Shrimp farming

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimp or prawns[Note 1] (crustaceans of the groups Caridea or Dendrobranchiata) for human consumption.

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The gate of a traditional shrimp farm in Kerala, India which uses the tide to harvest shrimp

Marine

Shrimp pond
Shrimp grow-out pond on a farm in South Korea

Commercial marine shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the United States, Japan, and Western Europe. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 2.1 million tonnes in 1991, representing a value of nearly US$9 billion. About 30% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, particularly in China and Indonesia. The other 54.1% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil, Ecuador, and Mexico are the largest producers. The largest exporting nation is Indonesia.

Shrimp farming has changed from traditional, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. Technological advances have led to growing shrimp at ever higher densities, and broodstock is shipped worldwide. Virtually all farmed shrimp are of the family Penaeidae, and just two species – Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) – account for roughly 32.14% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, and pressure and criticism from both NGOs and consumer countries led to changes in the industry in the late 1990s and generally stronger regulation by governments. In 1999, a program aimed at developing and promoting more sustainable farming practices was initiated, including governmental bodies, industry representatives, and environmental organizations.

Freshwater

Construction of Freshwater Shrimp Farm, Pekalongan
A farmer constructing a shrimp farm in Pekalongan, Indonesia

Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming. Unique problems are introduced by the developmental lifecycle of the main species (the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii).[1] The global annual production of freshwater prawns in 2010 was about 2 eggs, of which China produced 615,000 tons (92%).[2]

Animal welfare

Eyestalk ablation is the removal of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyestalks from a crustacean. It is routinely practiced on female shrimps (or prawns) in almost every marine shrimp maturation or reproduction facility in the world, both research and commercial. The aim of ablation under these circumstances is to stimulate the female shrimp to develop mature ovaries and spawn.[3]

Most captive conditions for shrimp cause inhibitions in females that prevent them from developing mature ovaries. Even in conditions where a given species will develop ovaries and spawn in captivity, use of eyestalk ablation increases total egg production and increases the percentage of females in a given population that participate in reproduction. Once females have been subjected to eyestalk ablation, complete ovarian development often ensues within as little as 3 to 10 days.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ The terminology may be confusing as different agencies draw different distinctions between "shrimp" and "prawns".

References

  1. ^ New, M. B.: Farming Freshwater Prawns; FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 428, 2002. ISSN 0429-9345.
  2. ^ Data extracted from the FAO Fisheries Global Aquaculture Production Database for freshwater crustaceans. As of October 2012, the most recent data sets are for 2010 and sometimes contain estimates. Accessed October 21, 2012.
  3. ^ Uawisetwathana, U; Leelatanawit, R; Klanchui, A; Prommoon, J; Klinbunga, S; Karoonuthaisiri, N (7 September 2011). "Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp". PLOS ONE. 6: e24427. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024427. PMC 3168472. PMID 21915325.
Aquaculture

Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated." The reported output from global aquaculture operations in 2014 supplied over one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans; however, there are issues about the reliability of the reported figures. Further, in current aquaculture practice, products from several pounds of wild fish are used to produce one pound of a piscivorous fish like salmon.Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, mariculture, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which integrate fish farming and aquatic plant farming.

Batticaloa Lagoon

Batticaloa Lagoon is a very large estuarine lagoon in Batticaloa District, eastern Sri Lanka. The city of Batticaloa is located on land between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean.Batticaloa district is flourished with three lagoons, such Batticaloa lagoon, Valaichchenai Lagoon and Vakari Lagoon. Among them, Batticaloa lagoon is the largest lagoon in Batticaloa District. Batticaloa lagoon is a long and narrow lagoon situated in the east coast of Sri Lanka with the total area of approximately 11,500 ha of water.

The lagoon is 56 km long. This lagoon extends from Eravur (Batticaloa district) in the north to Kalmunai (Ampara district) in the south. This lagoon opens into the sea at two points. One in the southern end of the lagoon at Kallar and the other is midway of the lagoon at Palameenmadu which is close to the Batticaloa town. Both are narrow and approximately 200 m wide. The width of the water flow at their openings varies with the seasons. During the dry season the width of the bar mouth of the lagoon decreases and gradually it get closed with the onset of the north east monsoon which piles up the sand bar by the end of dry season. Later with the rains and with the lagoon mouth closed.

The lagoon is fed by a number of small rivers. It is linked to the sea by a two narrow channels, one at Batticaloa and the other at Periyakallar. During the dry season these channels are blocked by sand bars.

The lagoon is surrounded by a densely populated region used for cultivating rice, coconut and other crops. The surrounding land is used for shrimp farming and rice cultivation.

The lagoon has extensive mangrove swamps and some sea grass beds. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds.

Fishing in Bangladesh

Bangladesh being a first line littoral state of the Indian Ocean has a very good source of marine resources in the Bay of Bengal. The country has an exclusive economic zone of 41,000 square miles (110,000 km2), which is 73% of the country's land area. On the other hand, Bangladesh is a small and developing country overloaded with almost unbearable pressure of human population. In the past, people of Bangladesh were mostly dependent upon land-based proteins. But, the continuous process of industrialisation and urbanisation consumes the limited land area. Now there is no other way than to harvest the vast under water protein from the Bay of Bengal, which can meet the country's demand.

More than 80 percent of the animal protein in the Bangladeshi diet comes from fish. Fish accounted for 6 percent of GDP in the fiscal year of 1970, nearly 50 percent more than modern industrial manufacturing at that time. Most commercial fishermen are low-caste Hindus who eke out the barest subsistence working under primitive and dangerous conditions. They bring a high degree of skill and ingenuity to their occupation; a few of the most enterprising ones are aided by domesticated otters, which behave like shepherds, swimming underwater, driving fish toward the fisherman's net (and being rewarded themselves with a share of the catch). Fish for local consumption are generally of freshwater varieties.

Freshwater prawn farming

A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawns or shrimp1 for human consumption. Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming. Unique problems are introduced by the developmental life cycle of the main species (the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii).The global annual production of freshwater prawns (excluding crayfish and crabs) in 2003 was about 280,000 tons, of which China produced some 180,000 tons, followed by India and Thailand with some 35,000 tons each. Additionally, China produced about 370,000 tons of Chinese river crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

Himeshima, Ōita

Himeshima (姫島村, Himeshima-mura) is a village located in Higashikunisaki District, Ōita Prefecture, Japan.

The name Himeshima literally means "Princess Island". The village is on a small island, sometimes referred to as Hime Island, just off the Japanese island of Kyūshū, and is accessible by ferry.As of March 2017, the village has an estimated population of 1,930 and the density of 280 persons per km². The total area is 6.98 km². The main occupations are fishing and shrimp farming. Every summer, there is a Shinto religious ceremony featuring dancers dressed as foxes.

Indian prawn

The Indian prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus, formerly Penaeus indicus), is one of the major commercial prawn species of the world. It is found in the Indo-West Pacific from eastern and south-eastern Africa, through India, Malaysia and Indonesia to southern China and northern Australia. Adult shrimp grow to a length of about 22 cm (9 in) and live on the seabed to depths of about 90 m (300 ft). The early developmental stages take place in the sea before the larvae move into estuaries. They return to the sea as sub-adults.

The Indian prawn is used for human consumption and is the subject of a sea fishery, particularly in China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. It is also the subject of an aquaculture industry, the main countries involved in this being Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Iran and India. For this, wild seed is collected or young shrimps are reared in hatcheries and kept in ponds as they grow. The ponds may be either extensive with reliance on natural foods, with rice paddy fields being used in India after the monsoon period, or semi-intensive or intensive, with controlled feeding. Harvesting is by drainage of the pond.

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the Atlantic coast of the Americas. The shrimp-farming industry has developed several broodstocks of both P. stylirostris and P. vannamei that are resistant against IHHN infection.The disease is caused by a single-stranded DNA virus of the species Decapod pestyldensovirus 1, earlier known as IHHN virus, the smallest of the known penaeid shrimp viruses (22 nm).

Integrated mangrove-shrimp aquaculture

Integrated mangrove-shrimp (IMS) aquaculture is a sustainable farming system used as one of the measures for mangrove rehabilitation and can be described as a method of organic aquaculture. Silvoaquaculture or silvofisheries are also terms used to define this farming practice where mangrove trees are planted alongside shrimp ponds allowing for profitable net income from shrimp farming, as it replicates a more natural habitat.One of the main causes of mangrove forest depletion is the expansion of shrimp aquaculture. Coastal regions of Southeast Asia have suffered considerable loss as their shrimp production grew to dominate the market over the past 50 years. The performance and sustainability of shrimp ponds depend on the goods and services provided by mangrove ecosystems yet mangrove forests are being cleared to build these shrimp farms. For this reason, IMS farming is an alternative practice that can meet mangrove conservation needs, while sustaining the livelihoods of coastal communities.

Liao I-chiu

Liao I-chiu (Chinese: 廖一久; pinyin: Liào Yījiǔ) (b. Nov. 4, 1936) is a Taiwanese academic who specializes in commercial aquatic animal breeding and aquaculture. He is known as the "Father of Shrimp Farming".

List of mangrove ecoregions

This is a list of mangrove ecoregions ordered according to whether they lie in the Afrotropic, Australasian, Indomalayan or Neotropic areas of the world. Mangrove estuaries such as those found in the Sundarbans of southwestern Bangladesh are rich productive ecosystems which serve as spawning grounds and nurseries for shrimp, crabs, and many fish species, a richness which is lost if the area is cleared and converted to ponds for shrimp farming or rice paddies.

Little Rann of Kutch

Little desert of Kutch is a salt marsh which is part of Rann of Kutch in Kutch district, Gujarat, India.

Mangrove tree distribution

Global mangrove distributions have fluctuated throughout human and geological history. The area covered by mangroves is influenced by a complex interaction between land position, rainfall hydrology, sea level, sedimentation, subsidence, storms and pest-predator relationships). In the last 50 years, human activities have strongly affected mangrove distributions, resulting in declines or expansions of worldwide mangrove area. Mangroves provide several important ‘free services’ including coastal stabilization, juvenile fish habitats, and the filtration of sediment and nutrients). Mangrove loss has important implications for coastal ecological systems and human communities dependent on healthy mangrove ecosystems. This English Wikipedia page presents an overview of global Mangrove Forest biome trends in mangrove ecoregions distribution, as well as the cause of such changes.

As of 2012, mangroves are found in 105 nations globally. Although distributed across 105 nations, the top 10 mangrove holding nations contain approximately 52% of the global mangrove stock with Indonesia alone containing between 26% and 29% of the entire global mangrove stock. The largest continuous area of mangrove forest is likely in-and-around the Sundarbans National Park in India and the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests in Bangladesh, which are both recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Although existing almost exclusively in the tropics and near-tropics, warm ocean currents support mangrove forests as far north as Walsingham Nature Reserve (Idwal Hughes Nature Reserve) in Bermuda and as far south as Snake Island, Australia.

Marine shrimp farming

Marine shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Although traditional shrimp farming has been carried out in Asia for centuries, large-scale commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the United States, Japan and Western Europe. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9 billion U.S. dollars. About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, in particular in China and Thailand. The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil, Ecuador, and Mexico are the largest producers. The largest exporting nation is Thailand.

Shrimp farming has changed from traditional, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. Technological advances have led to growing shrimp at ever higher densities, and broodstock is shipped worldwide. Virtually all farmed shrimp are of the family Penaeidae, and just two species – Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) – account for roughly 80% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, and pressure and criticism from both NGOs and consumer countries led to changes in the industry in the late 1990s and generally stronger regulation by governments. In 1999, a program aimed at developing and promoting more sustainable farming practices was initiated, including governmental bodies, industry representatives, and environmental organizations.

Raceway (aquaculture)

A raceway, also known as a flow-through system, is an artificial channel used in aquaculture to culture aquatic organisms. Raceway systems are among the earliest methods used for inland aquaculture. A raceway usually consists of rectangular basins or canals constructed of concrete and equipped with an inlet and outlet. A continuous water flow-through is maintained to provide the required level of water quality, which allows animals to be cultured at higher densities within the raceway.Freshwater species such as trout, catfish and tilapia are commonly cultured in raceways. Raceways are also used for some marine species which need a constant water flow, such as juvenile salmon, brackish water sea bass and sea bream and marine invertebrates such as abalone.

San Vicente Canton, Ecuador

San Vicente Canton is a canton of Ecuador. It is the youngest canton in the Manabí Province, having been founded on November 16, 1999 when it was separated from Sucre Canton as a result of citizen procedures. Its capital is the urban parish of San Vicente, while Canoa is the only officially recognized rural parish. Canoa is well known by tourists and foreigners for its good conditions for surfing and paragliding. Another oceanside community, Boca de Briceño, also lies within the canton. Its population at the 2001 census was 19,116. The canton's economy relies on agriculture, livestock, shrimp farming, and tourism.

Shrimp

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, shrimp may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, however, the term is used more narrowly and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails (abdomens), long whiskers (antennae), and slender legs. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one. They swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is typically repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards very quickly. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin, fragile legs which they use primarily for perching.Shrimp are widespread and abundant. There are thousands of species adapted to a wide range of habitats. They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the seafloor and dive into the sediment. They usually live from one to seven years. Shrimp are often solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season.They play important roles in the food chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, and they are widely caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, and in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became more prevalent during the 1980s, particularly in China, and by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, and with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm (0.79 in) long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm (9.8 in). Larger shrimp are more likely to be targeted commercially and are often referred to as prawns, particularly in Britain.

Taura syndrome

Taura syndrome is one of the more devastating diseases affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide.

Taura syndrome (TS) was first described in Ecuador during the summer of 1992. In March 1993, it returned as a major epidemic and was the object of extensive media coverage. Retrospective studies have suggested a case of Taura syndrome might have occurred on a shrimp farm in Colombia as early as 1990 and the virus was already present in Ecuador in mid-1991. Between 1992 and 1997, the disease spread to all major regions of the Americas where whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is cultured. The economic impact of TS in the Americas during that period might have exceeded US$2 billion by some estimates.

Tecuala

Tecuala is both a municipality and a town in the Mexican state of Nayarit, on the Pacific coast. The population of the municipality was 42,237 in a total area of 1,137 km² (2000) while the population of the town and municipal seat was 14,584 (2000). One of the longest beaches in the world, Playa Novillero, is located here."Tecuala" is the Castilian form of the Tecuallan word, which means "place of many wild animals".

The municipality of Tecuala is located in the northern part of the state of Nayarit, between parallels 22° 14', and 22° 34' north latitude and meridians 105° 14' and 105° 45' west longitude. It is bounded in the north by the state of Sinaloa and the municipality of Acaponeta; in the south by the municipalities of Santiago Ixcuintla and Rosamorada, in the east by the municipality of Acaponeta and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Most of the land is flat and tending to mangrove swamps in the west, forming part of the national protected zone called Marismas Nacionales. The most important river is the Acaponeta, which flows into the Agua Brava lagoon.The climate is hot, tropical, subhumid, with the rainy season from July to September, and the hottest months from June to August. The average annual rainfall is 1,200 mm. and the average annual temperature is 22°C, varying between 26°C and 18°C.

The economy is based on agriculture with the main crops being sorghum, beans, tobacco, corn, chili peppers, watermelon and jícama. There is also widespread cattle raising. Shrimp farming is carried out in the many lagoons.

The popular Novillero beach is listed in Guinness World Records for being one of the longest beaches in the world—82 kilometers. The Acaponeta River flows into the ocean here and nearby is the Agua Brava lagoon, a place of great fishing and shrimp production. In San Felipe Aztatán, one can visit a monument to the origins of the Mexican people.

Today, Tecuala is the new target for real estate developers focused on tourist matters. Playa Novillero, especially the "Peninsula", which has a total area of approximately 3,460-acre (1,400 ha) with ocean and river front, has very attractive plans within the next months to initiate a new concept of a tourist project.

It is said, that former governor of Sinaloa state; Antonio Toledo Corro and Monterrey-based developers Grupo Novisa who apparently own the peninsula have a very aggressive plan with the idea to start a new era for the new Riviera which will employ hundreds of people and increase the living standards of the people who live within the area.

Udappu

Udappu or Udappuwa (Tamil: உடப்பு) is a traditional Tamil fishing and shrimp farming village. situated 65 miles (105 km) north of Colombo the capital of Sri Lanka in the North Western Province. It is situated few miles north of Chilaw city and Munneswaram temple.

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