

Even this time democracy did not last more than a few years, and in 264 BC Cleinias was slain by his cognate Abantidas, who established his tyranny for twelve years. In 252 BC Abantidas was murdered by two rhetoricians, Aristotle the Dialectician and Deinias of Argos, and his father Paseas took over, only to be murdered after a short rule by another rival named Nicocles.

In 251 Aratus of Sicyon, the 20-year-old son of Cleinias, conquered the city with a night assault and expelled the last tyrant. Aratus re-established democracy, called back the exiles and brought his city into the Achaean League. This move ended the internal strife and Aratus remained the leading figure of Achaean politics until his death in 213 BC, during a period of great achievements. The prosperity and peaceful condition of Sicyon was only interrupted by an Aetolian raid in 241 BC and an unsuccessful siege at the hands of king Cleomenes III of Sparta in early 224 BC.

As a member of the Achaean federation Sicyon remained a stable democracy until the dissolution of the League by the Romans in 146 BC. In this period Sicyon was damaged by two disastrous earthquakes in 153 BC and 141 BC.

The destruction of Corinth (146 BC) brought Sicyon an acquisition of territory and the presidency over the Isthmian games; yet in Cicero's time it had fallen deep into debt. Under the Roman empire it was quite obscured by the restored cities of Corinth and Patrae; in Pausanias' age (150 AD) it was almost desolate. In Byzantine times it became a bishop's seat, and to judge by its later name Hellas it served as a refuge for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century.[1]

In the 4th century BC the people of Sicyon were the subject of a popular comedy by Menander titled Sikyonioi.

William Shakespeare, in his 1606 play Antony and Cleopatra (Act I, Scene 2), notes that Marc Antony's wife, Fulvia died in Sicyon. Historically, she died there in 40 BC while in rebellion against Octavius Caesar.

Friedrich Hölderlin's novel Hyperion from 1797 starts at the "paradisiac plain of Sicyon".

Important Monuments

  • Temple of Apollo or Artemis
  • Theatre of Sikyon
  • Palaestra - Gymnasium
  • Stadium of Sikyon
  • Bouleuterion of Sikyon


A village named until 1920 Vasiliko (described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as "insignificant") now occupies the site.

Notable people

Ancient

Modern

Mythology: Identification with Mecone

Sicyon has been traditionally identified with the mythical Mecone or Mekone [5] [6], site of the trick at Mecone carried out by Prometheus. Mecone is also described by Callimachus as "the seat of the gods", and as the place where the gods Zeus Poseidon and Hades cast lots for what part of the world they ruled. [7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCaspari, Maximilian (1911). "Sicyon" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 37.
  2. ^ Pausanias 2.5.6-6.7.
  3. ^ Felix Jacoby on Castor in Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 250 F 2, noted with approval by Robertson 1999:65 and note 36.
  4. ^ As displayed on the Wallchart of World History, Sicyon was founded in 2081 BC by Aegialus
  5. ^ page 116, M.L. West, The Journal of Hellenic Studies Vol. 122 (2002), pp. 109-133 (25 pages) Published by: The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies
  6. ^ Themis, Jane Ellen Harrison, page 373 https://archive.org/details/themisstudyofsoc00harr/page/372 retrieved 4/02/2019
  7. ^ Quoted st page 115, M.L. West, The Journal of Hellenic Studies Vol. 122 (2002), pp. 109-133

External links

Coordinates: 37°59′03″N 22°42′40″E / 37.984104°N 22.711145°E

Achaea (ancient region)

Achaea () or Achaia (; Greek: Ἀχαΐα, Akhaia, Ancient Greek: [akʰaía]) was (and is) the northernmost region of the Peloponnese, occupying the coastal strip north of Arcadia. Its approximate boundaries were to the south the mountain range of Erymanthus, to the south-east the range of Cyllene, to the east Sicyon, and to the west the Larissos river. Apart from the plain around Dyme, to the west, Achaea was generally a mountainous region.

Achaean League

The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion 'League of Achaeans') was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese. The league was named after the region of Achaea in the northwestern Peloponnese, which formed its original core. The first league was formed in the fifth century BC. The second Achaean League was established in 280 BC. As a rival of Antigonid Macedon and an ally of Rome, the league played a major role in the expansion of the Roman Republic into Greece. This process eventually led to the League's conquest and dissolution by the Romans in 146 BC.

The League represents the most successful attempt by the Greek city states to develop a form of federalism, which balanced the need for collective action with the desire for local autonomy. Through the writings of the Achaean statesman Polybius, this structure has had an influence on the constitution of the United States and other modern federal states.

Aegialeus (King of Sicyon)

Aegialeus (Ancient Greek: Αἰγιαλεύς derived from αἰγιαλός aigialos "beach, sea-shore") also Aegealeus, Aigialeus, Egialeus, in classical Greek semi-mythical historiography was considered the original settler of the Peloponnese and the founder and first ruler of the city-state of Aegialea, later known to history as Sicyon.

Agariste of Sicyon

Agariste (; Ancient Greek: Ἀγαρίστη) (fl. 6th century BC, around 560 BC) was the daughter, and possibly the heiress, of the tyrant of Sicyon, Cleisthenes. Her father wanted to marry her to the "best of the Hellenes" and, subsequently, he organized a competition, whose prize was the hand of his own daughter in marriage. According to his declaration, all the eligible young men had to appear in Sicyon within 60 days. Finally, twelve competitors appeared and Cleisthenes held a banquet in his guests' honour.

Cleisthenes preferred the former archon Hippocleides but, during the dinner the suitor embarrassed himself. According to Herodotus, Hippocleides became intoxicated and began to act like a fool; at one point, he stood on his head and kicked his legs in the air, keeping time with the flute music. When Hippocleides was informed that he had "danced away his bride," his response was οὐ φροντίς Ἱπποκλείδῃ, ("Hippocleides doesn't care" or "It doesn't matter to Hippocleides"). Herodotus' description insinuates a bawdy pun: the phrase "danced the bride away" may also be read as "displayed your testicles", in reference to Hippoclides standing on his head while wearing a tunic, which would have exposed his genitals to the guests.

After these unfortunate events, Megacles of the Alcmaeonid clan was chosen to marry Agariste, who gave birth to two sons, Hippocrates and Cleisthenes, the reformer of the Athenian democracy. Hippocrates was the father of another Megacles (ostracized 486 BC) and a daughter Agariste was the mother of Pericles and Ariphron (himself the father of Hippocrates of Athens who died 424 BC). The younger son Cleisthenes was allegedly father of Deinomache (or Dinomache), mother of Alcibiades (d. 404 BC) In either scenario, Agariste was a common ancestress of Pericles and Alcibiades. W. K. Lacey felt that Agariste was an epikleros, or sole heiress who was required to have children to perpetuate her father's family.

Alcmaeonidae

The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids (Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι) were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens, a branch of the Neleides who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor.The first notable Alcmaeonid was Megacles, who was the Archon Eponymous of Athens in the 7th century BC. He was responsible for killing the followers of Cylon of Athens during the attempted coup of 632 BC, as Cylon had taken refuge as a suppliant at the temple of Athena. As a result of their actions, Megacles and his Alcmaeonid followers were the subject of an ongoing curse and were exiled from the city. Even the bodies of buried Alcmaeonidae were dug up and removed from the city limits.

The Alcmaeonids were allowed back into the city in 594 BC, during the archonship of Solon. During the tyranny of Pisistratus, the Alcmaeonid Megacles married his daughter to Pisistratus, but when the tyrant refused to have children with her, Megacles banished him. Later the Alcmaeonids would claim to have been exiled following Pisistratus' return in 546 BC so as to distance themselves from possible accusations of complicity, but epigraphic evidence in fact proves that Cleisthenes was archon for the year 525-4. Megacles was able to marry (for a second or third time) Agarista, the daughter of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon. They had two sons, Hippocrates and Cleisthenes, the reformer of the Athenian democracy. Hippocrates' daughter was Agariste, the mother of Pericles.

This Cleisthenes overthrew Hippias, the son and successor of Pisistratus, in 508 BC. He had bribed the oracle at Delphi (which the Alcmaeonidae had helped to build while they were in exile) to convince the Spartans to help him, which they reluctantly did. Cleisthenes was, at first, opposed by some who felt the curse made the Alcmaeonidae ineligible to rule; the Spartan king Cleomenes I even turned against Cleisthenes and the latter was briefly exiled once more. However, the citizens called for Cleisthenes to return, and the restored Alcmaeonids were responsible for laying the foundations of Athenian democracy.

The Alcmaeonidae were said to have negotiated for an alliance with the Persians during the Persian Wars, despite the fact that Athens was leading the resistance to the Persian invasion. Pericles and Alcibiades also belonged to the Alcmaeonidae, and during the Peloponnesian War the Spartans referred to the family's curse in an attempt to discredit Pericles. Alcibiades, as the previous generation of Alcmaeonidae had done, tried to ally with the Persians after he was accused of impiety. The family disappeared after Athens's defeat in the Peloponnesian War.

Aratus of Sicyon

Aratus (; Greek: Ἄρατος; 271–213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon and a leader of the Achaean League. He deposed the Sicyonian tyrant Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was an advocate of Greek unity and brought Sicyon into the Achaean League, which he led to its maximum extent. He was elected strategos many times and led the Achaeans against Macedonia, the Aetolians and the Spartans. After the Spartans defeated and nearly destroyed the cities of the Achaean League, he requested Antigonus III Doson of Macedonia to help fight against the Aetolians and Spartans. After Antigonus died in 221 BC, Aratus did not get along with the new king, Philip V of Macedon, who wanted to make the Achaean League subject to Macedonia. Polybius and Plutarch record that Philip had Aratus poisoned.

Cleisthenes of Sicyon

Cleisthenes (; Greek: Κλεισθένης, also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was the tyrant of Sicyon from c. 600–560 BC, who aided in the First Sacred War against Kirrha that destroyed that city in 595 BC. He was also said to have organized with success a war against Argos because of his anti-Dorian feelings. After his victory he abolished all the rhapsodists of Homer, because they vaunted the citizens of Argos. The key innovation of his reign, which Herodotus mentions, is the reformation of the tribal system in the city of Sicyon. Herodotus states that he gave new names to all the tribes, calling his own non-Doric tribe, rulers of the people, and naming the other three Doric tribes after various animals. Herodotus does not however, relate exactly what Cleisthenes' reform was. Whatever this reform was, it must have been successful for all the tribes kept their names for a long time, even after the death of Cleisthenes.

Cleisthenes of Sicyon organized a competition with his beautiful daughter Agariste as the prize. The two main competitors for her were the Alcmaeonid Megacles, and Hippocleides. Because Hippocleides made a fool of himself by dancing drunkenly in front of Cleisthenes, Megacles was chosen to marry Agariste.

A relative of Cleisthenes was the later Cleisthenes of Athens and Agariste, the mother of Pericles.

His death is estimated around 532 BC.

List of Olympic winners of the Stadion race

The following is a list of winners of the Stadion race at the Olympic Games from 776 BC to 225 AD. It is based on the list given by Eusebius of Caesarea using a compilation by Sextus Julius Africanus. The Stadion race was the first and most important competition of the ancient Olympiads and the names of the winners are used by many Greek authors to date historic events.

1st Olympiad 776 BC - Coroebus of Elis

2nd Olympiad 772 BC - Antimachus of Elis

3rd Olympiad 768 BC - Androclus of Messenia

4th Olympiad 764 BC - Polychares of Messenia

5th Olympiad 760 BC - Aeschines of Elis

6th Olympiad 756 BC - Oebotas of Dyme

7th Olympiad 752 BC - Diocles of Messenia (Ancient Greek: Διοκλῆς Μεσήνιος; called Daïcles, Ancient Greek: Δαϊκλῆς Μεσσήνιος, in Dionysius's chronicle)

8th Olympiad 748 BC - Anticles of Messenia

9th Olympiad 744 BC - Xenocles of Messenia

10th Olympiad 740 BC - Dotades of Messenia

11th Olympiad 736 BC - Leochares of Messenia

12th Olympiad 732 BC - Oxythemis of Cleonae or Coroneia

13th Olympiad 728 BC - Diocles of Corinth

14th Olympiad 724 BC - Desmon of Corinth

15th Olympiad 720 BC - Orsippus of Megara

16th Olympiad 716 BC - Pythagoras of Laconia

17th Olympiad 712 BC - Polus of Epidaurus

18th Olympiad 708 BC - Tellis of Sicyon

19th Olympiad 704 BC - Menus of Megara

20th Olympiad 700 BC - Atheradas of Laconia

21st Olympiad 696 BC - Pantacles of Athens - In 692 BC he also won the diaulos. He was the first winner from Athens and the first runner in history to defend his title four years after his first victory.

22nd Olympiad 692 BC - Pantacles for a second time

23rd Olympiad 688 BC - Icarius of Hyperesia

24th Olympiad 684 BC - Cleoptolemus of Laconia

25th Olympiad 680 BC - Thalpis of Laconia

26th Olympiad 676 BC - Callisthenes of Laconia

27th Olympiad 672 BC - Eurybus of Athens (Ancient Greek: Εὔρυβος Ἀθηναῖος; called Eurybates, Ancient Greek: Εὐρυβάτης by Dionysius)

28th Olympiad 668 BC - Charmis of Laconia

29th Olympiad 664 BC - Chionis of Laconia

30th Olympiad 660 BC - Chionis for a second time

31st Olympiad 656 BC - Chionis for a third time

32nd Olympiad 652 BC - Cratinus of Megara

33rd Olympiad 648 BC - Gylis of Laconia

34th Olympiad 644 BC - Stomas of Athens - He was the third winner from Athens and his name is only referred by Eusebius.

35th Olympiad 640 BC - Sphaerus of Laconia (Ancient Greek: Σφαῖρος Λάκων)

36th Olympiad 636 BC - Phrynon of Athens

37th Olympiad 632 BC - Eurycleidas of Laconia

38th Olympiad 628 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia

39th Olympiad 624 BC - Rhipsolaus of Laconia

40th Olympiad 620 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia for a second time

41st Olympiad 616 BC - Cleondas of Thebes

42nd Olympiad 612 BC - Lycotas of Laconia

43rd Olympiad 608 BC - Cleon of Epidaurus

44th Olympiad 604 BC - Gelon of Laconia

45th Olympiad 600 BC - Anticrates of Epidaurus

46th Olympiad 596 BC - Chrysamaxus of Laconia

47th Olympiad 592 BC - Eurycles of Laconia

48th Olympiad 588 BC - Glycon of Croton

49th Olympiad 584 BC - Lycinus of Croton

50th Olympiad 580 BC - Epitelidas of Laconia

51st Olympiad 576 BC - Eratosthenes of Croton

52nd Olympiad 572 BC - Agis of Elis

53rd Olympiad 568 BC - Hagnon of Peparethus

54th Olympiad 564 BC - Hippostratus of Croton

55th Olympiad 560 BC - Hippostratus for a second time

56th Olympiad 556 BC - Phaedrus of Pharsalus

57th Olympiad 552 BC - Ladromus of Laconia

58th Olympiad 548 BC - Diognetus of Croton

59th Olympiad 544 BC - Archilochus of Corcyra

60th Olympiad 540 BC - Apellaeus of Elis

61st Olympiad 536 BC - Agatharchus of Corcyra

62nd Olympiad 532 BC - Eryxias of Chalcis

63rd Olympiad 528 BC - Parmenides of Camarina

64th Olympiad 524 BC - Menander of Thessaly

65th Olympiad 520 BC - Anochas of Tarentum

66th Olympiad 516 BC - Ischyrus of Himera

67th Olympiad 512 BC - Phanas of Pellene

68th Olympiad 508 BC - Isomachus of Croton

69th Olympiad 504 BC - Isomachus for a second time

70th Olympiad 500 BC - Nicasias of Opus

71st Olympiad 496 BC - Tisicrates of Croton

72nd Olympiad 492 BC - Tisicrates for a second time

73rd Olympiad 488 BC - Astyalus of Croton

74th Olympiad 484 BC - Astyalus for a second time

75th Olympiad 480 BC - Astyalus for a third time

76th Olympiad 476 BC - Scamander of Mytilene

77th Olympiad 472 BC - Dandes of Argos

78th Olympiad 468 BC - Parmenides of Poseidonia

79th Olympiad 464 BC - Xenophon of Corinth

80th Olympiad 460 BC - Torymmas of Thessaly

81st Olympiad 456 BC - Polymnastus of Cyrene

82nd Olympiad 452 BC - Lycus of Larissa

83rd Olympiad 448 BC - Crisson of Himera

84th Olympiad 444 BC - Crisson for a second time

85th Olympiad 440 BC - Crisson for a third time

86th Olympiad 436 BC - Theopompus of Thessaly

87th Olympiad 432 BC - Sophron of Ambracia

88th Olympiad 428 BC - Symmachus of Messenia

89th Olympiad 424 BC - Symmachus for a second time

90th Olympiad 420 BC - Hyperbius of Syracuse

91st Olympiad 416 BC - Exagentus of Acragas

92nd Olympiad 412 BC - Exagentus for a second time

93rd Olympiad 408 BC - Eubatus of Cyrene

94th Olympiad 404 BC - Crocinas of Larissa

95th Olympiad 400 BC - Minon of Athens - Using his victory to date historic events, Diodorus Siculus reports his name as Minos.

96th Olympiad 396 BC - Eupolemus of Elis

97th Olympiad 392 BC - Perieres of Terina or Terinaeus of Elis ?

98th Olympiad 388 BC - Sosippus of Delphi

99th Olympiad 384 BC - Dicon of Syracuse

100th Olympiad 380 BC - Dionysodorus of Tarentum

101st Olympiad 376 BC - Damon of Thurii

102nd Olympiad 372 BC - Damon for a second time

103rd Olympiad 368 BC - Pythostratus of Ephesus

104th Olympiad 364 BC - Phocides of Athens - listed by Eusebius of Caesarea as a victor in the stadion race (Diodor) or wrestling contest (Eusebius) of the 104th Olympiad (364 BC). His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

105th Olympiad 360 BC - Porus of Cyrene

106th Olympiad 356 BC - Porus for a second time

107th Olympiad 352 BC - Smicrinas of Tarentum

108th Olympiad 348 BC - Polycles of Cyrene

109th Olympiad 344 BC - Aristolochus of Athens - His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

110th Olympiad 340 BC - Anticles of Athens

111th Olympiad 336 BC - Cleomantis of Cleitor

112th Olympiad 332 BC - Gryllus of Chalcis

113th Olympiad 328 BC - Cliton of Macedonia

114th Olympiad 324 BC - Micinas of Rhodes

115th Olympiad 320 BC - Damasias of Amphipolis

116th Olympiad 316 BC - Demosthenes of Laconia

117th Olympiad 312 BC - Parmenides of Mytilene

118th Olympiad 308 BC - Andromenes of Corinth

119th Olympiad 304 BC - Andromenes for a second time

120th Olympiad 300 BC - Pythagoras of Magnesia-on-Maeander

121st Olympiad 296 BC - Pythagoras for a second time

122nd Olympiad 292 BC - Antigonus of Macedonia

123rd Olympiad 288 BC - Antigonus for a second time

124th Olympiad 284 BC - Philomelus of Pharsalus

125th Olympiad 280 BC - Ladas of Aegium

126th Olympiad 276 BC - Idaeus or Nicator of Cyrene

127th Olympiad 272 BC - Perigenes of Alexandria

128th Olympiad 268 BC - Seleucus of Macedonia

129th Olympiad 264 BC - Philinus of Cos

130th Olympiad 260 BC - Philinus for a second time

131st Olympiad 256 BC - Ammonius of Alexandria

132nd Olympiad 252 BC - Xenophanes of Amphissa in Aetolia

133rd Olympiad 248 BC - Simylus of Neapolis

134th Olympiad 244 BC - Alcides of Laconia

135th Olympiad 240 BC - Eraton of Aetolia

136th Olympiad 236 BC - Pythocles of Sicyon

137th Olympiad 232 BC - Menestheus of Barcyla

138th Olympiad 228 BC - Demetrius of Alexandria

139th Olympiad 224 BC - Iolaidas of Argos - He was the second winner from Argos in the category.

140th Olympiad 220 BC - Zopyrus of Syracuse

141st Olympiad 216 BC - Dorotheus of Rhodes

142nd Olympiad 212 BC - Crates of Alexandria

143rd Olympiad 208 BC - Heracleitus of Samos

144th Olympiad 204 BC - Heracleides of Salamis in Cyprus

145th Olympiad 200 BC - Pyrrhias of Aetolia

146th Olympiad 196 BC - Micion of Boeotia

147th Olympiad 192 BC - Agemachus of Cyzicus

148th Olympiad 188 BC - Arcesilaus of Megalopolis

149th Olympiad 184 BC - Hippostratus of Seleuceia in Pieria

150th Olympiad 180 BC - Onesicritus of Salamis

151st Olympiad 176 BC - Thymilus of Aspendus

152nd Olympiad 172 BC - Democritus of Megara

153rd Olympiad 168 BC - Aristander of Antissa in Lesbos

154th Olympiad 164 BC - Leonidas of Rhodes, victor in all three racing competitions

155th Olympiad 160 BC - Leonidas for a second time

156th Olympiad 156 BC - Leonidas for a third time

157th Olympiad 152 BC - Leonidas, victor in three races for a fourth time, was the first and only man to win 12 Olympic crowns over four Olympiads.

158th Olympiad 148 BC - Othon of Syracuse

159th Olympiad 144 BC - Alcimus of Cyzicus

160th Olympiad 140 BC - Agnodorus of Cyzicus

161st Olympiad 136 BC - Antipater of Epirus

162nd Olympiad 132 BC - Damon of Delphi

163rd Olympiad 128 BC - Timotheus of Tralles

164th Olympiad 124 BC - Boeotus of Sicyon

165th Olympiad 120 BC - Acusilaus of Cyrene

166th Olympiad 116 BC - Chrysogonus of Nicaea

167th Olympiad 112 BC - Chrysogonus for a second time

168th Olympiad 108 BC - Nicomachus of Philadelphia

169th Olympiad 104 BC - Nicodemus of Lacedaemon

170th Olympiad 100 BC - Simmias of Seleuceia-on-Tigris

171st Olympiad 96 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra

172nd Olympiad 92 BC - Eudamus of Cos

173rd Olympiad 88 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra for a second time

174th Olympiad 84 BC - Demostratus of Larissa

175th Olympiad 80 BC - Epaenetus of Argos, (boys' stadion race) There was no stadion race for adults this year, because Sulla had summoned all the athletes to Rome.

176th Olympiad 76 BC - Dion of Cyparissus (Cyparissia in Laconia)

177th Olympiad 72 BC - Hecatomnus of Elis

178th Olympiad 68 BC - Diocles of Hypopenus

179th Olympiad 64 BC - Andreas of Lacedaemon

180th Olympiad 60 BC - Andromachus of Ambracia

181st Olympiad 56 BC - Lamachus of Tauromenium

182nd Olympiad 52 BC - Anthestion of Argos - The third winner from Argos in the category.

183rd Olympiad 48 BC - Theodorus of Messene

184th Olympiad 44 BC - Theodorus for a second time

185th Olympiad 40 BC - Ariston of Thurii

186th Olympiad 36 BC - Scamander of Alexandria Troas

187th Olympiad 32 BC - Ariston of Thurii again

188th Olympiad 28 BC - Sopater of Argos - The fourth winner from Argos in the category.

189th Olympiad 24 BC - Asclepiades of Sidon

190th Olympiad 20 BC - Auphidius of Patrae

191st Olympiad 16 BC - Diodotus of Tyana

192nd Olympiad 12 BC - Diophanes of Aeolis

193rd Olympiad 8 BC - Artemidorus of Thyateira

194th Olympiad 4 BC - Demaratus of Ephesus

195th Olympiad 1 AD - Demaratus for a second time

196th Olympiad 5 AD - Pammenes of Magnesia-on-Maeander

197th Olympiad 9 AD - Asiaticus of Halicarnassus

198th Olympiad 13 AD - Diophanes of Prusa

199th Olympiad 17 AD - Aeschines Glaucias of Miletus

200th Olympiad 21 AD - Polemon of Petra

201st Olympiad 25 AD - Damasias of Cydonia

202nd Olympiad 29 AD - Hermogenes of Pergamum

203rd Olympiad 33 AD - Apollonius of Epidaurus

204th Olympiad 37 AD - Sarapion of Alexandria

205th Olympiad 41 AD - Eubulidas of Laodiceia

206th Olympiad 45 AD - Valerius of Mytilene

207th Olympiad 49 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium

208th Olympiad 53 AD - Athenodorus for a second time

209th Olympiad 57 AD - Callicles of Sidon

210th Olympiad 61 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium for a third time

211th Olympiad 67 AD - Tryphon of Philadelphia (These games were not held at the usual time because Nero postponed them until his visit to Greece two years later)

212th Olympiad 69 AD - Polites of Ceramus

213th Olympiad 73 AD - Rhodon of Cyme (or Theodotus)

214th Olympiad 77 AD - Straton of Alexandria

215th Olympiad 81 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus

216th Olympiad 85 AD - Apollophanes Papis of Tarsus

217th Olympiad 89 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus for a second time

218th Olympiad 93 AD - Apollonius of Alexandria (or Heliodorus)

219th Olympiad 97 AD - Stephanus of Cappadocia

220th Olympiad 101 AD - Achilleus of Alexandria

221st Olympiad 105 AD - Theonas Smaragdus of Alexandria

222nd Olympiad 109 AD - Callistus of Side

223rd Olympiad 113 AD - Eustolus of Side

224th Olympiad 117 AD - Isarion of Alexandria

225th Olympiad 121 AD - Aristeas of Miletus

226th Olympiad 125 AD - Dionysius Sameumys of Alexandria

227th Olympiad 129 AD - Dionysius for a second time

228th Olympiad 133 AD - Lucas of Alexandria

229th Olympiad 137 AD - Epidaurus Ammonius of Alexandria

230th Olympiad 141 AD - Didymus Clydeus of Alexandria

231st Olympiad 145 AD - Cranaus of Sicyon

232nd Olympiad 149 AD - Atticus of Sardis

233rd Olympiad 153 AD - Demetrius of Chios

234th Olympiad 157 AD - Eras of Chios

235th Olympiad 161 AD - Mnasibulus of Elateia

236th Olympiad 165 AD - Aeithales of Alexandria

237th Olympiad 169 AD - Eudaemon of Alexandria

238th Olympiad 173 AD - Agathopus of Aegina

239th Olympiad 177 AD - Agathopus for a second time

240th Olympiad 181 AD - Anubion Pheidus of Alexandria

241st Olympiad 185 AD - Heron of Alexandria

242nd Olympiad 189 AD - Magnus Libycus of Cyrene

243rd Olympiad 193 AD - Isidorus Artemidorus of Alexandria

244th Olympiad 197 AD - Isidorus for a second time

245th Olympiad 201 AD - Alexander of Alexandria (20th winner from Alexandria in Egypt and 18th Alexandrian crown during their period of dominance in the 1st and 2nd century.)

246th Olympiad 205 AD - Epinicus Cynas of Cyzicus

247th Olympiad 209 AD - Satornilus of Gortyn in Crete

248th Olympiad 213 AD - Heliodorus Trosidamas of Alexandria (Last winner of the stadion race from Alexandria in Egypt recorded by Eusebius and his second title was the 20th Alexandrian crown in the Christian era)

249th Olympiad 217 AD - Heliodorus for a second time

250th Olympiad 221 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta

251st Olympiad 225 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta for a second time

252nd Olympiad 229 AD - Demetrius of Salamis

253rd Olympiad 233 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a second time

254th Olympiad 237 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a third time

(...)

262nd Olympiad 269 AD - Dionysius of Alexandria

List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

Lysippos

Lysippos (; Greek: Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC. Together with Scopas and Praxiteles, he is considered one of the three greatest sculptors of the Classical Greek era, bringing transition into the Hellenistic period. Problems confront the study of Lysippos because of the difficulty of identifying his style among the copies which survive. Not only did he have a large workshop and a large number of disciples in his immediate circle, but there is understood to have been a market for replicas of his work, supplied from outside his circle, both in his lifetime and later in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The Victorious Youth or Getty bronze, which resurfaced around 1972, has been associated with him.

Nealkes

Nealkes was an ancient Greek painter from Sicyon who flourished in the 3rd century BC.

He was a friend of Aratus of Sicyon and after the liberation of their city in 251 BC he interceded to save an artful painting by Melanthius showing the former tyrant Aristratus of Sicyon with the goddess of victory Nike on a chariot. When Aratus insisted on the destruction of the portrait, Nealkes cried out in tears and finally offered to cancel the face by his own hand in order to save the rest of the artwork. He then painted a palm where the tyrant stood, but forgot his feet which remained visible underneath the chariot.

The best known of his own paintings were a portrait of Aphrodite and a Battle on the Nile with a famous detail showing an ass on the bank of the river being attacked by a crocodile.

His daughter was the painter Anaxandra, and his color-grinder was Erigonus, who was also a teacher of the modeller Aegineta.

Pitsa panels

The Pitsa panels or Pitsa tablets are a group of painted wooden tablets found near Pitsa, Corinthia (Greece). They are the earliest surviving examples of Greek panel painting.

Polybus of Sicyon

Polybus (Greek: Πόλυβος) was the king of Sicyon, son of Hermes and Chthonophyle, daughter of the eponym of Sicyon. He inherited the throne of Sicyon from his grandfather; he had a daughter Lysimache or Lysianassa whom he married to Talaus of Argos. His successor was his grandson Adrastus. Some authors considered Glaucus to be his son by Euboea.

Polymatheia

Polymatheia (Greek: Πολυμάθεια) in Greek mythology was one of the three Muses recognized at Sicyon, as remarked by Plutarch. Her name literally means "much knowledge, erudition", and Plutarch compares her to Polymnia to whom he ascribes precedence over accumulation and preservation of knowledge.

Polypheides

In Greek mythology, the name Polypheides or Polyphides (Ancient Greek: Πολυφείδης) may refer to:

Polypheides, son of Mantius and brother of Cleitus. He was granted prophetic skills by Apollo and became the best seer among mortals after the death of Amphiaraus; he dwelt in Hyperesia and had a son Theoclymenus. A slightly different account of his life was given by Pherecydes: according to it, Polypheides married Aechme, daughter of Haemon, and settled in Eleusis, where two sons, Theoclymenus and Harmonides, were born to him.

Polypheides, lord of Sicyon, to whom Agamemnon and Menelaus were entrusted by their nurse or sent by Aegisthus after the murder of Atreus. He further sent them to Oeneus.

Praxilla

Praxilla of Sicyon (Greek: Πράξιλλα), was a Greek lyric poet of the 5th century BC, from Sicyon on the Gulf of Corinth. Eusebius dates her floruit to 451/450 BC (the second year of the 82nd Olympiad).Little of Praxilla's work survives – five fragments in her own words, and three paraphrases by other authors. These vary in style: three are skolia (drinking songs) one is a hymn to Adonis, and one is a dithyramb. One of the skolia is in a metre named the Praxilleion after her. The three works we know only in paraphrase are all versions of myths.Praxilla was well regarded in antiquity. Antipater of Thessalonica lists her first among his canon of nine "immortal-tongued" women poets, and the sculptor Lysippus (also from Sicyon) sculpted her in bronze. She was sufficiently well-known in classical Athens that two of Aristophanes' surviving plays (Wasps and Thesmophoriasuzae) parody her work. Her poetry was still remembered many centuries after her death: in the second century AD, her name was remembered in the proverb "sillier than Praxilla's Adonis", and the author Tatian cites her in his oration Against the Greeks.Because three of the works attributed to Praxilla are drinking songs, and respectable women in classical Greece would normally have been excluded from the parties where such songs were performed, there has been some scholarly debate about Praxila's social position. Martin West suggests that there were two Praxillas, one writing the skolia; the other, the more "respectable" choral songs and hymns. Other scholars have argued that, based on the attribution of skolia to Praxilla, she must have been a hetaira (a type of prostitute), though there is no external evidence for this thesis. Ian Plant suggests the alternative hypothesis that she was a professional musician, composing songs for symposia because there was a market for such works.Alternatively, West suggests that the skolia were not written by Praxilla at all. Gregory Jones agrees, and argues that all of the surviving skolia attributed to particular poets are in fact derived from a non-elite oral literary tradition. Marchinus Van der Valk, who also endorses this theory, allows for the possibility that some skolia were "derived from" Praxilla's poetry and published in antiquity attributed to her.

Sikyona

Sikyona (Greek: Σικυώνα) is a municipality in Corinthia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is in Kiato. Sikyona takes its name from the ancient city Sicyon, which was located in the same territory.

Soteria (festival)

The Soteria were ancient festivals held in many Greek cities from the 3rd century BC. They honoured the saviour (Sôter) of a danger and could be dedicated to all the gods or only one (mainly Zeus Soterios). Heroic men regarded as deliverers were sometimes associated to the divinities, e.g. Aratus at Sicyon.

The most famous Soteria in antiquity were those held at Delphi. They had been instituted to commemorate the victory over the Celt invader Brennus (279 BC). They were composed of sports and musical competitions. Many cities were invited to the Delphi’s Soteria. In 246 BC, the Aetolian confederacy reorganized the festivities in order to equal others ancient games (e.g. the Pythian games).

Timanthes of Sicyon

Timanthes of Sicyon (Greek: Τιμάνθης ὁ Σικυώνιος) was an ancient Greek painter of the 3rd century BC.

In 250 BC he accompanied Aratus of Sicyon on his voyage to Alexandria and later he celebrated his victory against the Aetolians with a famous painting of the Battle of Pellene (241 BC).

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