Sicilian (sicilianu; Italian: siciliano), also known as Siculo (sìculu) or Calabro-Sicilian, is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands. It is also spoken in southern Calabria (where it is called Southern Calabro), specifically in the Province of Reggio Calabria, whose dialect is viewed as being part of the continuum of the Sicilian language. Central Calabria, the southern parts of Apulia (Salentino dialect) and Campania (Cilentano dialect), on the Italian peninsula, are viewed by some as being part of a broader Far Southern Italian language group (in Italian italiano meridionale estremo).
Ethnologue (see below for more detail) describes Sicilian as being "distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language" and is recognized as a minority language by UNESCO. It has been referred to as a language by the Sicilian region. It has the oldest literary tradition of the modern Italian languages. Even now a version of the UNESCO magazine is available in Sicilian.
Calabria (center and southern provinces)
|4.7 million (2002)|
Sicilian as part of the centro-southern Italian languages
Sicilian is currently spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of Sicily and by emigrant populations around the world. The latter are found in the countries which attracted large numbers of Sicilian immigrants during the course of the past century or so, especially the United States, Canada (especially in Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton), Australia and Argentina. In the past four or five decades, large numbers of Sicilians were also attracted to the industrial zones of northern Italy and areas of the European Union, especially Germany.
It is not used as an official language anywhere, not even within Sicily, where currently the government does not regulate the language in any way. However, in recent years the non-profit organisation Cademia Siciliana has created an orthographic proposal to help normalise the written form of the language. Furthermore, since its inception in 1951, the Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani (CSFLS) in Palermo has been researching and publishing descriptive information on the Sicilian language.
The autonomous regional parliament of Sicily has legislated Regional Law No. 9/2011 to encourage the teaching of Sicilian at all schools, but inroads into the education system have been slow. The CSFLS has created a textbook "Dialektos" to comply with the law, however it does not provide an orthography to write the language. Although within Sicily it is only taught as part of dialectology courses, outside of Italy Sicilian language has been taught at the University of Pennsylvania and Manouba University. Also since 2009 it has been taught at the Italian Charities of America in New York City, and it is also preserved and taught through family association, church organizations and societies, as well as social and ethnic historical clubs, and even in Internet social groups. On the 15th of May, 2018 the Sicilian region once again mandated the teaching of Sicilian in schools and referred to the language as a language (and not a dialect) in official communication.
The language is officially recognized in the municipal statutes of some Sicilian towns, such as Caltagirone and Grammichele, in which the "inalienable historical and cultural value of the Sicilian language" is proclaimed. Further, the Sicilian language would be protected and promoted under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML), however, Italy has signed this treaty, but the Italian Parliament has not ratified it. It is not included in Italian Law No. 482/1999, although some other minority languages of Sicily are.
Alternative names of Sicilian are Calabro-Sicilian, sicilianu, and sìculu. The first term refers to the fact that a form of Sicilian is spoken in southern Calabria, in particular, in the province of Reggio Calabria. The other two are names for the language in Sicily itself: specifically, the term sìculu originally describes one of the larger prehistoric groups living in Sicily (the Italic Sicels or Siculi) before the arrival of Greeks in the 8th century BC (see below). It can also be used as a prefix to qualify, or further elaborate on, the origins of a person, for example: Siculo-American (sìculu-miricanu) or Siculo-Australian.
First let us turn our attention to the language of Sicily, since the Sicilian vernacular seems to hold itself in higher regard than any other, and because all the poetry written by the Italians is called "Sicilian"...
Because Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and many peoples have passed through it (Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Byzantine Greeks, Moors, Normans, Swabians, Spaniards, Austrians, Italians), Sicilian displays such rich and varied influence from several languages on its lexical stock and grammar. These languages include Greek, Latin, Arabic, Norman, Lombard, Occitan, Germanic languages, Catalan, French and Spanish, and the influence from the island's pre-Indo-European inhabitants. The very earliest influences, visible in Sicilian to this day, exhibit both prehistoric Mediterranean elements and prehistoric Indo-European elements, and occasionally a blending of both.
Before the Roman conquest (3rd century BC), Sicily was occupied by various populations. The earliest of these populations were the Sicanians, considered to be autochthonous. The Sicels and the Elymians arrived between the second and first millennia BC. These aboriginal populations in turn were followed by the Phoenicians (between the 10th and 8th centuries BC) and the Greeks. The Greek-language influence remains strongly visible, while the influences from the other groups are less obvious. What can be stated with certainty is that in Sicilian remain pre-Indo-European words of an ancient Mediterranean origin, but one cannot be more precise than that: in fact, of the three main prehistoric groups, only the Sicels were known to be Indo-European with a degree of certainty, and their speech is likely to have been closely related to that of the Romans.
The following table, listing words for "twins", illustrates the difficulty linguists face in tackling the various sub-strata of the Sicilian language.
|Medieval||bizzuni, vuzzuni||Old French or Catalan bessons|
|ièmiddi, ièddimi||Ancient Greek δίδυμοι dídymoi|
A similar qualifier can be applied to many of the words that appear in this article. Sometimes we may know that a particular word has a prehistoric derivation, but we do not know whether the Sicilians have inherited it directly from the indigenous populations, or whether it has come to them via another route. Similarly, we might know that a particular word has a Greek origin but we do not know from which Greek period the Sicilians first used it (pre-Roman occupation or during its Byzantine period), or once again, whether the particular word may even have come to Sicily via another route. For instance, by the time the Romans had occupied Sicily, the Latin language had made its own borrowings from Greek.
The words with a prehistoric Mediterranean derivation often refer to plants native to the Mediterranean region or to other natural features. Bearing in mind the qualifiers mentioned above (alternative sources are provided where known), examples of such words include:
There are also Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin that do not appear to have come to the language via any of the major language groups normally associated with Sicilian, i.e. they have been independently derived from a very early Indo-European source. The Sicels are a possible source of such words, but there is also the possibility of a cross-over between ancient Mediterranean words and introduced Indo-European forms. Some examples of Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin:
The following Sicilian words are of a Greek origin (including some examples where it is unclear whether the word is derived directly from Greek, or via Latin):
From 476 to 535, the Ostrogoths ruled Sicily, although their presence apparently did not impact the Sicilian language. The few Germanic influences to be found in Sicilian do not appear to originate from this period. One exception might be abbanniari or vanniari "to hawk goods, proclaim publicly", from Gothic bandwjan "to give a signal". Also possible is schimmenti "diagonal" from Gothic slimbs "slanting". Other sources of Germanic influences include the Hohenstaufen rule of the 13th century, words of Germanic origin contained within the speech of 11th-century Normans and Lombard settlers, and the short period of Austrian rule in the 18th century.
Many Germanic influences date back to the time of the Swabian kings (amongst whom Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor enjoyed the longest reign). Some of the words below are "reintroductions" of Latin words (also found in modern Italian) that had been Germanicized at some point (e.g. vastāre in Latin to guastare in modern Italian). Words that probably originate from this era include:
In 535, Justinian I made Sicily a Byzantine province, which returned the Greek language to a position of prestige, at least on an official level. At this point in time the island could be considered a border zone with high levels of bilingualism: Latinisation was mostly concentrated in western Sicily, whereas Eastern Sicily remained predominantly Greek. As the power of the Byzantine Empire waned, Sicily was progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africa (Ifriqiya), from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. The Emirate of Sicily persisted long enough to develop a distinctive local variety of Arabic, Siculo-Arabic (at present extinct in Sicily but surviving as the Maltese language). Its influence is noticeable in around 100 Sicilian words, most of which relate to agriculture and related activities. This is understandable because of the Arab Agricultural Revolution; the Saracens introduced to Sicily their advanced irrigation and farming techniques and a new range of crops, nearly all of which remain endemic to the island to this day.
Some words of Arabic origin:
Throughout the Islamic epoch of Sicilian history, a significant Greek-speaking population remained on the island and continued to use the Greek language, or most certainly a variant of Greek influenced by Tunisian Arabic. What is less clear is the extent to which a Latin-speaking population survived on the island. While a form of Vulgar Latin clearly survived in isolated communities during the Islamic epoch, there is much debate as to the influence it had (if any) on the development of the Sicilian language, following the re-Latinisation of Sicily (discussed in the next section).
By 1000 AD, the whole of what is today southern Italy, including Sicily, was a complex mix of small states and principalities, languages and religions. The whole of Sicily was controlled by Saracens, at the elite level, but the general population remained a mix of Muslims and Greek or Siculo-Arabic speaking Catholic Christians. There were also a component of immigrants from North Africa (Ifriqiya). The far south of the Italian peninsula was part of the Byzantine empire although many communities were reasonably independent from Constantinople. The Principality of Salerno was controlled by Lombards (or Langobards), who had also started to make some incursions into Byzantine territory and had managed to establish some isolated independent city-states. It was into this climate that the Normans thrust themselves with increasing numbers during the first half of the 11th century.
When the two most famous of Southern Italy's Norman adventurers, Roger of Hauteville and his brother, Robert Guiscard, began their conquest of Sicily in 1061, they already controlled the far south of Italy (Apulia and Calabria). It took Roger 30 years to complete the conquest of Sicily (Robert died in 1085). In the aftermath of the Norman conquest of Sicily, the revitalization of Latin in Sicily had begun, and some Norman and Norman-French words would be absorbed: but many etymologies are disputed and the only sure marker of a typical Norman word is its Scandinavian origin, such words do not exist in Sicilian.
The Northern Italian influence is of particular interest. Even to the present day, Gallo-Italic of Sicily exists in the areas where the Northern Italian colonies were the strongest, namely Novara, Nicosia, Sperlinga, Aidone and Piazza Armerina. The Siculo-Gallic dialect did not survive in other major Italian colonies, such as Randazzo, Bronte and Paternò (although they influenced the local Sicilian vernacular). The Gallo-Italic influence was also felt on the Sicilian language itself, as follows:
The origins of another Romance influence, that of Old Occitan, had three possible sources:
Some examples of Sicilian words derived from Occitan:
It was during the reign of Frederick II (or Frederick I of Sicily) between 1198 and 1250, with his patronage of the Sicilian School, that Sicilian became the first of the modern Italic languages to be used as a literary language. The influence of the school and the use of Sicilian itself as a poetic language was acknowledged by the two great Tuscan writers of the early Renaissance period, Dante and Petrarch. The influence of the Sicilian language should not be underestimated in the eventual formulation of a lingua franca that was to become modern Italian. The victory of the Angevin army over the Sicilians at Benevento in 1266 not only marked the end of the 136-year Norman-Swabian reign in Sicily but also effectively ensured that the centre of literary influence would eventually move from Sicily to Tuscany. While Sicilian, as both an official and a literary language, would continue to exist for another two centuries, the language would soon follow the fortunes of the kingdom itself in terms of prestige and influence.
Following the Sicilian Vespers of 1282, the kingdom was to come under the influence of the Crown of Aragon, and so the Catalan language (and the closely related Aragonese) would add a new layer of vocabulary in the succeeding century. For the whole of the 14th century, both Catalan and Sicilian were the official languages of the royal court. Sicilian was also used to record the proceedings of the Parliament of Sicily (one of the oldest parliaments in Europe) and for other official purposes. While it is often difficult to determine whether a word has come to us directly from Catalan (as opposed to Provençal or Spanish), the following are likely to be such examples:
By the time the crowns of Castille and Aragon were united in the late 15th century, the Italianisation of written Sicilian in the parliamentary and court records had commenced. By 1543 this process was virtually complete, with the Tuscan dialect of Italian becoming the lingua franca of the Italian peninsula and supplanting written Sicilian.
Spanish rule had hastened this process in two important ways:
Spanish rule lasted over three centuries (not counting the Aragonese and Bourbon periods on either side) and had a significant influence on the Sicilian vocabulary. The following words are of Spanish derivation:
Since the Italian Unification (the Risorgimento of 1860–1861), the Sicilian language has been significantly influenced by (Tuscan) Italian. During the Fascist period it became obligatory that Italian be taught and spoken in all schools, whereas up to that point, Sicilian had been used extensively in schools. This process has quickened since World War II due to improving educational standards and the impact of mass media, such that increasingly, even within the family home, Sicilian is not necessarily the language of choice. The Sicilian Regional Assembly voted to make the teaching of Sicilian a part of the school curriculum at primary school level, but as of 2007 only a fraction of schools teach Sicilian. There is also little in the way of mass media offered in Sicilian. The combination of these factors means that the Sicilian language continues to adopt Italian vocabulary and grammatical forms to such an extent that many Sicilians themselves cannot distinguish between correct and incorrect Sicilian language usage.
|Stop||/p/ /b/||/t/ /d/||/k/ /ɡ/|
|Fricative||/f/ /v/||/s/ /z/||/ʃ/ /ʒ/|
|Siclian orthography||IPA||English example||Sicilian example|
Sicilian has a number of consonant sounds that, although not unique to Sicilian, certainly set it apart from the other major Romance languages. The most unusual sounds include, but are not limited to, the retroflex consonants.
Unlike the seven vowels of Vulgar Latin and many modern Romance languages, the Sicilian vowel system only includes five: a /a/, e /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /u/, reduced to only three in unstressed position: a /a/, i [ɪ], u [ʊ] (unstressed vowels o and e of Latin became unstressed u and i in Sicilian). This causes the vowels u and i to have a far greater presence than o and e in Sicilian, whereas the opposite is true in other Romance languages such as Spanish and Italian (notwithstanding the conservative nature of Sicilian, which retains the vowel u of the Latin stems -us and -um): in this Sicilian is closer to Portuguese instead (which however spells such unstressed vowels as o and e, too). In addition, one will never find a Sicilian word ending in the unaccented vowels e or o, with the exception of monosyllabic conjunctions and certain recent loanwords: in fact, due to the influence of Italian in the media after World War II, as well as the recent influx of English terminology related to technology and globalization, there is an increasing number of words entering the Sicilian lexicon that do not adhere to the Sicilian vowel system.
In the vast majority of instances where the originating word has had an initial i, the Sicilian has dropped it completely. This can also happen occasionally where there was once an initial e, and to a lesser extent a and o. Examples: mpurtanti "important", gnuranti "ignorant", nimicu "enemy", ntirissanti "interesting", llustrari "to illustrate", mmàggini "image", cona "icon", miricanu "American".
In Sicilian, gemination is distinctive for most consonant phonemes, though a few can only be geminated after a vowel: these are /b/, /dʒ/, /ɖ/, /ɲ/, /ʃ/ and /ts/. Rarely indicated in writing, spoken Sicilian also exhibits syntactic gemination (or dubbramentu), which means that the first consonant of a word is lengthened when it is preceded by certain vowel-ending words, e.g. è caru [ˌɛ kˈkaːɾʊ].
The letter j at the start of a word can have two separate sounds, depending on what precedes the word. For instance, in jornu ("day"), the j is pronounced [j] as in English y, [ˈjɔɾnʊ]. However, after a nasal consonant or triggered by syntactic gemination, it is pronounced [ɟ] (like English gu in argue) as in un jornu "one day" [ʊɲ ˈɟɔɾnʊ] or tri jorna ("three days") [ˌʈɽi ɟˈɟɔɾna].
Another difference between the written and spoken languages is the extent to which contractions will occur in everyday speech. Thus a common expression such as avemu a accattari... ("we have to go and buy...") will generally be reduced to amâ 'ccattari when talking to family and friends.
The circumflex is commonly used in denoting a wide range of contractions in the written language, in particular, the joining of simple prepositions and the definite article. Examples: di lu = dû ("of the"), a lu = ô ("to the"), pi lu = pû ("for the"), nta lu = ntô ("in the"), etc.
Most feminine nouns and adjectives end in -a in the singular, e.g. casa ("house"), porta ("door"), carta ("paper"). Exceptions include soru ("sister") and ficu ("fig"). The usual masculine singular ending is -u, e.g. omu ("man"), libbru ("book"), nomu ("name"). The singular ending -i can be either masculine or feminine.
Unlike standard Italian, Sicilian uses the same plural ending -i for both masculine and feminine nouns and adjectives, e.g. casi ("houses" or "cases"), porti ("doors" or "harbors"), tàuli ("tables"). Some masculine plural nouns end in -a instead, a feature derived from the Latin neuter endings -um, -a. Examples include libbra ("books"), jorna ("days"), jòcura ("games"), vrazza ("arms", compare Italian braccio, braccia), jardina ("gardens"), scrittura ("writers"), signa ("signs"). The noun omu has the irregular plural òmini (compare Italian uomo, uomini). Three nouns are invariable in the plural: manu ("hand[s]"), ficu ("fig[s]") and soru ("sister[s]")..
Sicilian only has one auxiliary verb, aviri "to have". This verb is also used to denote obligation (e.g. avi a jiri [ˌaːvjaɟˈɟiːɾɪ] "[he/she] has to go"), and to form the future tense, as Sicilian, for the most part, no longer has a synthetic future tense; for example: avi a cantari "[he/she] will sing" ([ˌaːvjakkanˈtaːɾɪ] or [ˌaːwakkanˈdaːɾɪ], depending on the dialect).
As in English, and most Romance languages, Sicilian may use the verb jiri "to go" to signify the act of being about to do something. Vaiu a cantari "I'm going to sing" (pronounced [ˌvaːjwakkanˈtaːɾɪ]) "I'm going to sing". In this way, jiri + a + infinitive can also be a way to form the simple future construction.
The main conjugations in Sicilian are illustrated below with the verb èssiri "to be".
|Infinitive||èssiri / siri|
|Gerund||essennu / sennu|
|Present||sugnu||si'||esti / è||semu||siti||sunnu / su'|
|Present||sia||si' / fussi||sia||siamu||siati||sianu|
A translation of the Lord's Prayer can also be found in J. K. Bonner. This is written with three variations: a standard literary form from the island of Sicily and a southern Apulian literary form.
|Non è xhiamma ordinaria, no, la mia,||No, la mia non è fiamma ordinaria,||No, mine is no ordinary flame,|
|è xhiamma chi sul'iu tegnu e rizettu,||è una fiamma che sol'io possiedo e controllo,||it's a flame that only I possess and control,|
|xhiamma pura e celesti, ch'ardi 'n mia;||una fiamma pura e celeste che dientro di me cresce;||a pure celestial flame that in me grows;|
|per gran misteriu e cu stupendu effettu.||da un grande mistero e con stupendo effetto.||by a great mystery and with great effect.|
|Amuri, 'ntentu a fari idulatria,||l'Amore, desiderante d'adorare icone,||Love, wanting to worship idols,|
|s'ha novamenti sazerdoti elettu;||è diventato sacerdote un'altra volta;||has once again become a high priest;|
|tu, sculpita 'ntra st'alma, sìa la dia;||tu, scolpita dentro quest'anima, sei la dea;||you, sculpted in this soul, are the goddess;|
|sacrifiziu lu cori, ara stu pettu.||il mio cuore è la vittima, il mio seno è l'altare.||my heart is the victim, my breast is the altar.|
|Stracanciatu di notti soli jiri;||Disguised he roams at night alone;|
|S'ammuccia ntra purtuni e cantuneri;||Hiding in any nook and cranny;|
|cu vacabunni ci mustra piaciri;||he enjoys the company of vagabonds;|
|poi lu so sbiu sunnu li sumeri,||however, donkeys are his real diversion,|
|li pruteggi e li pigghia a ben vuliri,||he protects them and looks after all their needs,|
|li tratta pri parenti e amici veri;||treating them as real family and friends;|
|siccomu ancora è n'amicu viraci||since he remains a true friend|
|di li bizzarri, capricciusi e audaci.||of all who are bizarre, capricious and bold.|
(~1900; trans: A game of Briscula amongst friends)
|— Càrricu, mancu? Cca cc'è 'n sei di spati!...||— Nemmeno un carico? Qui c'è un sei di spade!...||— A high card perhaps? Here's the six of spades!...|
|— E chi schifiu è, di sta manera?||— Ma che schifo, in questo modo?||— What is this rubbish you're playing?|
|Don Peppi Nnappa, d'accussì jucati?||Signor Peppe Nappa,[a] ma giocate così?||Who taught you to play this game?|
|— Massari e scecchi tutta 'a tistera,||— Messere e asino con tutti i finimenti,||— My dear gentlemen and donkeys with all your finery,|
|comu vi l'haju a diri, a vastunati,||come ve lo devo dire, forse a bastonate,||as I have repeatedly told you till I'm blue in the face,|
|ca mancu haju sali di salera!||che non ho nemmeno il sale per la saliera!||I ain't got nothing that's even worth a pinch a salt!|
|Patri nnostru (Lord's Prayer in Sicilian)||Padre nostro (Lord's Prayer in Italian)||Aviu Maria (Hail Mary in Sicilian)||Ave Maria (Hail Mary in Italian)||Salvi o'Rigina (Salve Regina in Sicilian)||Salve Regina (in Italian)||Angelu ca ni custudisci (Angel of God in Sicilian)||Angelo Custode (Angel of God in Italian)|
As one of the most spoken languages of Italy, Sicilian has notably influenced the Italian lexicon. In fact, there are several Sicilian words that are nowadays part of the Italian language; they usually refer to things closely associated to Sicilian culture, with some notable exceptions:
Sicilian is estimated to have 5,000,000 speakers. However, it remains very much a home language spoken among peers and close associates. Regional Italian has encroached on Sicilian, most evidently in the speech of the younger generations.
In terms of the written language, in Sicily it is mainly restricted to poetry and theatre. The education system does not support the language, despite recent legislative changes, as mentioned previously. Local universities do not carry courses in Sicilian, or where they do it is described as dialettologia, that is, the study of dialects.
Outside Sicily, there is an extensive Sicilian diaspora living in several major cities across South and North America, as well as other parts of Europe and Australia, where Sicilian has been preserved to varying degrees.
The Sicilian-American organization Arba Sicula publishes stories, poems and essays, in Sicilian with English translations, in an effort to preserve the Sicilian language, in Arba Sicula, its bi-lingual annual journal (latest issue: 2017), and in a biennial newsletter entitled Sicilia Parra.
The movie La Terra Trema (1948) is entirely in Sicilian, using many local, non-professional actors.
|to make a good impression||fà[ci]ri na beḍḍa fi[g]ùra||[ˈfaː(ʃɪ)ɾɪ na bˈbɛɖːa fɪˈ(ɡ)uːɾa]|
|the other side||ḍḍabbanna||[ɖːa bˈbanna]|
|he who pays before seeing the goods gets cheated
(literally "who pays before, eats smelly fish")
|cu paja prima, mancia li pisci fitùsi||[ˌku ˈpaːja ˈpɾiːma ˈmantʃa lɪ ˈpiʃʃɪ fɪˈtuːsɪ]|
(20th ed. 2017)
Arancini (UK: , US: , Italian: [aranˈtʃiːni], Sicilian: [aɾanˈtʃiːnɪ, -ˈdʒiː-]) are stuffed rice balls which are coated with bread crumbs and then deep fried. The most common fillings are: al ragù or al sugo, filled with ragù (meat or mince, low temperature and long time cooked with tomato sauce and spices), mozzarella and/or caciocavallo cheese, and often peas, and al burro or ô bburru, filled with ham and mozzarella or besciamella.
A number of regional variants exist which differ in fillings and shape. The name, which is translated as "little orange", derives from their shape and colour which, after cooking, is reminiscent of an orange. Arancini al ragù produced in eastern Sicily have a conical shape representing the volcano Etna.Cannoli
Cannoli (Italian pronunciation: [kanˈnɔːli]; Sicilian: cannula) are Italian pastries that originated on the island of Sicily and are today a staple of Sicilian cuisine as well as Italian-American cuisine. Cannoli consist of tube-shaped shells of fried pastry dough, filled with a sweet, creamy filling usually containing ricotta. They range in size from "cannulicchi", no bigger than a finger, to the fist-sized proportions typically found south of Palermo, Sicily, in Piana degli Albanesi.
In the mainland Italy they are commonly known as cannoli siciliani (Sicilian cannoli).
In Italian cannoli is grammatically plural; the corresponding singular is cannolo ([kanˈnɔːlo], Sicilian cannolu), meaning "little tube". In English, cannoli is usually used as a singular, and cannolo is rare.Castelvetrano
Castelvetrano (Sicilian: Castiḍḍuvitranu) is a town and comune in the province of Trapani, Sicily, southern Italy. The archeological site of Selinunte is located within the municipal territory.
The municipality borders with Campobello di Mazara, Mazara del Vallo, Menfi, Montevago, Partanna, Salemi and Santa Ninfa.Cilentan dialect
The Cilentan dialect (in Italian: Cilentano, in Cilentan: Celendano or Cilindanu) is a Neapolitan dialect spoken in the area of Cilento, located in the southern part of the Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy.Cinisi
Cinisi (Italian: [ˈtʃiːnizi]; Sicilian: Cìnisi [ˈtʃiːnɪsɪ]) is a town and a comune in the Metropolitan City of Palermo in Sicily. As of 1 January 2018 it has a population of 12,250.Coppola cap
The coppola (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkɔppola]) is a traditional kind of flat cap typically worn in Sicily, Calabria, Sardinia (where it is known as bonette in Sardinian, likely from the French bonnet) and the French island of Corsica. First used by English nobles during the late 18th century, the coppola began being used in Sicily and Calabria in the early 20th century as a driving cap, usually worn when at the wheel driving the car. The coppola is usually made in tweed.
The origin of the name coppola is likely to be a Sicilian, Calabrian or Apulian adaptation of the English word cap, itself coming from the Latin word caput ("head"). By extension, còppula is also Sicilian for "head". The word then became popular also in the rest of Italy, and was quickly acquired by Italian language by extension. Today, the coppola is widely regarded, at least in Italy, as a definitive symbol of Sicilian or Calabrian heritage.Erice
Erice (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɛːritʃe]; Sicilian: Èrici ) is a historic town and comune in the province of Trapani in Sicily, southern Italy.Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Gallo-Italic of Sicily (Italian: Gallo-italico di Sicilia) is a group of Gallo-Italic languages found in about 15 isolated communities of central eastern Sicily. Forming a language island in the otherwise Sicilian language area, it dates back to migrations from northern Italy during the reign of Norman Roger I of Sicily and his successors.
Towns inhabited by the new immigrants became known as the "Lombard communities" (Latin: oppida Lombardorum, Sicilian: cumuna lummardi). The settlers, known as the Lombards of Sicily, actually came principally from the Aleramici fiefdoms of Piedmont and Liguria, "Lombardy" being the name for the whole of northern Italy during the Middle Ages. In addition to a common place of origin, the colonizers brought their Gallo-Italic languages. These languages added to the Gallic influence of the developing Sicilian language (influences which included Norman and Old Occitan) to become the Gallo-Italic of Sicily language family.Kamarina, Sicily
Kamarina (Greek: Καμάρινα, Latin, Italian, & Sicilian: Camarina) was an ancient city on the southern coast of Sicily in southern Italy. The ruins of the site and an archaeological museum are located south of the modern town Scoglitti, a frazione of the comune Vittoria in the province of Ragusa.Pasta e fagioli
Pasta e fagioli (pronounced [ˈpasta e ffaˈdʒɔːli]), meaning "pasta and beans", is a traditional Italian soup. Like many other Italian favorites, including pizza and polenta, it started as a peasant dish, being composed of inexpensive ingredients. It is often called pasta fasul (fazool) in the United States, derived from its Neapolitan name, pasta e fasule.Province of Catania
The Province of Catania (Italian: Provincia di Catania; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Catania) was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Catania. It was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Catania starting from 4 August 2015.Roccagloriosa
Roccagloriosa (Cilentan: 'A Rocca) is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy.
The town is located in southern Cilento. It borders with Alfano, Camerota, Celle di Bulgheria, Laurito, Rofrano, San Giovanni a Piro and Torre Orsaia.Salentino dialect
Salentino is a dialect of the Sicilian language spoken in the Salento region (province of Lecce, almost all the province of Brindisi, and part of the province of Taranto).Sicilian Americans
Sicilian Americans (Italian: Siculoamericani; Sicilian: Siculu-miricani) are Americans of Sicilian birth or ancestry. They are one of the largest and most prominent Italian American groups in the United States. While being a subset of Italian Americans, the Sicilian Americans are often considered a separate group in the US, owing to some cultural and historical characteristics.Sicilian Wikipedia
The Sicilian Wikipedia (Sicilian: Wikipedia ’n sicilianu) is the Sicilian-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was created on 5 October 2004.
As of July 2019 it contains more than 26,056 articles.Siculo-Arabic
Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) is the term used for varieties of Arabic that were spoken in the Emirate of Sicily (that included Malta) from the 9th century, persisting under the subsequent Norman rule until the 13th century. It was derived from early Maghrebi Arabic following the Abbasid conquest of Sicily in the 9th century, and gradually marginalized following the Norman conquest in the 11th century.
Siculo Arabic is extinct and is designated as a historical language that is attested only in writings from the 9th-13th centuries in Sicily. However, present-day Maltese is considered to have evolved from one of the dialects of Siculo-Arabic over the past 800 years in a gradual process of Latinisation which gave it a significant Romance superstrate influence. Very little Siculo-Arabic remains in present-day Sicilian, which is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance language, its influence being limited to some 300 words.Sirocco
Sirocco (), scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Catalan: Xaloc; Sicilian: Sciroccu; Greek: Σορόκος; Italian: Scirocco; Spanish: Siroco; Maltese: Xlokk; Occitan: Siròc, Eisseròc; Serbo-Croatian: Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.Strait of Sicily
The Strait of Sicily (also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel; Italian: Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Sicilian: Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia, Arabic: مضيق صقلية Mażīq siqilliyya or Arabic: مضيق الوطن القبلي Mażīq al-Waṭan al-Qiblī) is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. The strait is about 145 kilometres (90 mi) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea and the western Mediterranean Sea, from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The maximum depth is 316 meters (1,037 ft).
Deep currents in the strait flow from east to west, and the current nearer the surface travels from west to east. This unusual water flow is of interest to oceanographers.There are regular ferries between Sicily and Tunis across the Strait of Sicily.
The island of Pantelleria lies in the middle of the strait.Stromboli
Stromboli (Italian pronunciation: [ˈstromboli]; Sicilian: Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongúlē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. It is one of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic arc north of Sicily. Its name is derived from the Ancient Greek name Strongúlē, which was derived from στρογγύλος (strongúlos, "round"), after the volcano's round, conical appearance when seen from a distance. The island's population is about 500. The volcano has erupted many times and is constantly active with minor eruptions, often visible from many points on the island and from the surrounding sea, giving rise to the island's nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".Stromboli stands 926 m (3,038 ft) above sea level,
and over 2,700 m (8,860 ft) on average above the sea floor. There are three active craters at the peak. A significant geological feature of the volcano is the Sciara del Fuoco ("stream of fire"), a big horseshoe-shaped depression generated in the last 13,000 years by several collapses on the northwestern side of the cone. Approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) to the northeast lies Strombolicchio, the volcanic plug remnant of the original volcano.