The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written")[1] inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling. It also applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be likely interpreted as an error of transcription.

The usual usage is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in quoted material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, but are intentionally reproduced, exactly as they appear in the source text. It is generally placed inside square brackets to indicate that it is not part of the quoted matter.

Sic may also be used derisively by the proofreader, to call attention to the original writer's spelling mistakes or erroneous logic, or to show general disapproval or dislike of the material.[2]

Etymology and historical usage

Though occasionally misidentified as an abbreviated word, sic is a Latin adverb used in English as an adverb, and, derivatively, as a noun and a verb.[3]

The adverb sic, meaning "intentionally so written", first appeared in English circa 1856.[4] It is derived from the Latin adverb sīc, which means "so, thus, in this manner".[5]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the verbal form of sic, meaning "to mark with a sic", emerged in 1889, E. Belfort Bax's work in The Ethics of Socialism being an early example.[6]

False etymologies

On occasion, sic has been misidentified as an acronym (and therefore sometimes misspelled with full stops/periods): "s.i.c." is said to stand for "spelled in context", "said in copy", "spelling is correct", "spelled incorrectly", and other such folk etymology phrases.[7] These are all incorrect and are simply backronyms from sic.

Modern usage

Use of sic greatly increased in the mid-twentieth century.[8] For example, in United States state-court opinions before 1944, sic appeared 1,239 times in the Westlaw database; in those from 1945 to 1990, it appeared 69,168 times.[2] The "benighted use" as a form of ridicule, deserved or otherwise, has been cited as a major factor in this increase.[2]

The "immoderate" use of sic has created some controversy, leading some editors, including bibliographical scholar Simon Nowell-Smith and literary critic Leon Edel, to speak out against it.[9]

Conventional usage

Sic, in its bracketed form, is most often inserted into quoted or reprinted material to indicate meticulous accuracy in reproducing the preceding text, despite appearances to the reader of an incorrect or unusual orthography (spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax, fact, logic, etc.).[2][10] Several usage guides recommend that a bracketed sic be used primarily as an aid to the reader, and not as an indicator of disagreement with the source.[2][11]

To denote archaisms and dialect

A sic may show that an uncommon or archaic expression is reported faithfully,[12] such as when quoting the U.S. Constitution: "The House of Representatives shall chuse [sic] their Speaker ..." Several writing guidebooks discourage its use with regard to dialect, such as in cases of American and British English spelling differences.[8][11][13] The appearance of a bracketed sic after the word analyse in a book review led Bryan A. Garner to comment, "... all the quoter (or overzealous editor) demonstrated was ignorance of British usage".[2]


Various wordplay employing the word sic is possible, arising either from its secondary meaning, "to attack", or from its homophone sick. For example, "Poor grammar makes me [sic]" has been featured on garments and postcards.[14][15]

In a different vein, a letter to the American Journal of Roentgenology suggested that the overuse of sic as a kind of linguistic discrimination against non-native writers of English "could lead readers to become 'sick of your sic'".[16]

Form of ridicule

The use of sic can be seen as an appeal to ridicule, whether intentional or not, because it highlights perceived irregularities. The application of sic with intent to disparage has been called the "benighted use" because it reflects a "false sense of superiority" in its users.[2] The following example from The Times of London demonstrates how the interpolation of sic can discredit a quoted statement.

Warehouse has been around for 30 years and has 263 stores, suggesting a large fan base. The chain sums up its appeal thus: "styley [sic], confident, sexy, glamorous, edgy, clean and individual, with it's [sic] finger on the fashion pulse."[17]

"Ironic use"

Occasionally a writer places [sic] after his own words, to indicate that the language has been chosen deliberately for special effect, especially where the writer's ironic meaning may otherwise be unclear.[18] Bryan A. Garner dubbed this use of sic "ironic", providing the following example from Fred Rodell's 1955 book Nine Men:[2]

[I]n 1951, it was the blessing bestowed on Judge Harold Medina's prosecution [sic] of the eleven so-called 'top native Communists,' which blessing meant giving the Smith Act the judicial nod of constitutionality.


Where sic follows the quotation, it takes brackets: [sic].[19] The word sic is usually treated as a loanword that does not require italics, and the style manuals of New Zealand, Australian and British media outlets generally do not require italicisation.[11] However, italicization is common in the United States, where authorities including APA Style insist upon it.[20]

Because sic is not an abbreviation, placing a full stop/period inside the brackets after the word sic is erroneous,[21][22] although one style guide suggests styling it as a parenthetical sentence only when used after a complete sentence, like so: (Sic).[19]


Use of sic has been noted for its potential to bring about linguistic discrimination. A letter written to the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) has been cited in the journal's French counterpart, the Journal de Radiologie, highlighting how apparent prejudices among English-language journals may be causing a higher rejection rate of scholarly papers from francophone authors[23] – a concern because English is the lingua franca for medicine.[16] In the letter, the AJR was criticized for its frequent insertion of sic when publishing letters written by French and Japanese authors even though its correspondence acceptance policy reserved the right of copy-editing, which could therefore have been used beneficially to correct minor English language errors made by non English-speakers. In response, the editor in chief of AJR, Lee F. Rogers, apologized for the possible discriminatory interpretation and offered the following explanation for its decision to insert sic on multiple occasions rather than to copy-edit:[16]

It is true that our manuscript editors normally remedy errors in the use of the English language to ensure reader understanding and to avoid embarrassing our non–English-speaking authors. However, because of the seriousness of the allegations addressed, we believed that verbatim quotes were necessary. Under such circumstances, we did not think it correct for us to assume the meaning of misspelled words or the intent of the author of the letter in question.



Some guides, including The Chicago Manual of Style, recommend "quiet copy-editing" (unless where inappropriate or uncertain) instead of inserting a bracketed sic, such as by substituting in brackets the correct word in place of the incorrect word or by simply replacing an incorrect spelling with the correct one.[2][24]


Alternatively, to show both the original and the suggested correction (as they often are in palaeography), one may give the actual form, followed by recte, then the corrected form, in brackets. The Latin adverb recte means rightly.[25]

An Iraqi battalion has consumed [recte assumed] control of the former American military base, and our forces are now about 40 minutes outside the city.

According to the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music Style Sheet, there should be no punctuation, for example no colon, before the corrected word when using recte.[26]


A third alternative is to follow an error with sic, a comma or colon, "read", and the correct reading, all within square brackets, as in the following example:

'Plan of space alongside Evinghews [sic: read Evening News] Printing Works and overlooked by St. Giles House University Hall'[27]

See also


  1. ^ Footnotes, 1, in opinion of November 15, 2012 in U.S. v. Bryant, Case No. 11-CR-20034. (Federal judge noted using variant spelling of Bryant's given name, "'sic erat scriptum'" in court document.)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Garner, Bryan A. (2001). "sic". A dictionary of modern legal usage (2nd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 806–807. ISBN 978-0-19-514236-5.
  3. ^ "sic, adv. (and n.)" Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition 1989. Oxford University Press
  4. ^ 3sic. Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. Merriam-Webster, 2003. ISBN 0-87779-809-5, ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5. (p.1156)
  5. ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  6. ^ "sic, adv. (and n.)" Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition 1989. Oxford University Press; see also E. Belfort Bax. "On Some Forms of Modern Cant". Commonweal: 7 May 1887. Marxists' Internet Archive: 14 Jan. 2006
  7. ^ e.g. "". Retrieved 2014-04-10.
  8. ^ a b Bryan A. Garner. The Oxford dictionary of American usage and style. Oxford University Press US, 2000. ISBN 0-19-513508-3, ISBN 978-0-19-513508-4
  9. ^ Leon Edel's "Introduction" to Henry James Letters (Volume 1, 1843 – 1875). Harvard University Press, 1974. ISBN 0-674-38780-5, ISBN 978-0-674-38780-5
  10. ^ "Grammar and Style." USD History Guide for Writing Research Papers. Department of History, University of South Dakota. 6/12/2009
  11. ^ a b c William Coyle and Joe Law (2009). Research Papers. Cengage Learning. p. 72. ISBN 0-547-19081-6.
  12. ^ Carillo, Jose A. (March 6, 2010). "The role of the bracketed 'sic' in English prose". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
  13. ^ Remero, Donald (May 9, 2010). "Quoting British / American English". Archived from the original on October 13, 2010.
  14. ^ "Poor Grammar Makes Me Sic Sweatshirts & Hoodies". CafePress. Accessed: October 1, 2010.
  15. ^ "Somewhat Topical Ecards". Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  16. ^ a b c Arrivé, Lionel (2001). "Try Writing It in French or in Japanese". American Journal of Roentgenology. 176 (2): 548. doi:10.2214/ajr.176.2.1760548. PMID 11159116.
  17. ^ Ashworth, Anne (2006-06-21). "Chain reaction: Warehouse". The Times. Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. Retrieved 2016-05-20.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  18. ^ H. W. Fowler (2001) A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 807. ISBN 978-0-19-953534-7
  19. ^ a b Jessen, Edward W. (2000). California Manual of Style: A Handbook of Legal Style for California Courts and Lawyers (4th edition) (PDF). pp. 132–133. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  20. ^ "Parentheses, Ellipses, and Brackets" (PDF). Writing Center. Johnson County Community College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  21. ^ Quotations. The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Accessed: October 2, 2010
  22. ^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). "sic (adv.)". The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  23. ^ Arrivé, L; Dono, P; Lewin, M; Dahan, H; Monnier-Cholley, L; Tubiana, JM (December 2001). "Taux de publication des travaux originaux présentés oralement lors des journées françaises de radiologie 1996" [Publication rate of papers originally presented at the national french congress of radiology in 1996]. Journal de Radiologie (in French). 82 (12): 1719–22. PMID 11917637. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04.
  24. ^ "Style Q&A: Quotations and Dialogue". The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Retrieved 28 September 2018. In paragraph 13.7, in the section on permissible changes to quotations, CMOS says, ‘Obvious typographic errors may be corrected silently (without comment or sic) unless the passage quoted is from an older work or a manuscript source where idiosyncrasies of spelling are generally preserved.’
  25. ^ Janet Fairweather. Liber Eliensis. Boydell Press, 2005. ISBN 1-84383-015-9, ISBN 978-1-84383-015-3. (p. xxix)
  26. ^ Bruce Gustafson. JSCM Style Sheet. Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music, 2 January 2010.
  27. ^ "Item 26 - 'Plan of space alongside Evinghews [sic: read Evening News] Printing Works and overlooked by St. Giles House University Hall', [Edinburgh]". University of Strathclyde Archives. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
AXN (Portugal)

AXN Portugal is a Portuguese basic cable and satellite television channel. It is the Portuguese version of the AXN network, owned by Sony. It was a Cabovisão exclusive in its beginnings, but now it is available in all operators and platforms. It's one of the most watched channels on pay-TV in Portugal, competing with FOX, SIC Notícias, Canal Panda, Disney Channel and Canal Hollywood.

AXN White

AXN White is a channel operated by Sony Pictures Television International Networks Europe. Its programming is focused on television series and movies. The channel was launched in Portugal on 14 April 2008 and in Spain on May 7, 2012 and replaced Sony Entertainment Television.

The channel replaced AXN Crime on 1 October 2013 in Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Moldova.

On October 3 2017 the channel was replaced by Sony Max in Hungary.

Baylor University

Baylor University, or simply Baylor, is a private Christian university in Waco, Texas. Chartered in 1845 by the last Congress of the Republic of Texas, it is one of the oldest continuously operating universities in Texas and one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. Located on the banks of the Brazos River next to I-35, between the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin, the university's 1,000-acre campus is the largest Baptist university campus in the world. Baylor University's athletic teams, known as the Bears, participate in 19 intercollegiate sports. The university is a member of the Big 12 Conference in the NCAA Division I. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.

Boomerang (Portuguese TV channel)

Boomerang is a Portuguese pay television channel that was launched on 26 April 2018 and is owned by Turner Broadcasting System Europe. Currently, it is available in Angola, Mozambique and Portugal.

Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (; Greek: Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (fl. 1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India and Arabia to Europe. The second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC. Bibliotheca, meaning 'library', acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors.

List of Latin phrases (S)

This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter S. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.

List of oil exploration and production companies

The following is a list of notable companies in the petroleum industry that are engaged in petroleum exploration and production. The list is in alphabetical order by continent and then by country. This list does not include companies only involved in refining and marketing.

List of programs broadcast by SIC

This is a list of television programs currently broadcast (in first-run or reruns), scheduled to be broadcast or formerly broadcast on SIC.

MTV (Portugal)

MTV is a Portuguese pay television channel that was launched on 1 July 2003, replacing MTV Europe in Portugal. A high-definition simulcast feed of the channel launched on 17 June 2015.

In its initial stages MTV Portugal shared similar content to MTV Spain and MTV Italy, while also airing programming from MTV US and MTV Europe. There was a strong focus on music content but gradually the channel began to air reality shows similar to other MTV channels. The channel was launched in Portugal with the support of private broadcaster SIC as it previously had a MTV branded block in the early 1990s. The channel is based at MTV Networks Europe in London and supported by a local office is Lisbon.

In Spring 2011, MTV Portugal began to air new localised programming. The current MTV Portugal VJs are Diogo, DJ Kaka, Luisa and Mc Creu.

Mount Lyell (Canada)

Mount Lyell is a mountain on the Alberta-British Columbia border, in western Canada. It is located on the Great Divide, which forms the BC-Alberta boundary in this area, in Banff National Park. The mountain is the highest in the Lyell Group, a subrange of the Central Icefields in the Canadian Rockies.The peak has a height of 3,504 m (11,496 ft). In 1972, five distinct peaks on Mt. Lyell were named for Swiss mountain guides. On the interprovincial boundary are Christian Peak, Ernest Peak, and Walter Peak named for Ernest [sic] Feuz, Walter Feuz and Christian Hässler. Located entirely in Alberta are Edward Peak and Rudolph Peak named for Edward [sic] Feuz and Rudolph Aemmer.It marks the limit between the South Saskatchewan and Columbia watersheds.

The mountain was named by James Hector in 1858 for the Scottish geologist Sir Charles Lyell.

SIC Internacional

SIC Internacional is SIC's international channel, which officially launched in September 1997 in France and has since expanded throughout the world. SIC Internacional is aimed at Portuguese viewers who live abroad and features programming from SIC and its various other channels. Programming includes news, entertainment, talkshows, series, sports and much more. It also features exclusive coverage of Portuguese Liga football matches every weekend.

SIC Internacional is for the Portuguese migrant communities and available via cable and satellite in Africa (Angola, Mozambique & South Africa), Europe (France, Switzerland & Luxembourg), The Americas (Brazil, United States & Canada) and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) via Luso Vision. It operates 24/7.

In North America, SIC Internacional is not available directly but rather via local Portuguese television channels.

In Canada it is relayed via FPTV and in the United States via SPT TV. These relays run alongside local productions aimed at the communities in the respective countries.

SIC Notícias

SIC Notícias (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsik nuˈtisiɐʃ]) is the cable news channel of the Portuguese television network SIC (Sociedade Independente de Comunicação) and the second thematic channel of the station. It is available on basic cable and satellite. It replaced CNL (Canal de Notícias de Lisboa), a Lisbon region independent cable news channel owned by TV Cabo, on January 8, 2001. Since the end of 2003, SIC Notícias has also been available in Angola and Mozambique via satellite or cable.

The channel is especially developed for cable, and its programming is almost totally made up of information and news programs. In response to its success, the public television network RTP bought NTV, Northern Portugal's news channel, and transformed it into RTPN in 2004, directly competing with SIC Notícias.

Beside the rolling-news blocks, it also offers special editions and thematic programs on economy, health, interviews, show business, automobile industry, advertising and sports.

The channels' primetime news program, Jornal das Nove, airing from 9-10 p.m., is hosted by Mário Crespo. Other news programs are: Jornal das 10 (10-11 a.m.), Jornal das 2 (2-3 p.m.), Edição da Tarde (3-3:30 p.m. & 5-7 p.m.), Jornal das 7 (7-9 p.m.), Edição da Manhã (6-9:45 a.m.), Jornal de Meia-Noite (12-1 a.m.), Jornal do Meio-Dia (12-1 p.m.), Jornal da Noite (8-9 p.m.) and Jornal de Sintese (throughout the day). Sport news is updated at Jornal de Desporto (12:30 p.m., 4:30 p.m. and 6:30 p.m.). Viewers are invited to participate in the day's top story or current nationwide issues at the daily's morning and afternoon editions of Opinião Pública. SIC Notícias has prominent opinion programs such as Quadratura do Círculo, Expresso da Meia-Noite and Eixo do Mal. International affairs are explored in the program Sociedade das Nações, hosted by Martim Cabral and Nuno Rogeiro.

SIC Notícias was a joint-venture between Sociedade Independente de Comunicação (60%) and TV Cabo (40%) until 2009. In February, 2009, SIC bought ZON's shares.

In the United States, SIC Noticias is available on Dish Network.

In March 2013, SIC Noticias officially launched in Canada on Bell Fibe TV.

From January 27, 2019, the chain and the entire SIC Universe, is transferred to the São Francisco de Sales Building, after 750 days of waiting, leaving behind more than 26 years in the old Carnaxide building.

SIC Radical

SIC Radical is a Portuguese basic cable and satellite television channel owned by Sociedade Independente de Comunicação.SIC Radical is an entertainment channel targeted at teens and young adults. SIC Radical programins have shift through its history, Curto Circuito being its iconic TV show, being present along with sci-fi series, anime, britcoms, talk-shows, erotic programming and amateur television. Along with originals, it airs several television shows from the United States and the United Kingdom. SIC Radical also shows reruns of popular TV-shows and does live coverage of the most important music festivals in Portugal.

In May 2016, SIC Radical launched a Full HD channel to broadcast some Rock in Rio Lisboa shows.

Sic semper tyrannis

Sic semper tyrannis is a Latin phrase meaning "thus always to tyrants."

Sic transit gloria mundi

Sic transit gloria mundi (sometimes shortened to STGM) is a Latin phrase that means "Thus passes the glory of the world".

Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum , is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. Synthetic SiC powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive. Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests. Electronic applications of silicon carbide such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907. SiC is used in semiconductor electronics devices that operate at high temperatures or high voltages, or both. Large single crystals of silicon carbide can be grown by the Lely method and they can be cut into gems known as synthetic moissanite.

Slipknot (album)

Slipknot is the debut studio album by the American nu metal band Slipknot. It was released on June 29, 1999 by Roadrunner Records, following a demo containing a few of the songs which had previously been released in 1998. Later, it was reissued in December 1999 with a slightly-altered track listing and mastering as the result of a lawsuit. It was the first release by the band to be produced by Ross Robinson, who sought to refine Slipknot's sound rather than alter the group's musical direction.

The album spans several genres, but is generally noted for its extensive percussion and overall heavy sound. It was well received by fans and critics alike and was responsible for bringing Slipknot a large increase in popularity. The album peaked at number 51 on the Billboard 200, and has gone on to become certified double platinum in the United States, making it the band's best-selling album. In 2011, it was voted the best debut album of the last 25 years by readers of Metal Hammer magazine.

Sociedade Independente de Comunicação

SIC – Sociedade Independente de Comunicação ("Independent Communication Company") is a Portuguese television network and media company, which runs several television channels. Their flagship channel is the eponymous SIC, the third terrestrial television station in Portugal, launched on 6 October 1992. SIC is owned by Impresa, a Portuguese media conglomerate.

Other channels operated by SIC carried on satellite and cable TV in Portugal are:

SIC Notícias, news channel;

SIC Radical, general entertainment channel targeting a younger audience;

SIC Mulher, general entertainment channel targeting a female audience;

SIC K, general entertainment channel targeting kids;

SIC Internacional, an international channel which broadcasts in Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and Australia;

SIC Caras, an entertainment channel primarily focused on celebrities.

Television in Portugal

Television in Portugal was introduced in 1956 (test broadcasts) by Radiotelevisão Portuguesa (now named Rádio e Televisão de Portugal), which held the nationwide television monopoly until late 1992. Regular broadcasting was introduced on March 7, 1957. Colour transmissions were introduced on March 10, 1980.

Digital terrestrial television (DTT) was introduced at a very late stage when compared to other countries in Europe and with limited channels, and according to the European Audiovisual Observatory it occupies the last place in 34 European countries with the weakest offer on digital terrestrial television. In such a way that most Portuguese are subscribers of cable (HFC) or IPTV (DSL or FTTH) platforms, in percentages higher than in the rest of Europe and these platforms are well developed with a large number of channels. During the transition from analog to DTT, subscription-based television services experiences a 10% increase and reached 72.5% of homes in 2012. Regional and local television is also limited. Portuguese television is regulated by the Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social (ERC). In 2018, TVI was the ratings leader with 19.9% share while SIC, RTP1 and RTP2 had 16.5%, 12.2% and 1.4%, respectively.

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