Shuddhi

Shuddhi is Sanskrit for purification. In Hinduism it is a part of worship. It also refers to converting to Hinduism.

Shuddhi movement

The socio-political movement, derived from ancient rite of shuddhikaran,[1] or purification was started by the Arya Samaj, and its founder Swami Dayanand Saraswati [2] and his followers like Swami Shraddhanand, who also worked on the Sangathan consolidation aspect of Hinduism, in North India, especially Punjab in early 1900s, though it gradually spread across India.[2] Shuddhi had a social reform agenda behind its belligerent rationale and was aimed at abolishing the practise of untouchability by converting outcasts from other religions to Hinduism and integrating them into the mainstream community by elevating their position, and instilling self-confidence and self-determination in them.[2][3][4] The movement strove to reduce the conversions of Hindus to Islam and Christianity, which were underway at the time.[2]

In 1923, Swami Shraddhanand founded the 'Bhartiya Hindu Shuddhi Mahasabha' (Indian Hindu Purification Council) and pushed the agenda of reconversion forcefully, which eventually created a flashpoint between Hindus and Muslims as Muslims were the recipients of the violence.. The main point of contention was the reconversion Malkana Rajputs in western United Province [5] As a result, the movement became controversial and antagonized the Muslims populace [3] and also led to the death of the leader of the movement, Swami Shraddhanand in 1926. Post Swami Shraddhanand death this movement continued.[6]

On 23 February 1928, many Catholic Gaudes in Goa were re-converted to Hinduism notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Portuguese government.[7] This was carried out by a Hindu religious institution from Mumbai known as Masur Ashram, the converts were given Sanskrit Hindu names, but the Portuguese government put impediments in their way to get legal sanction for their new Hindu names.[8] 4851 Catholic Gaudes from Tiswadi, 2174 from Ponda, 250 from Bicholim and 329 from Sattari were re-converted to Hinduism after nearly 400 years. The total number of the converts to Hinduism was 7815.[9] However, in Northern India this movement faced stiff opposition from Islamic extremist and the Sunni Barelvi organisation All India Jamaat Raza-e-Mustafa[10] in Bareilly city, which attempted to counter the efforts of the Shuddhi movement to convert Muslims to Hinduism in British India.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hindu-Muslim Relations in British India: A Study of Controversy, Conflict, and Communal Movements in Northern India 1923-1928, by G. R. Thursby. Published by BRILL, 1975. ISBN 90-04-04380-2. Lame'Page 136.
  2. ^ a b c d Dayanand and the Shuddhi Movement Indian Political Tradition, by D.K Mohanty. Published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 81-261-2033-9. Page 116.
  3. ^ a b untouchable assertion The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-century India, by Nandini Gooptu. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-44366-0. Page 157.
  4. ^ The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India, by Gail Minault, Akhtar. Published by Columbia University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-231-05072-0. Page 193.
  5. ^ The Fundamentalism Project, by Martin E. Marty, R. Scott Appleby, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Published by University of Chicago Press, 1991.ISBN 0226508781. Page 564.
  6. ^ Hindu Nationalism and the Language of Politics in Late Colonial India, by William Gould. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-83061-3. Page 133.
  7. ^ Ghai, R. K. (1990). Shuddhi movement in India: a study of its socio-political dimensions. Commonwealth Publishers. pp. 208 pages (see page 103). ISBN 9788171690428.
  8. ^ Ralhan, Om Prakash (1998). Post-independence India: Indian National Congress, Volumes 33-50. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. pp. 6330 pages (see pages 304–305). ISBN 9788174888655.
  9. ^ Godbole, Shriranga (December 2010). Sanskrutik Vartapatra. Pune: Sanskrutik Vartapatra. pp. 61–66 & 112.
  10. ^ "JRM". jamatrazaemustafa.org. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  11. ^ Hasan, M.; Jamia Millia Islamia (India). Dept. of History (1985). Communal and pan-Islamic trends in colonial India. Manohar. Retrieved 2015-07-28.

Further reading

  • Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India: Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India, Volume III-I, by Kenneth W. Jones. Published by Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-521-24986-4.
  • Shuddhi Movement in India: A Study of Its Socio-political Dimensions, by R. K. Ghai. Published by Commonwealth Publishers, 1990.
  • Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths, by Chetan Bhatt. Published by Berg Publishers, 2001. ISBN 1-85973-348-4.
  • Religion in South Asia: Religious Conversion and Revival Movements in South Asia in Medieval and Modern Times, by Geoffrey A. Oddie. Published by Manohar, 1991. Chapter 10: Reconversion to Hinduism: The Shuddhi of the Arya Samaj. Page 215.
2017 Karnataka State Film Awards

The 2017 Karnataka State Film Awards, presented by Government of Karnataka, felicitated the best of Karnataka cinema released in the year 2017. The list of winners were announced on 25 October 2018. The jury panel headed by producer N. S. Shankar submitted the list of winners to the Chief Minister H. D. Kumaraswamy.

Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni

Moulana Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni (November 11, 1898 – 1970) was a traditional Islamic scholar, Sufi master, poet, and leader. He was the founder of the Islamic college Jamia-Talimat-e-Islamiya located in Karachi.

Achamana

Achamanam (achamana, achmana) is one of the most important rituals in the Hindu tradition. It is a purification ritual that is believed to cure all physical and mental illnesses.

Archana (Hinduism)

Archana is a special, personal, abbreviated puja done by temple priests in which the name, birth star and family lineage of a devotee are recited to invoke individual guidance and blessings. Archana also refers to chanting the names of the Deity, which is a central part of every puja. The Sanskrit meaning is "honouring, praising."

Archana is also a common Indian female name. It means adoring or dedicated.

Ashram

Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi (Sanskrit ashrama or ashramam) is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions.

Gauda and Kunbi

Gaudas and Kunbis are aboriginal people residing in the coastal Indian state of Goa. They are believed to be the original inhabitants of Konkan. Most follow folk Hinduism but many were baptised to Catholicism by the Portuguese missionaries in last few centuries while still keeping their folk tradition and culture alive.

Gitanjali Group

Gitanjali Group was one of the largest branded jewellery retailers in the world. It is headquartered in Mumbai, India. Gitanjali sells its jewellery through over 4,000 Points of Sale and enjoys a market share of over 50 per cent of the overall organised jewellery market in India. Prominent brands housed by the group include Nakshatra, D'damas, Gili, Asmi, Sangini, Maya, Giantti, World of Solitaire and Shuddhi.

Karan Malhotra

Karan Malhotra is an Indian film director and screenwriter. He is best known for his debut film Agneepath. Before marking his directorial debut in 2012 with Dharma Productions, he worked for ten years as an assistant director in the Hindi film industry.

Karmkand

Karmkand refers to ritual services proferred by swamis or religious Brahmins in exchange for dakshina.

Kundan Singh Kush

Thakur Kundan Pal Singh Kush (1881–1967) was an Arya Samaj missionary and teacher who arrived in Fiji, from Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1928. He first taught at the Dharamshala School in Nausori where he later became the founding Head Teacher of Vunimono Arya School in 1929. He taught in a number of Arya Samaj schools which included Gurukul Primary School near Lautoka in 1939, Arya Samaj Girls' School in Saweni, Lautoka, from 1940 to 1945, Swami Shraddanand Memorial School in Suva, Vunikavikaloa Arya School in Ra, and Veisari Primary School near Suva.The Arya Samaj Centenary Publication, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Arya Samaj, made the following statement about the abilities of Kush:

Thakur Kundan Kush came to Fiji in 1928 as a teacher, served the Arya Samaj with distinction. He conducted debates and lectured ably. His logic and method of presentation of arguments were really very marvellous and worthy of remark.

The Fiji Government, however, was so worried about his activities that it repeatedly inquired into his fitness to teach school children, removed him from control of one school (see below), temporarily suspended his teaching licence and censored his mail, especially his imports of Arya Samj literature.Kush was the principal force behind the shuddhi (conversion) and sangathan (religious unions) efforts. On 29 June 1930 at a meeting of the Hindu Maha Sabha in Nausori, Kush was elected President. Resolutions passed at the meeting asked Hindus to organize themselves and to adhere to the teachings of the Hindu Dharam regarding diet and to boycott a rival newspaper (Vriddhi). As part of his shuddhi efforts, Kush made house to house visits among isolated Muslims and he with others was labelled as troublemakers by the police.In the 1930s, Kush was dismissed as a teacher from Samabula Indian School in Suva, and the government took over its management, when Muslim and Christian parents objected to the Arya Samaj influence in the school committee.Kush followed the principles of the Arya Samaj and supported marriage of widows, himself marrying a widow, Shiwa Bai and had three children: Usha, Uma and Narendra. He continued his religious work in Suva until his death in 1967 in Lautoka.

List of Marathi films of 1924

A list of films produced by the Marathi language film industry based in Maharashtra in the year 1924.

Malkana

The Malkana are a Muslim Rajput community found in Pakistan and North India.

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad (Urdu: مرزا بشیر الدین محمود احمد‎) (12 January 1889 – 7 November 1965), was the second caliph (Arabic: خليفة المسيح الثاني‎, khalīfatul masīh al-thāni), leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the eldest son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from his second wife, Nusrat Jahan Begum. He was elected as the second successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 14 March 1914 at the age of 25, the day after the death of his predecessor Hakim Nur-ud-Din.Mahmood Ahmad's election as second caliph saw a secession within the movement in which a party refrained from pledgeding allegiance to him on account of disagreements they held with him concerning the nature of Ghulam Ahmad's prophetic status and succession; and possibly owing to a clash of personalities. He led the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community for over half a century and is known for establishing virtually the entire organisational structure of the Community (including five Auxiliary Organisations), improvement of its administration, formally establishing the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council), consolidating and formalising the system of financial contributions of the Community and directing extensive missionary activity beyond the Indian subcontinent. He is also known for his Tafsīr-e-Kabīr, a ten-volume exegesis of the Qur'an. A renowned orator, Mahmood Ahmad was also an active political figure especially in pre-independence India. He was also one of the founding members and the first president of the All India Kashmir Committee set up for the establishment of the civil rights of Kashmiri Muslims. Following the Partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, he carefully oversaw the safe migration of Ahmadis from Qadian to the newly found state, eventually building a town on a tract of arid and mountainous land bought by the Community in 1948 which now became its new headquarters and was named Rabwah. A 26 volume compilation of his works called Anwārul Uloom contains over 800 writings and lectures (excluding the many thousands of sermons). Mahmood Ahmad is regarded by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as the Musleh Ma'ood (Promised Reformer) and the "Promised Son" that Ghulam Ahmad foretold God would bestow upon him.

Pinda (riceball)

Piṇḍas are balls of cooked rice and barley flour mixed with ghee and black sesame seeds offered to ancestors during Hindu funeral rites (Antyesti) and ancestor worship (Śrāddha).

Pushpanjali

Pushpanjali (Sanskrit:पुष्पाञ्जलि, literally folded hands full of flowers) is an offering of flowers to Indian Gods.

Pushpanjali is the first dance in a Bharatha Natyam performance. It is the salutation to the lord of dance Nataraja, the Guru, the musicians and the audience.

Shaucha

Shaucha (Sanskrit: शौच, also spelled Saucha, Śauca) literally means purity, cleanliness and clearness. It refers to purity of mind, speech and body. Saucha is one of the Niyamas of Yoga. It is discussed in many ancient Indian texts such as the Mahabharata and Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. It is a virtue in Hinduism and Jainism.Saucha includes outer purity of body as well as inner purity of mind. The concept of Saucha is synonymous with Shuddhi (शुद्धि). LePage states that Saucha in yoga is on many levels, and deepens as an understanding and evolution of self increases.Shaucha, or holistic purity of the body, is considered essential for health, happiness and general well-being. External purity is achieved through daily ablutions, while internal purity is cultivated through physical exercises, including asana (postures) and pranayama (breathing techniques). Along with daily ablutions to cleanse one's body, the concept of Shaucha suggests clean surrounding, along with fresh and clean food to purify the body. Lack of Saucha, such as letting toxins build in body are a source of impurity.Shaucha goes beyond purity of body, and includes purity of speech and mind. Anger, hate, prejudice, greed, pride, fear, negative thoughts are a source of impurity of mind. The impurities of the intellect are cleansed through the process of self-examination, or knowledge of self (Adhyatma-Vidya). The mind is purified through mindfulness and meditation on one's intent, feelings, actions and its causes.

Shuddhi (film)

Shuddhi is a 2017 Indian Kannada-language crime-drama film written and directed by Adarsh Eshwarappa. The film mainly stars Nivedhitha, Lauren Spartano and Amrutha Karagada in the lead roles. It also stars Shashank Purushotham and Sidhaartha Maadhyamika in supporting roles.

Whilst the cinematography is by Andrew Aiello, the film score was composed by Jesse Clinton. The major portion of the film has been shot using handheld technique which is a rarity in Indian cinema. The sound designer of the film is Nithin Lukose; Shuddhi was one amongst the very few films in Kannada, which was shot in sync sound.

Swami Shraddhanand

Swami Shraddhanand (22 February 1856 – 23 December 1926), also known as Mahatma Munshi Ram Vij, was an Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary who propagated the teachings of Dayananda Saraswati. This included the establishment of educational institutions, like the Gurukul Kangri University, and played a key role on the Sangathan (consolidation and organization) and the Shuddhi (re-conversion), a Hindu reform movement in the 1920s.

Udayana

Udayana, also known as Udayanācārya (Udyanacharya, or Master Udayana), was a very important Hindu logician of the tenth century who attempted to reconcile the views held by the two major schools of logic (Nyaya and Vaisheshika). This became the root of the Navya-Nyāya school of the thirteenth century, established by the Gangesha Upadhyaya ("New Nyāya") school of "right" reasoning, which is still recognized and followed in some regions of India. He lived in Kariyan village in Mithila, near present-day Darbhanga, Bihar state, India.

Udayana wrote a sub-gloss on Vachaspati's work called the Nyaya-vaartika-taatparya-tiikaa-parishuddhi. He wrote several other works such as the Kusumanjali, Atma-tattva-viveka, Kiranaavali and Nyaya-parishishhta (also called Bodha siddhi or Bodha shuddhi).

He is given credit by Naiyâyikas for having demolished in a final fashion the claims of the Buddhist logicians. All his works, or at least all of which we know, have been preserved, which attest to the respect in which he was held from the beginning.

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