Shuji Nakamura

Shuji Nakamura (中村 修二 Nakamura Shūji, born May 22, 1954) is a Japanese-born American electronic engineer and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology, professor at the Materials Department of the College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB),[5] and is regarded as the inventor of the blue LED, a major breakthrough in lighting technology.[6] Together with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes, which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources". In 2015, his input into commercialization and development of energy-efficient white LED lighting technology was recognized by the Global Energy Prize.

Shuji Nakamura
Shiju
Shuji Nakamura in 2015
Native name
中村修二
Born22 May 1954 (age 64)
ResidenceUnited States
NationalityAmerican[1][2]
CitizenshipJapan (until 2005)
United States (since 2005)[3][4]
Alma materUniversity of Tokushima
Known forBlue and white LEDs
AwardsMillennium Technology Prize (2006)
Harvey Prize (2009)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2014)
Global Energy Prize (2015)
National Inventors Hall of Fame (2015)
Mountbatten Medal (2017)
Zayed Future Energy Prize (2018)
Scientific career
FieldsEngineering
InstitutionsUniversity of California, Santa Barbara

Career

Nakamura graduated from the University of Tokushima in 1977 with a B.Eng. degree in electronic engineering, and obtained an M.Eng. degree in the same subject two years later, after which he joined the Nichia Corporation, also based in Tokushima. It was while working for Nichia that Nakamura invented the first high brightness gallium nitride (GaN) LED whose brilliant blue light, when partially converted to yellow by a phosphor coating, is the key to white LED lighting, which went into production in 1993.

Previously, J. I. Pankove and co-workers at RCA put in considerable effort, but did not manage to make a marketable GaN LED in the 1960s. The principal problem was the difficulty of making strongly p-type GaN. Nakamura drew on the work of another Japanese group led by Professor Isamu Akasaki, who published their method to make strongly p-type GaN by electron-beam irradiation of magnesium-doped GaN. However, this method was not suitable for mass production and its physics were not well understood. Nakamura managed to develop a thermal annealing method which was much more suitable for mass production. In addition, he and his co-workers worked out the physics and pointed out the culprit was hydrogen, which passivated acceptors in GaN.

At the time, many considered creating a GaN LED too difficult to produce; therefore Nakamura was fortunate that the founder of Nichia, Nobuo Ogawa (1912–2002), was initially willing to support his GaN project. However the company eventually ordered him to suspend work on GaN, claiming it was consuming too much time and money. Nakamura continued to develop the blue LED on his own and in 1993 succeeded in making the device.[7]

He was awarded a D.Eng. degree from the University of Tokushima in 1994. He left Nichia Corporation in 1999 and took a position as a professor of engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

In 2001, Nakamura sued his former employer Nichia over his bonus for the discovery as a part of a series of lawsuits between Nichia and Nakamura with Nichia's US competitor Cree Inc.; they agreed in 2000 to jointly sue Nichia at the expense of Cree and Nakamura received stock options from Cree. Nakamura claimed that he received only ¥20,000 (≈US$180) for his discovery of "404 patent," though Nichia revealed that the company awarded him with promotions and bonuses of 62 million yen over 11 years and his annual salary reached 20 million yen when he quit Nichia.[8]

Although Nakamura originally won an appeal for ¥20 billion (≈US$180 million), Nichia appealed the award and the parties settled in 2005 for ¥840 million (≈US$9 million), at the time the largest bonus ever paid by a Japanese company.;[9] this was, however, consumed by legal fees incurred by Nakamura in reaching the settlement [10]

Nakamura has also worked on green LEDs, and is responsible for creating the white LED and blue laser diodes used in Blu-ray Discs and HD DVDs.[11]

Nakamura is a professor of Materials at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and holds over 100 patents.[12] In 2008, Nakamura, along with fellow UCSB professors Dr. Steven DenBaars and Dr. James Speck, founded Soraa, a developer of solid-state lighting technology built on pure gallium nitride substrates.[13]

Recognition

See also

References

  1. ^ "中村教授「物理学賞での受賞には驚いた」 ノーベル賞". The Nikkei. Nikkei Inc. October 2014.
  2. ^ Shuji received American citizenship in 2000. Japan does not recognize dual nationality.
  3. ^ 特許は会社のもの「猛反対」 ノーベル賞の中村修二さん [Patent belongs to the company "Violent opposition" Nobel prize winner Shuji Nakamura] (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun Digital. 18 October 2014.
  4. ^ ノーベル賞の中村修二氏、「アメリカの市民権」を取った理由を語る [Nobel prize winner Shuji Nakamura talks about why he acquired U.S. citizenship] (in Japanese). withnews. 18 October 2014. 2005、6年ごろに(米国市民権を)取ったんですよ [acquired (U.S. citizenship) in 2005 or 2006]
  5. ^ "Shuji Nakamura". Santa Barbara: University of California. Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "Nobel laureate fought the odds to make history". Pacific Coast Business Times. Retrieved Oct 10, 2014.
  7. ^ "Court dismisses inventor's patent claim but will consider reward". The Japan Times. September 20, 2002. Archived from the original on October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  8. ^ 日亜化学工業社長の小川英治氏 訴訟騒動の真実を今こそ明らかにする [Nichia president Eiji Ogama now revealed the truth behind the court] (in Japanese). Nikkei Tech-on. April 2004. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  9. ^ Zaun, Todd (January 12, 2005). "Japanese Company to Pay Ex-Employee $8.1 Million for Invention". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  10. ^ The man who had the world's brightest idea, by Robert Matthews. Financial Times 4 April 2007
  11. ^ Richard Harris (June 15, 2006). "Work in Colored Lights Nets Millennium Prize". All Things Considered.
  12. ^ "Shuji Nakamura". Solid State Lighting & Energy Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  13. ^ "About". Soraa Inc. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  14. ^ Shuji Nakamura wins the 2006 Millennium Technology Prize [1]
  15. ^ "Top prize for 'light' inventor". BBC News. September 8, 2006. Archived from the original on March 5, 2007. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
  16. ^ Inventor Shuji Nakamura at the European Inventor Award
  17. ^ Prince of Asturias Awards for Technical and Scientific Research.
  18. ^ Harvey Prize Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "SVIPLA Presents Inventor of the Year - Shuji Nakamura, Ph.D." Silicon Valley Intellectual Property Law Association. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  20. ^ "The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics - Press Release". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  21. ^ http://globalenergyprize.org/en/laureates/2015
  22. ^ "Mountbatten Medal – 2017 Winner". Institution of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  23. ^ Sankar, Anjana. "Top Zayed Energy prize awarded to LED light inventor". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 2018-01-17.

Further reading

  • Shuji Nakamura, Gerhard Fasol, Stephen J. Pearton, The Blue Laser Diode : The Complete Story, Springer; 2nd edition, October 2, 2000, (ISBN 3-540-66505-6)
  • Bob Johnstone Brilliant!: Shuji Nakamura and the revolution in lighting technology, Prometheus Books, 2007 ISBN 1-59102-462-5

External links

Preceded by
Tim Berners-Lee
Millennium Technology Prize winner
2006 (for blue and white LEDs)
Succeeded by
Robert S. Langer
1954 in Japan

Events in the year 1954 in Japan.

Asahi Prize

The Asahi Prize (朝日賞, Asahi Shō), established in 1929, is an award presented by the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun and Asahi Shimbun Foundation to honor individuals and groups that have made outstanding accomplishments in the fields of arts and academics and have greatly contributed to the development and progress of Japanese culture and society at large.The Asahi Prize was created to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the foundation of Asahi Shimbun. It is recognized today as one of the most authoritative private awards.

Asian Scientist

Asian Scientist is an English language science and technology magazine published in Singapore.

Blue laser

A blue laser is a laser that emits electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 360 and 480 nanometres, which the human eye sees as blue or violet.

Blue beams are produced by helium-cadmium gas lasers at 441.6 nm, and argon-ion lasers at 458 and 488 nm. Semiconductor lasers with blue beams are typically based on gallium(III) nitride (GaN; violet color) or indium gallium nitride (often true blue in color, but also able to produce other colors). Both blue and violet lasers can also be constructed using frequency-doubling of infrared laser wavelengths from diode lasers or diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

Diode lasers which emit light at 445 nm are becoming popular as handheld lasers. Lasers emitting wavelengths below 445 nm appear violet (but are sometimes called blue lasers). Some of the most commercially common blue lasers are the diode lasers used in Blu-ray applications which emit 405 nm "violet" light, which is a short enough wavelength to cause fluorescence in some chemicals, in the same way as radiation further into the ultraviolet ("black light") does. Light of a shorter wavelength than 400 nm is classified as ultraviolet.

Devices that employ blue laser light have applications in many areas ranging from optoelectronic data storage at high density to medical applications.

Charles Stark Draper Prize

The U.S. National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. It is one of three prizes that constitute the "Nobel Prizes of Engineering" — the others are the Academy's Russ and Gordon Prizes. The winner of each of these prizes receives $500,000. The Draper prize is named for Charles Stark Draper, the "father of inertial navigation", an MIT professor and founder of Draper Laboratory.

Harvey Prize

The Harvey Prize is an Israeli scientific distinction awarded annually for breakthroughs in science and technology, as well as contributions to Peace in the Middle East, by Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa. It was named after an industrialist and inventor Leo Harvey. Two awards of $75,000 each are made each year.

Hiroshi Amano

Hiroshi Amano (天野 浩, Amano Hiroshi, born September 11, 1960) is a Japanese physicist and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology. For his work he was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Isamu Akasaki and Shuji Nakamura for "the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".

Isamu Akasaki

Isamu Akasaki (赤崎 勇, Akasaki Isamu, born January 30, 1929) is a Japanese physicist, specializing in the field of semiconductor technology and Nobel Prize laureate, best known for inventing the bright gallium nitride (GaN) p-n junction blue LED in 1989 and subsequently the high-brightness GaN blue LED as well.For this and other achievements, Akasaki was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology in 2009, and the IEEE Edison Medal in 2011. He was also awarded the 2014 Nobel prize in Physics, together with Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura, "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes, which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".

List of Japanese Nobel laureates

Since 1949, there have been twenty-seven Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. An associated prize, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.

The Nobel Prizes in the above specific sciences disciplines and the Prize in Economics, which is commonly identified with them, are widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those fields. Of Japanese winners, eleven have been physicists, seven chemists, three for literature, five for physiology or medicine and one for efforts towards peace.In the 21st century, in the field of natural science, the number of Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize has been second behind the U.S.

List of University of California, Santa Barbara faculty

This page lists notable faculty (past and present) of the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Millennium Technology Prize

The Millennium Technology Prize (Finnish: Millennium-teknologiapalkinto) is one of the world's largest technology prizes. It is awarded once every two years by Technology Academy Finland, an independent fund established by Finnish industry and the Finnish state in partnership. The prize is presented by the President of Finland. The Millennium Technology Prize is Finland's tribute to innovations for a better life. The aims of the prize are to promote technological research and Finland as a high-tech Nordic welfare state. The prize was inaugurated in 2004.

Mountbatten Medal

The IET Mountbatten Medal is awarded annually for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application. The Medal was established by the National Electronics Council in 1992 and named after Louis Mountbatten, The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Admiral of the Fleet and Governor-General of India. Since 2011, the medal has been awarded as one of the IET Achievement Medals.

Nichia

Nichia Corporation (日亜化学工業株式会社, Nichia Kagaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese chemical engineering and manufacturing company headquartered in Anan, Japan with global subsidiaries. It specializes in the manufacturing and distribution of phosphors, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, battery materials, and calcium chloride.The Nichia Corporation comprises two divisions — Division 1, responsible for phosphors and other chemicals, and Division 2, responsible for LEDs. In the field of phosphors the company has 50% of the Japanese market and 25% of the world market.Nichia is the world’s largest supplier of LEDs. It designs, manufactures, and markets LEDs for display, LCD backlighting, automotive and general lighting applications with the many different leds across the entire visible spectrum. Nichia’s invention and development of white LEDs have spanned several accomplishments throughout the history of the company.

Nishina Memorial Prize

The Nishina Memorial Prize (仁科記念賞, Nishina Kinenshō) is the oldest and most prestigious physics award in Japan.

Shūji

Shūji, Shuji or Shuuji (written: 修司, 修二, 修治, 修次, 州司, 収史, 秀司, 秀治, 秀史 or 秀爾) is a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include:

Shuji Arinaga (有永 修二, born 1948), Japanese handball player

Shuji Fujimoto (藤本 修司, born 1988), Japanese footballer

Shūji Hayashi (林 修司, born 1979), Japanese actor

Shuji Ikeguchi (池口 修次, born 1949), Japanese politician

Shuji Imamoto (今本 秀爾, born 1965), Japanese environmentalist

Isawa Shūji (伊澤 修二, 1851–1917), Japanese educator

Shūji Iuchi (井内 秀治, born 1950), Japanese anime director

Shuji Kataoka (片岡 修二, born 1950), Japanese film director and screenwriter

Shuji Kashiwabara (柏原 収史, born 1978), Japanese actor

Shuji Kondo (近藤 修司, born 1981), Japanese professional wrestler

Shuji Kira (吉良 州司, born 1958), Japanese politician

Shuji Kusano (born 1970), Japanese footballer

Shuji Matsuno (松野 修二, born 1963), Japanese badminton player

Shūji Muranaka (村中 秀史, born 1981), Japanese shogi player

Shuji Nakamura (中村 修二, born 1954), Japanese academic

Shuji Satoh (佐藤 秀司, born 1967), Japanese shogi player

Shūji Terayama (寺山 修司, 1935–1983), Japanese poet, writer, film director and photographer

Shuji Tsurumi (鶴見 修治, born 1938), Japanese gymnast

Shuji Yamada (山田 修司, born 1956), Japanese volleyball player

Shuji Yoshida (吉田 修司, born 1966), Japanese baseball player and coach

Timeline of lighting technology

Artificial lighting technology began to be developed tens of thousands of years ago, and continues to be refined in the present day.

UCSB College of Engineering

The College of Engineering (CoE) is one of the three undergraduate colleges at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

As of 2015, there were 150 faculty, 1,450 undergraduate students, and 750 graduate students. According to the Leiden Ranking, engineering and physical sciences at UCSB is ranked #1 among public universities for top 10% research citation impact. According to the National Research Council rankings, the UCSB engineering graduate research program in Materials was ranked #1 and Chemical Engineering ranked #5 in the nation among public universities.

UCSB Physics Department

The Physics Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara has 58 faculty members. It offers academic programs leading to the B.A., B.S., and Ph.D. degrees.

University of Tokushima

Tokushima University (徳島大学, Tokushima Daigaku) is a national university in the city of Tokushima, Japan, with seven graduate schools and five undergraduate faculties. The university was founded in 1949, by merging six national education facilities into one. The 2014 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics, Shuji Nakamura graduated from Tokushima.

On April 1, 2015 the name of the university was changed from the University of Tokushima to Tokushima University.

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