Short film

A short film is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits".[1] In the United States, short films were generally termed short subjects from the 1920s into the 1970s when confined to two 35mm reels or less, and featurettes for a film of three or four reels. "Short" was an abbreviation for either term.

The increasingly rare industry term "short subject" carries more of an assumption that the film is shown as part of a presentation along with a feature film. Short films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers with either a low budget or no budget at all. They are usually funded by film grants, nonprofit organizations, sponsor, or personal funds. Short films are generally used for industry experience and as a platform to showcase talent to secure funding for future projects from private investors, a production company, or film studios.

History

William Garwood
William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were only 20 minutes in length

All films in the beginning of cinema were very short, sometimes running only a minute or less. It was not until the 1910s when films started to get longer than about ten minutes. The first set of films were presented in 1894 and it was through Thomas Edison's device called a kinetoscope. It was made for individual viewing only. Comedy short films were produced in large numbers compared to lengthy features such as D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. By the 1920s, a ticket purchased a varied program including a feature and several supporting works from categories such as second feature, short comedy, 5–10 minute cartoon, travelogue, and newsreel.

Short comedies were especially popular, and typically came in a serial or series (such as the Our Gang movies, or the many outings of Charlie Chaplin's Little Tramp character).

Animated cartoons came principally as short subjects. Virtually all major film production companies had units assigned to develop and produce shorts, and many companies, especially in the silent and very early sound era, produced mostly or only short subjects.

In the 1930s, the distribution system changed in many countries, owing to the Great Depression. Instead of the cinema owner assembling a program of their own choice, the studios sold a package centered on a main and supporting feature, a cartoon and little else. With the rise of the double feature, two-reel shorts went into decline as a commercial category. Hal Roach, for example, moved Laurel and Hardy full-time into feature films after 1935, and halved his popular Our Gang films to one reel. By the 1940s, he had moved out of short films altogether (though Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer continued the Our Gang shorts until 1944).

Later shorts include George O'Hanlon's Joe McDoakes movies, and the animated work of studios such as Walt Disney Productions, Warner Bros. Cartoons. By the mid-1950s, with the rise of television, the commercial live-action short was virtually dead, The Three Stooges being the last major series of 2-reelers, ending in 1959. Short films had become a medium for student, independent and specialty work.

Cartoon shorts had a longer life, due in part to the implementation of lower-cost limited animation techniques. Despite being popular, they also declined in this period. Warner Bros., one of the most prolific of the golden era, shut down its studio permanently in 1969. The Pink Panther was the last regular theatrical cartoon short series, having begun in 1964 (and thus having spent its entire existence in the limited animation era) and ended in 1980. By the 1960s, the market for animated shorts had largely shifted to television, with existing theatrical shorts being syndicated to television.

Modern era

A few animated shorts continue within mainstream commercial distribution. For instance, Pixar has screened a short along with each of its feature films during its initial theatrical run since 1995 (producing shorts permanently since 2001).[2] Since Disney acquired Pixar in 2006, Disney has also produced animated shorts since 2007 with the Goofy short How to Hook Up Your Home Theater and produced a series of live action ones featuring The Muppets for viewing on YouTube as viral videos to promote the 2011 movie of the same name.

DreamWorks Animation often produces a short sequel to include in the special edition video releases of major features, and are typically of a sufficient length to be broadcast as a TV special, a few films from the studio have added theatrical shorts as well. Warner Bros. often includes old animated shorts from its considerable library, connected only thematically, on the DVD releases of classic WB movies. In 2010 and 2012 Warner Bros. also released new Looney Tunes shorts before family films.

Shorts International and Magnolia Pictures organize an annual release of Academy Award nominated short films in theatres across the US, UK, Canada and Mexico throughout February and March.[3]

Shorts are occasionally broadcast as filler when a feature film or other work doesn't fit the standard broadcast schedule. ShortsTV was the first television channel dedicated to short films.

However, short films generally rely on festival exhibition to reach an audience. Such movies can also be distributed via the Internet. Certain websites which encourage the submission of user-created short films, such as YouTube and Vimeo have attracted large communities of artists and viewers. Sites like FILMSshort, Short of the Week, Short Central[4] and some apps showcase curated shorts.

Short films are a typical first stage for new filmmakers, but professional actors and crews often still choose to create short films as an alternative form of expression. Amateur filmmaking has grown in popularity as equipment has become more accessible.

The lower production costs of short films often mean that short films can cover alternative subject matter as compared to higher budget feature films. Similarly, unconventional filmmaking techniques such as Pixilation or narratives that are told without dialogue, are more often seen in short films than features.

Tropfest claims to be the world's largest short film festival. Tropfests now take place in Australia (its birthplace), Arabia, the US and elsewhere. Originating in 1993, Tropfest is often credited as being at least partially responsible for the recent popularity of short films internationally.

Short shorts

Short short films are sometimes considered in a category of their own. The International Festival of Very Shorts based in Paris only shows movies less than three minutes long. Filminute, the international one-minute film festival, has presented and promoted a collection of one-minute films across multiple media since September 2006. FILMSshort.com also categorizes films under five minutes.

In popular culture

Canada has a "television magazine program that features short films from across the country", entitled the "Short Film Face Off". Indonesia has an organization focusing on short films dissemination, holding a monthly regular screening and also annual programs and special events for public, while building networks in Bali, Indonesia, Regional (South East Asia) and furthermore Internationally, named "Minikino".

See also

References

  1. ^ "Rule Nineteen: Short Films Awards". AMPAS. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
  2. ^ Pixar Short Films Web Site Archived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Holden, Stephen (2013). "Far From Epic Length, but on the Shortlist for Oscar Glory". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Short films collection on Short Central

External links

Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film

The Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film is an award given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) as part of the Academy Awards annually since the 5th Academy Awards, covering the year 1931–32, to the present.

This category was known as "Short Subjects, Cartoons" from 1932 until 1970, and as "Short Subjects, Animated Films" from 1971 to 1973. The present title began with the 1974 awards. In the listings below, the title shown in boldface was the winner of the award, followed by the other nominees for that year. Only American films were nominated for the award until 1952 with NFB's The Romance of Transportation in Canada.

MGM's Tom and Jerry are the category's most lauded animated series, winning seven Oscars and being nominated for a total of 13. Among foreign studios, the National Film Board of Canada has the most wins in this category, with six Oscars. The biggest showing from Britain in this category is Nick Park, with three wins (for Creature Comforts and two for the Wallace and Gromit series.)

Awards were presented to the shorts' producers during the first five decades of the award's existence. Current Academy rules call for the award to be presented to "the individual person most directly responsible for the concept and the creative execution of the film. In the event that more than one individual has been directly and importantly involved in creative decisions, a second statuette may be awarded". The Academy defines short as being "not more than 40 minutes, including all credits".

Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film

Live Action Short Film is a category at the Academy Awards, existing under various names as a single category since 1957.

From 1936 until 1956 there were two separate awards, "Best Short Subject, One-reel" and "Best Short Subject, Two-reel", referring to the running time of the short: a standard reel of film is 1000 feet, or about 11 minutes of run time. A third category "Best Short Subject, color" was used only for 1936 and 1937. From the initiation of short subject awards for 1932 until 1935 the terms were "Best Short Subject, comedy" and "Best Short Subject, novelty".

These categories were merged starting with the 1957 awards, under the name "Short Subjects, Live Action Subjects", which was used until 1970. For the next three years after that, it was known as "Short Subjects, Live Action Films". The current name for the Academy Award for Live Action Short Film was introduced in 1974.

Aidan Gillen

Aidan Gillen (; born Aidan Murphy; 24 April 1968) is an Irish actor. He is known for his portrayal of Petyr "Littlefinger" Baelish in the HBO series Game of Thrones (2011–2017), Dr. J. Allen Hynek in The History Channel's Project Blue Book (2019-present), Tommy Carcetti in the HBO series The Wire (2004–2008), Stuart Alan Jones in the Channel 4 series Queer as Folk (1999–2000), John Boy in the RTÉ series Love/Hate (2010–2011) and CIA operative Bill Wilson in The Dark Knight Rises (2012). He also hosted seasons 10 through 13 of Other Voices. Gillen has won three Irish Film & Television Awards and has been nominated for a British Academy Television Award, a British Independent Film Award, and a Tony Award.

Animation

Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery (CGI). Computer animation can be very detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures.

Commonly the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain.

Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that originally were analog and now operate digitally. For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed.

Animation is more pervasive than many people realise. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is also prevalent in information technology interfaces.The physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can also be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a very long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics.

Animators are artists who specialize in creating animation.

Brendan Gleeson

Brendan Gleeson (born 29 March 1955) is an Irish actor and film director. He is the recipient of three IFTA Awards, two BIFA Awards, and an Emmy Award and has been nominated twice for a BAFTA Award and thrice for a Golden Globe Award.

His best-known performances as Alastor Moody in the Harry Potter films from (2004-2010).

And for his supporting roles in films such as Braveheart (1995), Michael Collins (1996), Gangs of New York (2002), Cold Mountain (2003), Troy (2004), Suffragette (2015), Paddington 2 (2018), and The Ballad of Buster Scruggs (2018), as well as leading roles in films such as In Bruges (2008), The Guard (2011) and Calvary (2014).

He won an Emmy Award in 2009 for his portrayal of Winston Churchill in the television film Into the Storm.

He is the father of actors Domhnall Gleeson and Brian Gleeson.

Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (; French: Festival de Cannes), until 2002 called the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually (usually in May) at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès. It is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate. The board of directors also appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival.The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018. The jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, and Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or.

Doug Jones (actor)

Doug Jones (born May 24, 1960) is an American actor, contortionist, and mime. He is best known for his roles in Hellboy, Pan's Labyrinth, and The Shape of Water.He is known for his multiple collaborations with filmmaker Guillermo del Toro, starring in Mimic, as Abe Sapien in Hellboy and Hellboy II: The Golden Army, the Faun and the Pale Man in Pan's Labyrinth, the ghosts of Edith's Mother and Beatrice Sharpe in Crimson Peak, and the Amphibian Man in The Shape of Water. He has appeared in films such as Tank Girl, Hocus Pocus and The Bye Bye Man. He portrayed the titular Silver Surfer in the superhero film Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, and appeared in the TV series Falling Skies, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and del Toro's The Strain. Since 2017, he has been a series regular on Star Trek: Discovery, portraying Commander Saru.

Jeff Goldblum

Jeffrey Lynn Goldblum (; born October 22, 1952) is an American actor and musician. He has starred in some of the highest-grossing films of his era, Jurassic Park (1993) and Independence Day (1996), as well as their respective sequels, The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018), and Independence Day: Resurgence (2016).

Goldblum starred in films including Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978), The Big Chill (1983), and Into the Night (1985) before coming to the attention of wider audiences in David Cronenberg's The Fly (1986) which earned him a Saturn Award for Best Actor.

His other films include The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension (1984), The Tall Guy (1989), Deep Cover (1992), Powder (1995), The Prince of Egypt (1998), Cats & Dogs (2001), Igby Goes Down (2002), The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou (2004), Adam Resurrected (2008), Le Week-End (2013), The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014), and Thor: Ragnarok (2017). He also starred in several TV series including the eighth and ninth seasons of Law & Order: Criminal Intent as Zack Nichols. For directing the short film Little Surprises, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film.

Kiernan Shipka

Kiernan Brennan Shipka (born November 10, 1999) is an American actress known for starring as Sabrina Spellman on the Netflix supernatural horror series Chilling Adventures of Sabrina (2018–present), Sally Draper on the AMC period drama series Mad Men (2007–2015) and B. D. Hyman in the FX anthology series Feud: Bette and Joan (2017). Shipka also voiced Jinora in the Avatar: The Last Airbender sequel, The Legend of Korra (2012–2014).Shipka has also starred in numerous films, including Carriers (2009), Flowers in the Attic (2014), The Blackcoat's Daughter (2015), and The Silence (2019).

Kristin Kreuk

Kristin Laura Kreuk (; born December 30, 1982) is a Canadian actress. Debuting on Canadian teen drama Edgemont, she became most known for her roles as Lana Lang in the superhero television series Smallville (2001–2008), and as Catherine Chandler in The CW sci-fi series Beauty & the Beast (2012–2016).

She has also starred in movies such as Snow White: The Fairest of Them All (2001), Street Fighter: The Legend of Chun-Li (2009), and Irvine Welsh's Ecstasy (2011).

Masterpiece

Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship. Historically, a "masterpiece" was a work of a very high standard produced to obtain membership of a guild or academy in various areas of the visual arts and crafts.

Peter Capaldi

Peter Dougan Capaldi (born 14 April 1958) is a Scottish actor, writer and director. He portrayed the twelfth incarnation of the Doctor in Doctor Who (2013-2017) and Malcolm Tucker the spin doctor in The Thick of It, for which he has received four British Academy Television Award nominations, winning Best Male Comedy Performance in 2010. When he reprised the role of Tucker in the feature film In the Loop, Capaldi was honoured with several film critic award nominations for Best Supporting Actor.

As a director, Capaldi won the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film and the BAFTA Award for Best Short Film for his short film Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life. He went on to write and direct the drama film Strictly Sinatra and two series of the sitcom Getting On.

Robert Blake (actor)

Robert Blake (born Michael James Gubitosi, September 18, 1933) is an American actor. He had starring roles in the film In Cold Blood and the U.S. television series Baretta.Blake began performing as a child, with a lead role in the final years of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Our Gang (Little Rascals) short film series from 1939 to 1944. He also appeared as a child actor in 22 entries of the Red Ryder film franchise. In the Red Ryder series and in many of his other roles as an adult, he was cast as a Native American or Latino character.After a stint in the Army, Blake returned to acting in both television and movie roles. He was married to Sondra Kerr, his first wife, with whom he had two children, from 1961 until their divorce in 1983. He continued acting through 1997's Lost Highway for a career that author Michael Newton called "one of the longest in Hollywood history."In 2005, Blake was tried and acquitted of the 2001 murder of his second wife, Bonnie Lee Bakley. On November 18, 2005, he was found liable in a California civil court for her wrongful death.

Sam Rockwell

Sam Rockwell (born November 5, 1968) is an American actor. He first became known for his leading roles in Lawn Dogs (1997), Confessions of a Dangerous Mind (2002), Matchstick Men (2003), The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (2005), Moon (2009), and Seven Psychopaths (2012). He has also played supporting roles in The Green Mile (1999), Galaxy Quest (1999), Frost/Nixon (2008), Iron Man 2 (2010), Conviction (2010), and The Way, Way Back (2013).

In 2017, Rockwell's performance as a troubled police officer in the crime-drama Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, a Golden Globe, and two Screen Actors Guild Awards. The following year, his portrayal of George W. Bush in the biopic Vice earned him his second Academy Award nomination in the same category.

Sandra Oh

Sandra Miju Oh (born July 20, 1971) is a Canadian actress. She is known for her role as Cristina Yang on the ABC medical drama series Grey's Anatomy, who she played from 2005 to 2014; as Eve Polastri in BBC America's murder-mystery series Killing Eve; and for her supporting role as Rita Wu on the HBO sitcom Arliss. The recipient of numerous accolades, including two Golden Globe Awards, four Screen Actors Guild Awards, and six Primetime Emmy Award nominations, Oh became the first actress of Asian descent to be nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series and the first Asian woman to win two Golden Globes. She was included in Time's 2019 list of the 100 most influential people.Her other television credits include Judging Amy, The Proud Family, Shitty Boyfriends and American Crime as well as voice roles on American Dad!, American Dragon: Jake Long and Phineas and Ferb. Oh has also played notable roles in the British-American feature film Bean (1997), and American feature films Last Night (1998), The Princess Diaries (2001), Under the Tuscan Sun (2003), Sideways (2004), Wilby Wonderful (2004), Sorry, Haters (2005), Hard Candy (2005), The Night Listener (2006), Blindness (2008), Rabbit Hole (2010), and Catfight (2016).

She has also starred in the Asian Canadian films Double Happiness (1994), The Diary of Evelyn Lau (1994), Long Life, Happiness & Prosperity (2002) and Meditation Park (2017). She has won two Genie Awards for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role for Last Night and Double Happiness. She has won a Gemini Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series for her role in The Diary of Evelyn Lau.

Oh hosted the 28th Genie Awards on March 3, 2008, and became the first Asian woman to host the Golden Globe Awards when she hosted the 76th ceremony in 2019. She gained U.S. citizenship in 2018, and in March 2019, Oh became the third Asian American woman to host Saturday Night Live from New York, after Lucy Liu in 2000 and Awkwafina in 2018.

Shia LaBeouf

Shia Saide LaBeouf ( (listen); born June 11, 1986) is an American actor, performance artist, and filmmaker. He became known among younger audiences as Louis Stevens in the Disney Channel series Even Stevens, a role for which LaBeouf received a Young Artist Award nomination in 2001 and won a Daytime Emmy Award in 2003. He made his film debut in The Christmas Path (1998). In 2004, he made his directorial debut with the short film Let's Love Hate and later directed a short film titled Maniac (2011), starring American rappers Cage and Kid Cudi.

In 2007, LaBeouf starred in the commercially successful films Disturbia and Surf's Up. The same year he was cast in Michael Bay's science fiction film Transformers as Sam Witwicky, the main protagonist of the series. Transformers was a box office success and one of the highest-grossing films of 2007. LaBeouf later appeared in its sequels Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen (2009) and Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011), both also box office successes. In 2008, he played Henry "Mutt Williams" Jones III in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.

Some of his other most notable roles are in films such as Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps (2010), Lawless (2012), The Company You Keep (2012), Nymphomaniac (2013), Fury (2014), American Honey (2016), and Borg vs McEnroe (2017).

Since 2014, LaBeouf has pursued a variety of public performance art projects with LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner.

The Big Short (film)

The Big Short is a 2015 American biographical comedy-drama film directed by Adam McKay. Written by McKay and Charles Randolph, it is based on the 2010 book The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis showing how the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was triggered by the United States housing bubble. The film stars Christian Bale, Steve Carell, Ryan Gosling, Brad Pitt, Melissa Leo, Hamish Linklater, John Magaro, Rafe Spall, Jeremy Strong, Finn Wittrock, and Marisa Tomei.

The film is noted for the unconventional techniques it employs to explain complex financial instruments. Among others, it features cameo appearances by actress Margot Robbie, chef Anthony Bourdain, singer-songwriter Selena Gomez, and economist Richard Thaler, who break the fourth wall to explain concepts such as subprime mortgages and collateralized debt obligations as a meta-reference. Several other actors directly address the audience, most frequently Gosling, who serves as the narrator.

The film began a limited release in the United States on December 11, 2015, followed by a wide release on December 23 by Paramount Pictures. The film was a commercial success, grossing $133 million against a $50 million budget. The film was also highly praised by critics, with many highlighting the cast's performances (particularly Bale, Carell and Gosling), McKay's direction and the screenplay. The film won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay in addition to nominations for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (Bale), and Best Film Editing.

Troian Bellisario

Troian Avery Bellisario (; born October 28, 1985) is an American actress. She is known for playing the role of Spencer Hastings in Freeform's Pretty Little Liars.

Born in Los Angeles, California, she is the daughter of producers Donald P. Bellisario and Deborah Pratt. Bellisario made her acting debut in her father's 1988 film Last Rites at the age of three. She continued to have roles produced by her father, mainly in television shows such as Quantum Leap, First Monday, and NCIS, and in 1998, she acted in the direct-to-video comedy film Billboard Dad. In 2010, she received praise for her leading performance in the film Consent for which she won the Vision Fest Award for Best Acting by a Female Lead and the FirstGlance Philadelphia Award for Best Actress.

In 2009, Bellisario landed the lead role of Spencer Hastings in the Freeform series Pretty Little Liars (2010–2017). For her performance, she has won two Teen Choice Awards out of six nominations and a Young Hollywood Award. In addition to her work on Pretty Little Liars, Bellisario also starred in the WIGS episode series Lauren, for which she received critical acclaim and won the New York Film Festival Award for Best Performance by an Actress and was nominated for the Streamy Award for Best Female Performance - Drama. She has appeared in, produced, and co-written multiple short films and indie projects; in 2016, she made her directorial debut with the fifteenth episode of the seventh season of Pretty Little Liars, "In the Eye Abides the Heart".

Zachary Levi

Zachary Levi (born Zachary Levi Pugh; September 29, 1980) is an American actor and singer. He received critical acclaim for starring as Chuck Bartowski in the series Chuck, and as the title character in Shazam!, as a part of the DC Extended Universe.

Levi starred in the lead role of Georg Nowack in the 2016 Broadway revival of She Loves Me opposite Laura Benanti, for which he received a Tony Award nomination. He voiced Flynn Rider in the 2010 animated film Tangled, in which he performed the duet "I See the Light" with Mandy Moore; the song won a Grammy for Best Song Written for Visual Media. He reprised the voice role in the 2012 short film Tangled Ever After and a 2017 Disney Channel television series based on the film. He has appeared in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Thor: The Dark World and Thor: Ragnarok as Fandral.

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