Shopping cart

A shopping cart (American English) or trolley (British English), also known by a variety of other names, is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the checkout counter during shopping. In many cases customers can then also use the cart to transport their purchased goods to their vehicles, but some carts are designed to prevent them from leaving the shop.

In many places in the United States and the United Kingdom, customers are allowed to leave the carts in designated areas within the parking lot, and store personnel will return the carts to the storage area. In many continental European premises, however, coin- (or token-) operated locking mechanisms are provided to encourage shoppers to return the carts to the correct location after use.

Studies have shown that it is advisable for shoppers to sanitize the handles and basket areas prior to handling them or filling them with groceries due to high levels of bacteria that typically live on shopping carts.[1] This is due to the carts having a high level of exposure to the skin flora of previous users.

Colourful shopping carts
A row of parked shopping carts equipped with coin-operated locking mechanisms
Trolley bay
Shopping cart bay in a UK supermarket parking lot

Design

Carrinho
A child-friendly shopping cart design

Most modern shopping carts are made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic and have been designed to nest within each other in a line to facilitate collecting and moving many at one time and also to save on storage space. The carts can come in many sizes, with larger ones able to carry a child. There are also specialized carts designed for two children, and electric mobility scooters with baskets designed for disabled customers.

In the United States, 24,000 children are injured each year in shopping carts.[2] Some stores both in the US and internationally have child carrying carts that look like a car or van with a seat where a child can sit equipped with a steering wheel and sometimes a horn. Such "Car-Carts" may offer protection and convenience by keeping the child restrained, lower to the ground, protected from falling items, and amused.

Shopping carts are usually fitted with four wheels, however if any one wheel jams the cart can become difficult to handle. Most carts in the United States have swivel wheels at the front, while the rear wheels are fixed in orientation, while in Europe it is more common to have four swivel wheels. This difference in design correlates with smaller retail premises in Europe.

An alternative to the shopping cart is a small hand-held shopping basket. A customer may prefer a basket for a small amount of merchandise. Small shops, where carts would be impractical, often supply only baskets, or may offer a small cart which uses an inserted shopping basket within the frame of the cart to provide either choice to a customer.

History

Development of first shopping cart by Sylvan Goldman

One of the first shopping carts was introduced on June 4, 1937, the invention of Sylvan Goldman, owner of the Humpty Dumpty supermarket chain in Oklahoma. One night, in 1936, Goldman sat in his office wondering how customers might move more groceries.[3] He found a wooden folding chair and put a basket on the seat and wheels on the legs. Goldman and one of his employees, a mechanic named Fred Young, began tinkering. Their first shopping cart was a metal frame that held two wire baskets. Since they were inspired by the folding chair, Goldman called his carts "folding basket carriers". Another mechanic, Arthur Kosted, developed a method to mass-produce the carts by inventing an assembly line capable of forming and welding the wire. The cart was awarded patent number 2,196,914 on April 9, 1940 (Filing date: March 14, 1938), titled, "Folding Basket Carriage for Self-Service Stores". They advertised the invention as part of a new “No Basket Carrying Plan." Goldman had already pioneered self-serve stores and carts were part of the self-serve retail concept.[4]

The invention did not catch on immediately. Men found them effeminate; women found them suggestive of a baby carriage. "I've pushed my last baby," an offended woman informed Goldman. After hiring several male and female models to push his new invention around his store and demonstrate their utility, as well as greeters to explain their use, shopping carts became extremely popular and Goldman became a multimillionaire. In urban areas like New York City, where transporting groceries home from the store's parking lot is more likely to involve walking and/or a trip by public transportation than a car ride, privately owned carts resembling Goldman's design are still popular. Instead of baskets, these carts are built to hold the paper bags dispensed by the grocery store.

Another shopping cart innovator was Orla Watson,[5] who invented the swinging rear door to allow for "nesting" in 1946.[6][7][8]

Goldman continued to make modifications to his original design, but advice from his trusted business partners Fred Taylor, a grocery store owner,[9] and George O'Donnell, a grocery store refrigeration salesman, and the incorporation of Watson's swinging door yielded the familiar nesting cart that we see today (albeit the original telescope cart had two baskets rather than one).[10] Goldman patented a similar version of the cart which he called the "Nest-Kart" in 1948, over one year after Watson filed for his patent.[9] The Nest-Kart incorporated the same nesting mechanism present on the shopping carts designed by Watson, and an interference investigation was ordered by Telescope Carts, Inc. alleging infringement of the patent in 1948.[9] After a protracted legal battle, Goldman ultimately recognized Watson's invention and paid one dollar in damages for counterfeit, in exchange for which Watson granted Goldman an exclusive operating license (apart from the three licenses that had already been granted).[9]

In 1909, Bessie DeCamp invented a seat belt for chairs, go-carts or carriages.[11] This was well before shopping carts with child seating areas were invented. Goldman introduced a child seating area on shopping carts in 1947.[12][13] For whatever reason, it wasn't until 1967 that seat belts for shopping carts were introduced by David Allen. It was high tech for the time, because it was a retractable seat belt.[14]

Development of nesting carts by Orla Watson

The original two-basket Telescope Cart designed by Orla Watson
Original patent documents showing design of the nesting feature of the Telescope Cart. The rear of the cart swings forward when a cart is shoved into it, hence the nesting feature.
Shopping cart shepherd for Target jeh
Nested carts being returned from a parking lot to a Target store by a cart pushing assist device

In 1946, Orla Watson devised a system for a telescoping (i.e., "nesting") shopping cart which did not require assembly or disassembly of its parts before and after use like Goldman's cart; Goldman's design up until this point required that the cart be unfolded much like a folding chair.[9] This cart could be fitted into another cart for compact storage via a swinging one-way rear door. The swinging rear door formed the basis of the patent claim, and was a major innovation in the evolution of the modern shopping cart. Watson applied for a patent on his shopping cart invention in 1946, but Goldman contested it and filed an application for a similar patent with the swinging door feature on a shopping cart with only one basket in 1948 which Goldman named the "Nest-Kart". After considerable litigation and allegations of patent infringement, Goldman relinquished his rights to the patent in 1949 to Watson and his company, Telescope Carts, Inc. realizing that the swinging rear door feature was the key to Watson's patent. Watson was awarded patent #2,479,530 on August 16, 1949.[15] In exchange, Goldman was granted an exclusive licensing right in addition to the three other licenses previously granted; Telescope Carts, Inc. continued to receive royalties for each cart produced by Goldman's company that incorporated the "nesting" design. This included any shopping cart utilizing his hinged rear door, including the familiar single basket "nesting" designs similar to those used in the present.[16]

Owing to its overwhelming success, many different manufacturers desired to produce shopping carts with the rear swinging door feature but were denied due to the exclusive license issued to Goldman. The federal government filed a lawsuit against Telescope Carts, Inc. in 1950 alleging the exclusive license granted to Goldman was invalid, and a Consent Decree was entered into where Telescope Carts, Inc. agreed to offer the same license to any manufacturer. Orla Watson and Telescope Carts, Inc. licensed their telescoping shopping cart design to several manufacturers throughout the 1950s and 1960s until the patent expired.

New developments

In 2012, a driverless shopping cart was made by Chaotic Moon Labs.[17] The device, called "Project Sk8" or "Smarter Cart" was basically a cart fitted with Windows Kinect (to detect obstacles), and an electric drivetrain, and used in conjunction with a Windows 8 tablet. For smaller stores, shopping baskets with wheels can be used either as a large basket or a small cart. These carts are designed for indoor use only

Retail store acceptance

Past studies determined that retailers who did not offer shopping carts such as Sears suffered lower sales in comparison to retailers who did use shopping carts.[18] Subsequent to the introduction of shopping carts and centralized checkout lines at Sears stores, the company noticed a correlating increase in sales.[19]

In 2004 British supermarket chain Tesco trialed shopping carts with user-adjustable wheel resistance, heart rate monitoring and calorie counting hardware in an effort to raise awareness of health issues. The cart's introduction coincided with Tesco's sponsorship of the cancer awareness Race for Life.[20][21]

Also in 2004, shopping carts were identified as a source of pathogens and became a major public health concern. This was primarily due to the media spotlight on a Japanese research study revealing large amounts of bacteria on shopping carts.[22][23] Those findings were later backed by a University of Arizona study in 2007.[24]

In 2009 researchers developed prototypes of computerized context aware shopping carts by attaching tablet computers to ordinary carts. Initial field trials showed that the prototype's context awareness provided an opportunity for enhancing and altering the shopping experience.[25]

Some retailers, such as Target, have begun using carts fully made of recycled plastic with the only metal part being the wheel axles, drawing away from the established metal cart design. Target's cart has won design awards for its improved casters, interchangeable plastic parts to simplify repairs, and handles that improve maneuverability.[26] Other cart designs also incorporate additional features such as a cup holder for cold or hot drinks or a bouquet of flowers, along with other features such as a secure shelf for a tablet computer or mobile phone to allow the use of mobile coupons and circulars, or as seen in an all-plastic design created for the Wisconsin-based Festival Foods and also used by Whole Foods Market by Bemis Manufacturing Company, all of these features, along with extra rungs on the side rail designed to attach plastic bags or carry handles for beverages. Smaller half-sized carts for smaller shopping trips have also become common.[27]

Deposits

Einkaufswagen-2
Shopping carts locked with a chain
Systec duraloc mechanism locked chain coin-1
Mechanism of a typical shopping cart lock

In many countries, the customer has to pay a small deposit by inserting a coin, token or card, which is returned if and when the customer returns the cart to a designated cart parking point. One motivation behind the deposit system is to reduce the expense of employees having to gather carts that are not returned, and to avoid damage done by runaway carts. Another benefit is that carts are less likely to be removed from the store premises and abandoned in the surrounding neighborhood. Carts that are not returned may be returned voluntarily by a pedestrian, with the deposit coin acting as a reward.

Although almost ubiquitous in continental Europe and the UK, the deposit system is less common in Canada and has not been widely adopted in the United States, with the exception of some chains like ALDI, which require a $0.25 deposit. Other stores such as Costco and ShopRite also use the coin deposit system, but it is not used at all of their locations.

In Australia, deposit systems are common in some local government areas, as they have been made compulsory by local law. Usually, all ALDI stores, and most Coles and Woolworths stores will have a lock mechanism on their carts that requires a $1 or $2 coin to unlock.

The deposit varies, but usually coins of higher value, such as 1, £1, or $1 are used. While the deposit systems usually are designed to accommodate a certain size of domestic coin, foreign coins, former currencies (like German D-Marks), or even appropriately folded pieces of cardboard can be used to unlock the carts as well. Cart collectors are also usually provided with a special key that they can use to unlock the carts from the cart bay and get the key back.

Some retailers sell "tokens" as an alternative to coins, often for charity. Merchandising companies also offer branded shopping tokens as a product.

Theft prevention

Shopping cart theft can be a costly problem with stores that use them. The carts, which typically cost between $75 and $150 each, with some models costing $300–400, are removed by people for various purposes. To prevent theft, estimated at $800 million worldwide per annum, stores use various security systems as discussed below.[28]

Cart retrieval service

Most retailers in North America utilize a cart retrieval service, which collects carts found off the store's premises and returns them to the store for a fee. The primary strength of this system is the ability of pedestrian customers to take purchases home and allow retailers to recapture abandoned carts in a timely manner at a fraction of the cost of a replacement cart. It also allows retailers to maintain their cart inventories without an expensive capital outlay.[29] A drawback of this method is that it is reactive, instead of proactively preventing the carts from leaving the store premises.[28]

Electronic and magnetic

Electronic systems are sometimes used by retailers. Each shopping cart is fitted with an electronic locking wheel clamp, or "boot".[30] A transmitter with a thin wire is placed around the perimeter of the parking lot, and the boot locks when the cart leaves the designated area. Store personnel must then deactivate the lock with a handheld remote control to return the cart to stock. Often, a line is painted in front of the broadcast range to warn customers that their cart will stop when rolled past the line. However, these systems are very expensive to install and although helpful, are not foolproof. The wheels can be lifted over the electronic barrier and/or pushed hard enough that the locks break.[28][31] There are also safety concerns if the person pushing the trolley is running, and also if the trolley doesn't lock and is taken onto a road, locking due to magnetic materials under the road. Some cities have required retailers to install locking wheel systems on their shopping carts. In some cases, electronic systems companies have encouraged passage of such laws to create a captive audience of potential customers.[32]

Physical

A low-tech form of theft prevention utilizes a physical impediment, such as vertical posts at the store entrance to keep carts from being taken into the parking lot. This method also impedes physically disabled customers, which may be illegal in many jurisdictions. For example, in the United States it would be a violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.[31]

Another method is to mount a pole taller than the entrance, onto the shopping cart, so that the pole will block exit of the cart. However, this method requires that the store aisles be higher than the pole, including lights, piping, any overhead signage and fixtures. It also prevents customers from carting their purchases to their cars in the store's carts. Many customers learn to bring their own folding or otherwise collapsible cart with them, which they can usually hang on the store's cart while shopping.

A further system is to use a cattle grid style system. All pedestrian exits have specially designed flooring tiles, which, along with specially designed wheels on the cart, will immobilize the cart as they roll onto them. Like the magnetic systems, this can easily be overcome by lifting the cart over the tiles.

Some retailers, including the ALDI chain of supermarkets, use a system where each cart has a lock mounted on the handle, connecting it to the cart in front of it when nested together, or to a chain mounted on a cart collection corral. The lock releases when a suitable coin or token is inserted, and the user gets their coin or token ejected back out of the lock when the cart is reattached to another trolley. This encourages shoppers to bring their carts back, solving both theft and the issue of carts being left around parking lots. The system is slightly flawed, however, in that carts can be attached to each other away from the corral and tokens retrieved from all but the front-most cart.

Name

StopShopCarriageReturn
Carriage return at a Saugus, Massachusetts Stop & Shop.
Carts crossing street
Privately owned shopping carts are used for various purposes besides shopping.
Objects. Abandoned shopping cart
End of life cycle: a shopping cart, discarded in a canal by vandals, Netherlands

The names of a shopping cart vary by region. The following names are region specific names for shopping carts. Many of these names may be used alone or in descriptive phrases such as grocery ____, shopping ____, or supermarket _____ :[33]

For people with a disability

Special electronic shopping carts are provided by many retailers for the elderly or people with a disability. These are essentially electric wheelchairs with an attached basket. They allow customers to navigate around the store and collect items.

Manually powered carts are also available specifically designed for use by wheelchair users.[34][35] A still to be implemented aid for people with disabilities is the addition of a guide wheel at the center of rotation of a cart with four caster wheels. In order to allow the nesting of carts to be unhindered this guide wheel is attached to the front of the cart with a piece of spring steel which bends under the cart's weight.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ VanNest, Heather (March 2, 2011). "Carts one of dirtiest places in grocery store, study says". USATODAY.com. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  2. ^ Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH (2006). "Shopping Cart–Related Injuries to Children". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved June 20, 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ "Sylvan Goldman: Fascinating facts about Sylvan Goldman inventor of the shopping cart in 1937". The Great Idea Finder. The Great Idea Finder. April 24, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  4. ^ Crockett, Zachary. "How a Basket on Wheels Revolutionized Grocery Shopping". Priceconomics. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  5. ^ Orla Watson Invented the Grocery Cart with a Basket. November 16, 2003. American Profile.
  6. ^ Terry P. Wilson, The Cart that Changed the World: The Career of Sylvan N. Goldman (University of Oklahoma Press, 1978). ISBN 978-0-8061-1496-5
  7. ^ Catherine Grandclément, "Wheeling One's Groceries Around the Store: The Invention of the Shopping Cart, 1936-1953", in Warren Belasco and Roger Horowitz (eds.), Food Chains: From Farmyard to Shopping Cart (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), pp. 233-251. ISBN 978-0-8122-4128-0
  8. ^ Ted Morgan, On Becoming American: A Celebration of What it Means and How it Feels (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978, pp. 45-6). ISBN 978-0-395-26283-2
  9. ^ a b c d e Catherine Grandclément (2006). Wheeling food products around the store… and away: the invention of the shopping cart, 1936-1953 . CSI Working Papers Series.
  10. ^ Smithsonian Snapshot: Telescoping Shopping Cart, c. 1949. Newswise.com.
  11. ^ Child's-chair safety device - Bessie DeCamp - patent #944,020
  12. ^ "Unarco--Cart History". Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  13. ^ Phil Ament. "Inventor Sylvan Goldman Biography". Ideafinder.com. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  14. ^ Safety retaining belt for shopping carts – David L. Allen – patent #3,550,136
  15. ^ "ArchPatent". ArchPatent. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  16. ^ Jeanne Sklar. "Technology, Invention, and Innovation collections". Amhistory.si.edu. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  17. ^ "Microsoft Kinect Games Grocery Shopping at Texas Whole Foods". WIRED. February 27, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  18. ^ Assortment (referencing a study by Britt Beamer of America's Research Group) Influence Of The Shopping Cart Archived November 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved on May 23, 2011.
  19. ^ Dr. Steve Vitucci, Texas A&M University – Central Texas Sears update case notes, Retrieved on May 23, 2011.
  20. ^ "Trolley offers supermarket workout". BBC News. BBC. April 28, 2004. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  21. ^ Elana Bowman. "Trim Trolley Takes Off The Weight While You Grocery Shop". Inventor Spot. Aha Cafe LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  22. ^ Loeb, Heather (April 21, 2015). "Eliminate Germs from Your Life". Menshealth.com. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  23. ^ African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(23), pp. 3998-4003, October 23, 2011
  24. ^ Vincent Sobotka (March 14, 2011.) Study: E.coli contamination found on half of shopping carts. Digital Journal.
  25. ^ Black, D., Clemmensen, N. J., and Skov, M. B. (2009) Shopping in the Real World: Interacting with a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley, Proc. of Mobile Interaction with the Real World. Shopping in the Real World: Interacting with a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley
  26. ^ Cook, Kim (September 7, 2011). "Shopping cart advances just keep rolling along". MSNBC. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  27. ^ Jansen, Kerri (June 14, 2016). "Bemis develops line of all-plastic shopping carts". Plastics News. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  28. ^ a b c Wilkinson, Kelly; Learmonth, Michael (June 3, 1999). "Wheels of Fortune". Metroactive. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  29. ^ Montague, Julian. "The Stray Shopping Cart Project". Web Site. The Stray Shopping Cart Project. Archived from the original on April 24, 2006. Retrieved September 8, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  30. ^ US patent|5598144A
  31. ^ a b William, Dara Akiko (April 20, 1999). "Corralling Carts: Anti-Theft Device Keeps Shopping Baskets In Their Place". Los Angeles Daily News. Gale Group. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  32. ^ Elmahrek, Adam (February 24, 2011). "Santa Ana Shopping Cart Law Shows Extent of Mayor's Business Dealings". Voice of OC. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  33. ^ "The Cambridge Online Survey of World Englishes". Tekstlab.uio.no. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  34. ^ "Trolley for use with a wheelchair, United States Patent 4555124". FPO. FreePatentsOnline.com. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  35. ^ "Zinc Plated Clear Coated Wire Basket Shopping Cart/Trolleys with multiple capacities". QHDC Australia. QHDC Australia PTY LTD. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  36. ^ "Guide wheel assembly for carts, United States Patent 7198279". FPO. FreePatentsOnline.com. Retrieved June 20, 2012.

External links

1-Click

1-Click, also called one-click or one-click buying, is the technique of allowing customers to make purchases with the payment information needed to complete the purchase having been entered by the user previously. More particularly, it allows an online shopper using an Internet marketplace to purchase an item without having to use shopping cart software. Instead of manually inputting billing and shipping information for a purchase, a user can use one-click buying to use a predefined address and credit card number to purchase one or more items.

Amazon Light

Amazon Light was an alternate user interface to Amazon.com built on the Amazon Web Services API. The site was developed by Alan Taylor, a former Amazon programmer, while he still worked for the company. The site was funded through Amazon affiliate links.

The website was intended to be a simpler and more efficient way to access Amazon.com and use its features. It allowed the user to search or browse Amazon's database of books, music, DVDs, and VHS tapes, and add items into a list. The list was then used to add the items into the user's Amazon.com shopping cart where they could then be purchased.

Amazon Light originally used a layout which resembled the main page of the Google search engine. In July 2002, Google's lawyers told it to cease and desist.Amazon Light 4.0 won the "Technical Achievement award" at the South by Southwest Web Awards in 2005.In July 2009, Alan Taylor announced on his blog that "Amazon Light (all four versions) will shut down."

Baggage cart

Baggage carts, luggage carts, luggage trolleys or trolleys are small vehicles pushed by travelers (human-powered) to carry individual luggage, mostly suitcases. There are two major sizes: One for big luggage and one for small luggage. Carts have usually two parts for carrying luggage: A small section (basket) for carry on luggage at the same level as the handle, and a lowered large section for suitcases a small and large bags.The baggage cart was invented by supermarket entrepreneur and inventor of the shopping cart Sylvan Goldman.The carts are provided in airports, large bus stations, hotels, or train stations for transporting luggage and may be free of charge. They are sometimes owned by the operator of the establishment. In some facilities carts may be provided by a contractor such as Smarte Carte for a rental fee. Baggage carts are usually built out of steel and equipped with three or four wheels. For safety reasons, they are generally fitted with a brake. Usually, a handle has to be pushed down in order to move the cart, however, in some cases, such as London airports, the handle activates the brake. Very few carts, e.g. in developing countries such as Sri Lanka, do not have this feature.Where a charge is made, this can be either a deposit, which is returned automatically when the cart is returned; or a rental fee can be charged.

BigCommerce

BigCommerce is a privately held technology company and provides a SaaS ecommerce platform. The company was founded in 2009 and has 600+ employees with headquarters in Austin, Texas.

Buggy

Buggy may refer to:

Buggy (automobile)

Buggy (surname)

Dune buggy or Beach Buggy, a light, open recreational vehicle

Horse-drawn buggy

Kite buggy, a light, purpose-built vehicle powered by a traction kite

Shopping buggy or shopping cart

Buggy the Clown, an antagonist in One Piece

Baby carriage or buggy

Gravity racer or buggy, an unmotorised go-kart

Buggy, a class of off-road radio-controlled cars

Chief's buggy, a 19th century horse-drawn fire chief's vehicle

Buggy, a U.S. nuclear test conducted under Operation Crosstie, and Operation Plowshare

Comparison of shopping cart software

The following is a comparison of the features of notable shopping cart software packages available. Some such shopping cart software is extensible through third-party software components and applications. As such, the features listed below may not encompass all possible features for a given software package. The software listed here is but a fraction of all such packages on the market.

Downtown Community Television Center

The Downtown Community Television Center or DCTV is a community media center located in Manhattan's Civic Center on Lafayette Street. It was founded in 1972 by documentary film director Jon Alpert and his wife, Keiko Tsuno.

Fat-Free Framework

Fat-Free Framework is an open-source web framework distributed under the GNU General Public License and hosted by GitHub and Sourceforge. The software seeks to combine a full featureset with a lightweight code base while being easy to learn, use and extend.

The source code (~83KB) is written almost entirely in PHP and engineered specifically with user experience and usability as its primary design goals.Commonly called F3 by PHP developers, Fat-Free was released as free software in 2009. Its general architecture was influenced by Ruby's Sinatra. The lightweight code base is controlled and maintained by a small core team, with additional functionality and funding contributions coming from various enterprises and user groups, who also help guide its future direction.

The base feature set includes a URL router, cache engine, and support for multilingual applications. Fat-Free also has a number of plug-ins that extend its functionality as well as data mappers for SQL and NoSQL database back-ends: SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, MSSQL, Sybase, DB2, MongoDB, CouchDB, and Flat File.

The core functionality is accompanied by a number of optional plug-ins, among them a template engine, a Unit testing toolkit, Database-managed sessions, Markdown-to-HTML converter, Atom/RSS feed reader, Image processor, Geodata handler, a Basket/Shopping cart application and data validation.

HTTP cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember stateful information (such as items added in the shopping cart in an online store) or to record the user's browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, logging in, or recording which pages were visited in the past). They can also be used to remember arbitrary pieces of information that the user previously entered into form fields such as names, addresses, passwords, and credit card numbers.

Cookies perform essential functions in the modern web. Perhaps most importantly, authentication cookies are the most common method used by web servers to know whether the user is logged in or not, and which account they are logged in with. Without such a mechanism, the site would not know whether to send a page containing sensitive information, or require the user to authenticate themselves by logging in. The security of an authentication cookie generally depends on the security of the issuing website and the user's web browser, and on whether the cookie data is encrypted. Security vulnerabilities may allow a cookie's data to be read by a hacker, used to gain access to user data, or used to gain access (with the user's credentials) to the website to which the cookie belongs (see cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery for examples).Tracking cookies, and especially third-party tracking cookies, are commonly used as ways to compile long-term records of individuals' browsing histories – a potential privacy concern that prompted European and U.S. lawmakers to take action in 2011. European law requires that all websites targeting European Union member states gain "informed consent" from users before storing non-essential cookies on their device.

Google Project Zero researcher Jann Horn describes ways cookies can be read by intermediaries, like Wi-Fi hotspot providers. He recommends to use the browser in incognito mode in such circumstances.

Hasso Plattner Institute of Design

The Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford, commonly known as the d.school, a place for explorers and experimenters at Stanford University.David M. Kelley, the program's founder, stated; "What we, as design thinkers, have, is this creative confidence that, when given a difficult problem, we have a methodology that enables us to come up with a solution that nobody has before.”

Bernard Roth, a co-founder of the program, echoed Kelley's observation about creative confidence; "In the Stanford d.school we attempt to bring students through a series of experiences that change their self-image so that they think of themselves as being more creative. We call this boosting their creative confidence".

Referring to the d.school's shift from designing objects to focusing on organizational processes, Roger Martin, dean of the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management, said; “They concluded the same principles can be applied to the design of, say, emergency-room procedures as a shopping cart.”According to the New York Times, the d.school has become one of the most highly sought academic programs at Stanford.

Idiotarod

The Idiotarod is a shopping cart race in which teams of five or more "idiots" with a (sometimes modified) grocery store shopping cart run through the streets of a major metropolitan area. The carts are usually themed and feature people in costumes. The races are fun competitions where sabotage, costume, and presentation, and other efforts are rewarded; some cities offer a "Best in Show" prize. Sabotage, such as tripping competitors, throwing marbles or large obstacles in their paths, and the spreading of misinformation such as false route information,were common in the early years. A push for "leave no trace" actions has been promoted recently.

The Idiotarod is named after the Iditarod, a 1,000 mile dog-sledding race in Alaska.

Idiotarods have taken place in Ann Arbor, Asheville, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas, Denver, Iowa City, New York City, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, Seattle, St. Louis, Toronto, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Washington, D.C., though the original race was founded in San Francisco in 1994 as the "Urban Iditarod".

LinkExchange

LinkExchange was a popular internet advertising cooperative, similar in function to a webring, originally known as Internet Link Exchange or ILE.

It was founded in March 1996 by 23-year-old Harvard graduates Tony Hsieh (who later went on to invest in and become the CEO of Zappos) and Sanjay Madan. Ali Partovi later joined them as a third partner in August 1996. In November 1996, when the company consisted of about 10 people, it moved from Hsieh's and Madan's living room to an office in San Francisco. In May 1997, the company received US$3 million in funding from Sequoia Capital.

In June 1998, LinkExchange acquired MerchantPlanet, an early shopping cart and credit card application. That same month it also acquired Submit It! Inc., developers of Submit It!, ClickTrade, and ListBot.In November 1998, when LinkExchange had 100 employees, it was acquired by Microsoft for US$265 million.

Matinee (1993 film)

Matinee is a 1993 period comedy film directed by Joe Dante. It is about a William Castle-type independent filmmaker, with the home front in the Cuban Missile Crisis as a backdrop. The film stars John Goodman, Cathy Moriarty, Simon Fenton, Omri Katz, Lisa Jakub, Robert Picardo, and Kellie Martin. It was written by Jerico Stone and Charles S. Haas, the latter portraying Mr. Elroy, a schoolteacher.

Motorized shopping cart

A motorized shopping cart (also known as electric shopping cart) is a shopping cart equipped with an electric motor and navigational controls. It includes a seat (often equipped with an occupant seat switch activating movement of the motorized shopping cart from the occupant's weight) thereby also making it a motorized wheelchair, and it has a rechargeable battery that can be charged by plugging in the device when not in use in order to maximize usage. Motorized shopping carts are provided by supermarkets and other large retail stores for those with permanent or temporary physical disabilities who may have difficulty walking through a large store or pushing a regular cart.

Online shopping

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product's availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smartphones.

An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular "bricks-and-mortar" retailer or shopping center; the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm's range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications, features and prices.

Online stores usually enable shoppers to use "search" features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products (e.g., paperback books or clothes), the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; for digital products, such as digital audio files of songs or software, the e-tailer usually sends the file to the customer over the Internet. The largest of these online retailing corporations are Alibaba, Amazon.com, and eBay.

Shopping cart conveyor

A shopping cart conveyor is a device used in multi-level retail stores for moving shopping carts parallel and adjacent to an escalator. Shoppers can load their shopping carts onto the conveyor, step onto the escalator, ride the escalator with the cart beside them and collect the cart with the contained merchandise at the next level.While inclined moving walkways can be used in multi-level retail stores to transport shopping carts between floors, they are associated with safety hazards (such as, with baby strollers) and take up about twice as much floor space as a separate cart conveyor system, because moving walkways can not be installed at inclinations greater than 12 degrees, while a cart conveyor can operate at an inclination of up to 35 degrees. Only specially-designed shopping carts can be transported with a cart conveyor.

Shopping cart software

Shopping cart software is a piece of e-commerce software on a web server that allows visitors to an Internet site to select items for eventual purchase.The software allows online shopping customers to accumulate a list of items for purchase. At the point of sale, the software typically calculates a total for the order, including freight transport, postage as well as packaging and labeling. Associated taxes are calculated as applicable. The data is used in online marketing.

Sylvan Goldman

Sylvan Nathan Goldman (November 15, 1898 – November 25, 1984) was an American businessman and inventor of the shopping cart. His design had a pair of large wire baskets connected by tubular metal arms with four wheels.

X-Cart

X-Cart is a commercial open source shopping cart platform distributed through the SaaS solution, or via download package. It was originally released in 2000 by Creative Technologies LLC, a Russian web development company that later worked on Ecwid. Upon release, it was the world's first PHP shopping cart software. X-Cart is used by over 30,000 e-stores.

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