Shugo

Shugo (守護) was a title, commonly translated as "(military) governor", "protector" or "constable", given to certain officials in feudal Japan. They were each appointed by the shōgun to oversee one or more of the provinces of Japan. The position gave way to the emergence of the daimyōs (feudal lords) in the late 15th century, as shugo began to claim power over lands themselves, rather than serving simply as governors on behalf of the shogunate.

The post is said to have been created in 1185 by Minamoto no Yoritomo to aid the capture of Yoshitsune, with the additional motivation of extending the rule of the shogunate government throughout Japan. The shugo (military governors) progressively supplanted the existing kokushi (civil governors), who were appointed by the Imperial Court in Kyoto. Officially, the gokenin in each province were supposed to serve the shugo, but in practice, the relationship between them was fragile, as the gokenin were vassals of the shōgun as well.

Shugo often stayed for long periods in the capital, far from their province, and were sometimes appointed shugo for several provinces at the same time. In such cases, a deputy shugo, or shugodai (守護代), was appointed.

Over time, the powers of some shugo grew considerably. Around the time of the Ōnin War (1467–1477), conflicts between shugo became common.[1] Some shugo lost their powers to subordinates such as the shugodai, while others strengthened their grip on their territories. As a result, at the end of the 15th century, the beginning of the Sengoku period, the power in the country was divided amongst lords of various kinds (shugo, shugodai, and others), who came to be called daimyōs.

Famous shugo and daimyō clans of the Muromachi period

Below is a list of some of the major clans that produced shugos and daimyōs during the Muromachi period, as well as the regions over which they ruled.

References

  1. ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 200–202, 207. ISBN 0804705259.

Further reading

  • Frédéric, Louis (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
.hack//Legend of the Twilight

.hack//Legend of the Twilight (.hack//黄昏の腕輪伝説, Tasogare no Udewa Densetsu, lit. .hack//Legend of the Twilight Bracelet) is a science fiction manga series written by Tatsuya Hamazaki and drawn by Rei Izumi. The twenty-two chapters of .hack//Legend of the Twilight appeared as a serial in the Japanese magazine Comptiq, and published in three tankōbon by Kadokawa Shoten from July 2002 to April 2004. Set in a fictional MMORPG, The World, the series focuses on twins Rena and Shugo, who receive chibi avatars in the design of the legendary .hackers known as Kite and BlackRose. After Shugo is given the Twilight Bracelet by a mysterious girl, the two embark on a quest to find Aura and unravel the mystery of the Twilight Bracelet.

The series was adapted into a twelve episode anime of the same name directed by Koichi Mashimo and Koji Sawai, and produced by Bee Train.

Tokyopop licensed the manga series for an English-language release in North America. It published the three volumes from September 2003 to April 2004. Bandai Entertainment had licensed the anime series for North American broadcast. The word "Bracelet" in the title was removed in North America, shortening the title to .hack//Legend of the Twilight. Following the closure of Bandai Entertainment, Funimation announced at SDCC 2013, that they have acquired 4 .hack titles including Legend of the Twilight.

Benzaiten

Benzaiten (弁才天, 弁財天) (Benten for short) is

a Japanese Buddhist goddess who originated from the Hindu goddess Saraswati. Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries, mainly via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light, which has a section devoted to her. She is also mentioned in the Lotus Sutra and often depicted holding a biwa, a traditional Japanese lute, just as Saraswati holds a veena. Benzaiten is a syncretic entity with both a Buddhist and a Shinto aspect. Benzaiten was worshipped as the personification of wisdom in the Tokugawa period.

Birth of the 10th! Kamen Riders All Together!!

Birth of the 10th! Kamen Riders All Together!! (10号誕生!仮面ライダー全員集合!!, Jūgō Tanjō! Kamen Raidā Zen'in Shūgō!!) is a Kamen Rider Series Japanese TV special that aired on January 3, 1984. It is a special meant to celebrate the birth of Kamen Rider ZX, the 10th person to don the Kamen Rider title. Prior to the special, ZX appeared in a manga from 1982 to 1983.

Chinjusha

In Japan, a chinjusha (鎮守社•鎮社, or tutelary shrine) is a Shinto shrine which enshrines a tutelary kami (鎮守神, chinjugami); that is, a patron spirit that protects a given area, village, building or a Buddhist temple. The Imperial Palace has its own tutelary shrine dedicated to the 21 guardian gods of Ise Shrine. Tutelary shrines are usually very small, but there is a range in size, and the great Hiyoshi Taisha for example is Enryaku-ji's tutelary shrine. The tutelary shrine of a temple or the complex the two together form are sometimes called a temple-shrine (寺社, jisha). If a tutelary shrine is called chinju-dō, it is the tutelary shrine of a Buddhist temple. Even in that case, however, the shrine retains its distinctive architecture.

Daimyō

The daimyō (大名, Japanese pronunciation: [daimʲoː] (listen)) were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden (名田), meaning private land.Subordinate to the shōgun, and nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history. The backgrounds of daimyō also varied considerably; while some daimyō clans, notably the Mōri, Shimazu and Hosokawa, were cadet branches of the Imperial family or were descended from the kuge, other daimyō were promoted from the ranks of the samurai, notably during the Edo period.

The term daimyō also sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans, also called "Lord". It was usually, though not exclusively, from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō often hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as relatively few could afford to pay samurai in money. The daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871.

Guardians 4

Guardians 4 (ガーディアンズ4, Gādianzu Fō) was a Hello! Project unit consisting of Aika Mitsui from Morning Musume, Yurina Kumai and Risako Sugaya from Berryz Kobo, and Saki Nakajima from Cute. It was formed for the sake of performing music for the Shugo Chara! anime. Each of the group's singles has been used as an opening theme for either Shugo Chara!! Doki or Shugo Chara! Party, and each single has included a track by Shugo Chara Egg! (who immediately preceded Guardians 4 in singing theme songs for the show). On March 10, 2010, a compilation album and DVD compilation were released featuring songs by Guardians 4, Buono!, and Shugo Chara Egg!, titled Shugo Chara! Song Best and Shugo Chara! Clip Best respectively. The final episode of Shugo Chara! Party aired March 27, 2010, effectively ending the group's activities. It was known that the group leader was Saki Nakajima from the making of PARTY TIME.

Like Shugo Chara Egg!, the four members of this group wear costumes inspired by the anime. In this case, the costumes are based on the school uniform of the Seiyo Academy (a key location in the series), but with the "royal cape" also worn by the "Guardians" (the student council that main character Amu Hinamori "joins"), hence "Guardians 4". Each of the members wear the same color, although that color changes with each single.

Hachiman

In Japanese beliefs, Hachiman (Japanese: 八幡神, Hepburn: Hachiman no kami/Hachiman-shin, also known as Yahata no kami) is the syncretic divinity of archery and war, incorporating elements from both Shinto and Buddhism. Although often called the god of war, he is more correctly defined as the tutelary god of warriors. He is also the divine protector of Japan, the Japanese people and the Imperial House, the Minamoto clan ("Genji") and most samurai worshipped him. The name means "God of Eight Banners", referring to the eight heavenly banners that signaled the birth of the divine Emperor Ōjin. His symbolic animal and messenger is the dove.

Since ancient times Hachiman was worshiped by peasants as the god of agriculture and by fishermen who hoped he would fill their nets with much fish. In Shinto, he became identified by legend as the Emperor Ōjin, son of Empress Jingū, from the 3rd–4th century.

Kawachi Province

Kawachi Province (河内国, Kawachi no kuni) was a province of Japan in the eastern part of modern Osaka Prefecture. It originally held the southwestern area that was split off into Izumi Province. It was also known as Kashū (河州).

List of Shugo Chara! characters

Shugo Chara! is a Japanese shōjo manga created by the manga author duo Peach-Pit. The story centers on elementary schoolgirl Amu Hinamori, whose popular exterior, referred to as "cool and spicy" by her classmates, contrasts with her introverted personality. When Amu wishes for the courage to be reborn as her would-be self, she is surprised to find three colorful eggs the next morning, which hatch into three Guardian Characters: Ran, Miki, and Su.

Peach-Pit uses Amu to explore differences between one's true self and the self that is presented to others. Like Jun Sakurada in Peach-Pit's previous work, Rozen Maiden, Amu tackles issues such as alienation and fitting in at school. Unlike most heroines in other magical girl series, Amu is neither the perfect sweetheart nor a complete klutz. Amu gets grumpy and frequently talks back to others in contrast to the polite schoolgirls that fill the genre.Amu's Guardian Characters—Ran, Miki, Su, and later Diamond—aid her in her quest of self-discovery. Each Guardian Character represents an aspect of Amu's true self. Ran represents Amu's desire to be more honest and athletic, Miki represents Amu's desire to be more level headed and artistic, Su represents Amu's desire to be more caring and improve her domestic skills, while Diamond represents Amu's desire to shine in front of others and be a good speaker. Moreover, the Guardian Characters are more than mere mascots who help Amu learn about her true self. They can also perform a "Character Change" where Amu's personality is replaced by an entirely different one.However, Amu is not the only one with Guardian Characters. Each of the Guardians—Tadase Hotori, Nadeshiko Fujisaki, Kukai Soma, and Yaya Yuiki—have their own Guardian Characters. Amu also encounters Ikuto Tsukiyomi and Utau Hoshina(Tsukiyomi), two siblings who also have Guardian Characters and are employed by the Easter Company to search for the Embryo.

Eventually, Nadeshiko Fujisaki and Kukai Soma leave the Guardians and are replaced by Rima Mashiro and Kairi Sanjo, respectively. Kairi later leaves and is replaced by Nagihiko Fujisaki, Nadeshiko's real identity.

Mino Province

Mino Province (美濃国, Mino no kuni), one of the old provinces of Japan, encompassed the southern part of modern-day Gifu Prefecture. It was sometimes called Nōshū (濃州). Mino Province bordered Echizen, Hida, Ise, Mikawa, Ōmi, Owari, and Shinano Provinces.

Although the ancient provincial capital was near Tarui, the main castle town was at Gifu, the home of Inabayama Castle.

Mizuki Fukumura

Mizuki Fukumura (譜久村 聖, Fukumura Mizuki, born October 30, 1996 in Tokyo) is a Japanese pop singer. She is a ninth-generation member, current leader of the idol group Morning Musume as well as the current and seventh leader of Hello Project. Prior to becoming part of Morning Musume, Fukumura was known as a member of the second generation Shugo Chara Egg!, and for her role of Amulet Heart in the live action segment of the highly acclaimed television series Shugo Chara! Party!.

Nanboku-chō period

The Nanboku-chō period (南北朝時代, Nanboku-chō jidai, "South and North courts period", also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the formative years of the Muromachi bakufu of Japanese history.

During this period, there existed a Northern Imperial Court, established by Ashikaga Takauji in Kyoto, and a Southern Imperial Court, established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino.

Ideologically, the two courts fought for fifty years, with the South giving up to the North in 1392. However, in reality the Northern line was under the power of the Ashikaga shōguns and had little real independence.

Since the 19th century the Emperors of the Southern Imperial Court have been considered the legitimate Emperors of Japan. Other contributing factors were the Southern Court's control of the Japanese imperial regalia, and Kitabatake Chikafusa's work Jinnō Shōtōki, which legitimized the South's imperial court despite their defeat.

The consequences of events in this period continue to be influential in modern Japan's conventional view of the Tennō Seika (Emperor system). Under the influence of State Shinto, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911, established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the Southern Court. After World War II, a series of pretenders, starting with Kumazawa Hiromichi, claimed descent from the Southern Court and challenged the legitimacy of the modern imperial line which is descended from the Northern Court.The destruction of the Kamakura shogunate of 1333 and the failure of the Kenmu Restoration in 1336 opened up a legitimacy crisis for the new shogunate. Furthermore, institutional changes in the estate system (the shōen) that formed the bedrock of the income of nobles and warriors alike decisively altered the status of the various social groups. What emerged from the exigencies of the Nanboku-chō (Southern and Northern Court) War was the Muromachi regime, which broadened the economic base of the warriors while undercutting the noble proprietors, a trend that had started already with the Kamakura bakufu.

Sgt. Frog

Sgt. Frog, known in Japan as Keroro Gunso (ケロロ軍曹, Keroro Gunsō, lit. "Sergeant Keroro"), is a manga series by Mine Yoshizaki, launched April 1999 in Monthly Shōnen Ace. The series was later adapted into an anime television series directed by Junichi Sato. Both the anime and manga are comedies that follow the attempts of a platoon of frog-like alien invaders to conquer Earth. Sergeant Keroro, the titular character, is the leader of the platoon, but is at the mercy of a human family of three after he is captured while trying to hide in one of the family member's bedrooms. In both the manga and anime, Keroro is forced to do meaningless chores and errands for the family after his army abandons his platoon on Earth. The platoon has many failed attempts at taking over Earth.

The series takes its comedy from a combination of wordplay (particularly puns and homophones), physical humor, situational irony, breaking of the fourth wall, and numerous pop culture references (especially to Gundam, Kamen Rider, Super Sentai, Space Battleship Yamato, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion and many others, although when broadcast and published in the United States, they make references that American audiences would be familiar with like Ghostbusters and Men in Black). Various anime, games, manga, and other aspects of pop culture are parodied/referenced throughout the series as a bonus to older viewers. Both the manga and the anime are laden with pop-culture references, and even in the same story the references often vary wildly. The anime does not explicitly refer to Evangelion or other animations to which Bandai does not hold the copyrights, but only recreates the "feel" of famous scenes from these anime. The anime is much more detailed and direct in its Gundam references, however, since its animation studio, Sunrise, is a subsidiary of Bandai who does hold the rights to the Gundam franchise.

Shinbutsu-shūgō

Shinbutsu-shūgō (神仏習合, "syncretism of kami and buddhas"), also called Shinbutsu-konkō (神仏混淆, "jumbling up" or "contamination of kami and buddhas"), is the syncretism of Buddhism and kami worship that was Japan's only organized religion up until the Meiji period. Beginning in 1868, the new Meiji government approved a series of laws that separated Japanese native kami worship, on one side, from Buddhism which had assimilated it, on the other.When Buddhism was introduced from China in the Asuka period (6th century), rather than discarding the old belief system, the Japanese tried to reconcile the two, assuming both were true. As a consequence, Buddhist temples (寺, tera) were attached to local Shinto shrines (神社, jinja) and vice versa and devoted to both kami and buddhas. The local religion and foreign Buddhism never quite fused, but remained however inextricably linked all the way to the present day, always interacting. The depth of the resulting influence of Buddhism on local religious beliefs can be seen for example in the fact that much of Shinto's conceptual vocabulary and even the types of Shinto shrines we see today, with a large worship hall and religious images, are themselves of Buddhist origin. The formal separation of Buddhism from Shinto took place only as recently as the end of the 19th century; however, in many ways, the blending of the two still continues.The term shinbutsu shūgō itself was coined during the early modern era (17th century) to refer to the amalgamation of kami and buddhas in general, as opposed to specific currents within Buddhism which did the same, e.g. Ryōbu Shintō and Sannō Shintō. The term may have a negative connotation of bastardization and randomness. It is a yojijukugo phrase.

Shugendō

Shugendō (修験道, literally "the way of shugen, or gen-practice") is a highly syncretic religion that originated in Heian Japan. Practitioners are called Shugenja (修験者) or Yamabushi (山伏, literally "mountain prostrate").

Shugo Chara!

Shugo Chara! (しゅごキャラ!, Shugo Kyara!), also known as My Guardian Characters, is a Japanese shōjo manga series created by the manga author duo, Peach-Pit. The story centers on elementary school girl Amu Hinamori, whose popular exterior, referred to as "cool and spicy" by her classmates, contrasts with her introverted personality. When Amu wishes for the courage to be reborn as her would-be self, she is surprised to find three colorful eggs the next morning, which hatch into three Guardian Characters: Ran, Miki, and Su.

Shugo Chara! is serialized in the magazine Nakayoshi and published by Kodansha in Japan. Del Rey has licensed the English language manga rights, releasing the first volume on March 27, 2007. It won the 2008 Kodansha Manga Award for best children's manga.

Shugo Chara! has also been adapted into a fifty-one episode anime television series of the same title produced by Satelight under the direction of Kenji Yasuda and debuted on October 6, 2007 on TV Tokyo. On July 20, 2008, Anime News Network reported that the Shugo Chara! anime would be continued for a second year under the title Shugo Chara!! Doki—, the first episode airing on October 10, 2008; the official anime website later announced an October 4, 2008 start date.

On October 3, 2009, Shugo Chara! began featuring another series. The new program, Shugo Chara Party! containing Shugo Chara!!! Dokki Doki and Shugo Chara Pucchi Puchi! follow the current anime series as its power-up. The last episode aired on March 26, 2010.

Shugo Chara Egg!

Shugo Chara Egg! (しゅごキャラエッグ!, Shugo Kyara Eggu!) was a Hello! Project unit, originally consisting of four Hello! Pro Egg members: Ayaka Wada, Yuuka Maeda, Kanon Fukuda and Akari Saho. The group was announced on September 20, 2008 and debuted with a live performance.

Shugo Chara Egg's purpose was to sing the opening theme songs for the anime Shugo Chara! Doki—, the anime that the Hello! Project group Buono! had previously performed opening and ending songs for. The ending songs were still sung by Buono! Each member wears a costume based on the "character transformations" (a key element of the series' plot) of Amu Hinamori, the main character.

Shugo Chara Egg's debut single was titled "Minna no Tamago", and was used as the opening theme for Shugo Chara!! Doki-. It was released on the Pony Canyon label on October 12, 2008. A second generation Shugo Chara Egg! was created in August 2009, adding Mizuki Fukumura and Irori Maeda to replace Yuuka Maeda and Kanon Fukuda. Nanami Tanabe was chosen as the new Amulet Diamond. The girls are the hostesses for the live action segments of Shugo Chara! Party.

Shugo Oshinari

Shugo Oshinari (忍成 修吾, Oshinari Shūgo, born March 5, 1981) is a Japanese actor.

Yamashiro Province

Yamashiro Province (山城国, Yamashiro no Kuni) was a province of Japan, located in Kinai. It overlaps the southern part of modern Kyoto Prefecture on Honshū. Aliases include Jōshū (城州), the rare Sanshū (山州), and Yōshū (雍州). It is classified as an upper province in the Engishiki.

Yamashiro Province included Kyoto itself, as in 794 AD Yamashiro became the seat of the imperial court, and, during the Muromachi period, was the seat of the Ashikaga shogunate as well. The capital remained in Yamashiro until its de facto move to Tokyo in the 1870s.

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