Shoe size

A shoe size is an indication of the fitting size of a shoe for a person.

There are a number of different shoe-size systems used worldwide. While all of them use a number to indicate the length of the shoe, they differ in exactly what they measure, what unit of measurement they use, and where the size 0 (or 1) is positioned. Some systems also indicate the shoe width, sometimes also as a number, but in many cases by one or more letters. Some regions use different shoe-size systems for different types of shoes (e.g. men's, women's, children's, sport, and safety shoes). This article sets out several complexities in the definition of shoe sizes. In practice, shoes should be tried on for size and fit before they are purchased.

MarikinaRiverBankShoesjf9425 30
World's largest pair of shoes, Riverbank Center, Philippines—5.29 metres (17.4 ft) long and 2.37 metres (7.75 ft) wide, equivalent to a French shoe size of 753
Defense.gov News Photo 020514-A-6418B-043
A soldier recruit measuring for shoe size during uniform issue at the Afghan National Army training site in Kabul, Afghanistan, 2002.

Deriving the shoe size

Foot versus shoe and last

The length of a person's foot is commonly defined as (a) the distance between two parallel lines that are perpendicular to the foot and (b) in contact with the most prominent toe and the most prominent part of the heel. Foot length is measured with the subject standing barefoot and the weight of the body equally distributed between both feet.

The sizes of the left and right feet are often slightly different. In this case, both feet are measured, and purchasers of mass-produced shoes are advised to purchase a shoe size based on the larger foot, as most retailers do not sell pairs of shoes in non-matching sizes.

Each size of shoe is considered suitable for a small interval of foot lengths, typically limited by half-point of the shoe size system.

A shoe-size system can refer to three characteristic lengths:

  • The median length of feet for which a shoe is suitable. For customers, this measure has the advantage of being directly related to their body measures. It applies equally to any type, form, or material of shoe. However, this measure is less popular with manufacturers, because it requires them to test carefully for each new shoe model, for which range of foot sizes it is recommendable. It puts on the manufacturer the burden of ensuring that the shoe will fit a foot of a given length.
  • The length of the inner cavity of the shoe. This measure has the advantage that it can be measured easily on the finished product. However, it will vary with manufacturing tolerances and only gives the customer very crude information about the range of foot sizes for which the shoe is suitable.
  • The length of the "last", the foot-shaped template over which the shoe is manufactured. This measure is the easiest one for the manufacturer to use, because it identifies only the tool used to produce the shoe. It makes no promise about manufacturing tolerances or for what size of foot the shoe is actually suitable. It leaves all responsibility and risk of choosing the correct size with the customer. Further, the last can be measured in several different ways resulting in different measurements.[1]

All these measures differ substantially from one another for the same shoe. For example, the inner cavity of a shoe must typically be 15 mm longer than the foot, and the shoe last would be 2 size points larger than the foot, but this varies between different types of shoes and the shoe size system used. The typical range lies between 12 to 23 inch (12.7 to 16.9 mm) for the UK/US size system and 43 to 53 cm (13.3 to 16.7 mm) for the European size system, but may extend to 14 to 34 inch (6.4 to 19.1 mm) and 23 to 63 cm (6.7 to 20.0 mm).

Length

Sizing systems also differ in what units of measurement they use. This also results in different increments between shoe sizes, because usually only "full" or "half" sizes are made.

The following length units are commonly used today to define shoe-size systems:

  • The Paris point equates to 23 centimetre (6.67 mm; 0.26 in). Whole sizes are incremented by 1 Paris point; this corresponds to 3.33 millimetres (0.131 in) between half sizes. This unit is commonly used in Continental Europe.
  • The barleycorn is an old English unit that equates to 13 inch (8.47 mm). This is the basis for current UK and North American shoe sizes, with the largest shoe size taken as twelve inches (a size 12) i.e. 30.5 cm, and then counting backwards in barleycorn units, so a size 11 is 11.67 inches or 29.6 cm.
  • Metric measurements in centimetres (cm) or millimetres (mm) with intervals of 5 mm and 7.5 mm are used in the international Mondopoint system (USSR/Russia and Asia).

Zero point

The sizing systems also place size 0 (or 1) at different locations:

  • Size 0 as a foot's length of 0. The shoe size is directly proportional to the length of the foot in the chosen unit of measurement. Sizes of children's, men's, and women's shoes, as well as sizes of different types of shoes, can be compared directly. This is used with the Mondopoint and the Asian system.
  • Size 0 as the length of the shoe's inner cavity of 0. The shoe size is then directly proportional to the inner length of the shoe. This is used with systems that also take the measurement from the shoe. While sizes of children's, men's and women's shoes can be compared directly, this is not necessarily true for different types of shoes that require a different amount of "wiggle room" in the toe box. This is used with the Continental European system.
  • Size 0 (or 1) can just be simply a shoe of a given length. Typically this will be the shortest length deemed practical; but this can be different for children's, teenagers', men's, and women's shoes - making it impossible to compare sizes. For example, a women's shoe at size 8 is a different length from a men's shoe at size 8 in the US system, but not the British.

Width

Some systems also include the width of a foot (or the girth of a shoe last), but do so in a variety of ways:

  • Measured foot width in millimetres (mm) - this is done with the Mondopoint system.
  • Measured width as a letter (or combination of letters), which is taken from a table (indexed to length and width/girth) or just assigned on an ad-hoc basis. Examples are (each starting with the narrowest width):
    • A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE, F, G (typical North American system, with the unlettered norm being D for men and B for women; also foot circumference in Japanese Mondopoint system).
    • 4A, 3A, 2A, A, B, C, D, E, 2E, 3E, 4E, 5E, 6E (variant North American)
    • C, D, E, F, G, H (common UK; "medium" is usually F, but varies by manufacturer—makers Edward Green and Crockett & Jones, among others, use E instead, but one maker's E is not necessarily the same size as another's).
    • N (narrow), M (medium) or R (regular), W (wide).

The width for which these sizes are suitable can vary significantly between manufacturers. The A–E width indicators used by most American, Canadian, and some British shoe manufacturers are typically based on the width of the foot, and common step sizes are ​316 inch (4.8 mm).

Common sizing systems

United Kingdom

Shoe size in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Pakistan and South Africa is based on the length of the last used to make the shoes, measured in barleycorn (​13 inch) starting from the smallest size deemed practical, which is called size zero. It is not formally standardised. Note that the last is typically longer than the foot heel to toe length by about 12 to 23 inch (13 to 17 mm).

A child's size zero is equivalent to 4 inches (a hand = 12 barleycorns = 10.16 cm), and the sizes go up to size ​13 12 (measuring ​25 12 barleycorns, or 8 12 inches (21.59 cm)). Thus, the calculation for a children's shoe size in the UK is:

equivalent to

An adult size one is then the next size up (26 barleycorns, or 8 23 in (22.01 cm)) and each size up continues the progression in barleycorns.[2] The calculation for an adult shoe size in the UK is thus:

equivalent to

Although this sizing standard is nominally for both men and women, some manufacturers use different numbering for women's UK sizing.

In Australia and New Zealand, the UK system is followed for men and children's footwear. Women's footwear has a slightly different sizing that is unique and in between the UK and US's sizings.

In Mexico, shoes are sized either according to the foot length they are intended to fit, in cm, or alternatively to another variation of the barleycorn system, with sizes calculated approximately as:

United States

In United States, there are different systems that are used concurrently. The size indications are usually similar but not exactly equivalent especially with athletic shoes at extreme sizes. The most common is the customary, described in more detail below, which for men's shoes is one size shorter than the UK equivalent, making a men's 13 in the US the same size as a men's 12 in the UK.

Customary

The traditional system is similar to English sizes but start counting at one rather than zero, so equivalent sizes are one greater.

The calculation for a male shoe size in the United States is:

In the "standard" or "FIA" (Footwear Industries of America) scale, women's sizes are men's sizes plus 1 (so a men's 10.5 is a women's 11.5).

There is also the "common" scale, where women's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus 1.5.

Children's

Children's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus ​12 13. Children's sizes do not differ by gender even though adults’ do.

Children's shoe stores in the United States use a sizing scheme which ends at 13, after which the adult range starts at 1. Alternatively, a scale running from K4 to K13 and then 1 to 7 is in use.[3] K4 to K9 are toddler sizes, K10 to 3 are pre-school and 1 to 7 are grade school sizes.

Brannock Device

Brannock uspat1725334-fig1
Drawing of a Brannock Device (from U.S. Patent 1,725,334)

A slightly different sizing method is based on the Brannock Device, a measuring instrument invented by Charles F. Brannock in 1925 and now found in many shoe stores. The formula used by the Brannock device assumes a foot length 23 in (1.7 cm) less than the length of the last; thus, men's size 1 is equivalent to a foot's length of 7 23 in (19.47 cm).[4] Women's sizes are one size up.

[5]
[5]

The device also measures the length of the arch, or the distance between the heel and the ball (metatarsal head) of the foot. For this measurement, the device has a shorter scale at the instep of the foot with an indicator that slides into position. If this scale indicates a larger size, it is taken in place of the foot's length to ensure proper fitting.[6]

For children's sizes, additional wiggle room is added to allow for growth.[6]

The device also measures the width of the foot and assigns it designations of AAA, AA, A, B, C, D, E, EE, or EEE. The widths are 3/16 inches apart and differ by shoe length.[4]

Some shoe stores and medical professionals use optical 3D surface scanners to precisely measure the length and width of both feet and recommend the appropriate shoe model and size.[7]

UK and U.S. shoe sizes
Last length Foot length/Brannock UK sizes US sizes
Inches Millimetres Inches Millimetres Children's Adult's Children's Men's Women's
5 127.0 413 110.06 3
5118 128.41 4718 111.47 3.5
516 131.23 412 114.3 3.5
529 132.64 459 115.71 4
513 135.46 423 118.53 4
5718 136.87 41318 119.94 4.5
512 139.7 456 122.76 4.5
559 141.1 489 124.17 5
523 143.93 5 127.0 5
51318 145.34 5118 128.41 5.5
556 148.16 516 131.23 5.5
589 149.57 529 132.64 6
6 152.4 513 135.46 6
6118 153.81 5718 136.87 6.5
616 156.63 512 139.7 6.5
629 158.04 559 141.1 7
613 160.86 523 143.92 7
6718 162.27 51318 145.34 7.5
612 165.1 556 148.16 7.5
659 166.51 589 149.57 8
623 169.3 6 152.4 8
61318 170.74 6118 153.81 8.5
656 173.56 616 156.63 8.5
689 174.97 629 158.04 9
7 177.8 613 160.86 9
7118 179.21 6718 162.27 9.5
716 182.03 612 165.1 9.5
729 183.4 659 166.51 10
713 186.26 623 169.3 10
7718 187.67 61318 170.74 10.5
712 190.5 656 173.56 10.5
759 191.91 689 174.97 11
723 194.73 7 177.8 11
71318 196.14 7118 179.21 11.5
756 198.96 716 182.03 11.5
789 200.37 729 183.4 12
8 203.2 713 186.26 12 1
8118 204.61 7718 187.67 12.5
816 207.43 712 190.5 12.5 1.5
829 208.84 759 191.91 13
813 211.6 723 194.73 13 0 1 2
8718 213.07 71318 196.14 13.5
812 215.9 756 198.96 13.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
823 220.13 8 203.2 1 2 3
856 224.36 816 207.43 1.5 2.5 3.5
9 228.6 813 211.6 2 3 4
916 232.83 812 215.9 2.5 3.5 4.5
913 237.06 823 220.13 3 4 5
912 241.3 856 224.36 3.5 4.5 5.5
923 245.53 9 228.6 4 5 6
956 249.76 916 232.83 4.5 5.5 6.5
10 254.0 913 237.06 5 6 7
1016 258.23 912 241.3 5.5 6.5 7.5
1013 262.46 923 245.53 6 7 8
1012 266.7 956 249.76 6.5 7.5 8.5
1023 270.93 10 254.0 7 8 9
1056 275.16 1016 258.23 7.5 8.5 9.5
11 279.4 1013 262.46 8 9 10
1116 283.63 1012 266.7 8.5 9.5 10.5
1113 287.86 1023 270.93 9 10 11
1112 292.1 1056 275.16 9.5 10.5 11.5
1123 296.3 11 279.4 10 11 12
1156 300.56 1116 283.63 10.5 11.5 12.5
12 304.8 1113 287.86 11 12 13
1216 309.03 1112 292.1 11.5 12.5 13.5
1213 313.26 1123 296.3 12 13 14
1212 317.5 1156 300.56 12.5 13.5 14.5
1223 321.73 12 304.8 13 14 15
Inches Millimetres Inches Millimetres Children's Adult's Children's Men's Women's
Last length Foot length/Brannock UK sizes US sizes

Europe

In the Continental European system, the shoe size is the length of the last, expressed in Paris points, for both sexes and for adults and children alike. Because a Paris point is ​23 of a centimetre, the formula is as follows:

The last is typically 2 to 2.5 Paris points or 43 to 53 cm (13.3 to 16.7 mm) longer than the foot, so to determine the size based on actual foot length from heel to toe, one must add 2 points:

The European system is used in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,[8] Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,[9] Sweden, Switzerland, and most other continental European countries. It is also used in Middle Eastern countries (such as Iran), Brazil—which uses the same method but subtracts 2 from the final result, in effect measuring foot size instead of last size—and, commonly, Hong Kong. The system is sometimes described as Stich size (from Pariser Stich, a German for Paris point), or Stichmass size (from Stichmaß, a micrometer tool for internal measurements).

Mondopoint

Foot width and length measurement for Mondopoint (multilingual)
Measurement of foot length, width and perimeter (cirсumference) as defined in the Mondopoint standard

The Mondopoint shoe length system was introduced in the 1970s by International Standards ISO 2816:1973 "Fundamental characteristics of a system of shoe sizing to be known as Mondopoint" and ISO 3355:1975 "Shoe sizes - System of length grading (for use in the Mondopoint system)".[10] ISO 9407:1991, "Shoe sizes—Mondopoint system of sizing and marking",[11] is the current version of the standard.

The Mondopoint system is based on average foot length and foot width for which the shoe is suitable, measured in millimetres. The length of the foot is measured as horizontal distance between the perpendiculars in contact with the end of the most prominent toe and the most prominent part of the heel. The width of the foot is measured as horizontal distance between vertical lines in contact with the first and fifth metatarsophalangeal joints. The perimeter of the foot is the length of foot circumference, measured with a flexible tape at the same points as foot width. The origin of the grade is zero.

Standard foot lengths are defined with interval steps of 5 mm for casual footwear and steps of 7.5 mm for specialty (protective) footwear.

The labeling should typically include foot length, followed by an optional foot width - a shoe size of 280/110 indicates a foot length of 280 millimetres (11.0 in) and width of 110 millimetres (4.3 in). Other customary markings, such as EU, UK and US sizes, can also be used.

Because Mondopoint takes the foot width into account, it allows for better fitting than most other systems. A given shoe size shall fit every foot with indicated average measurements, and those differing by no more than a half-step of the corresponding interval grid.

Mondopoint system is widely used in sports industry to size athletic shoes, ski/skate boots, and Pointe ballet shoes; it was also adopted as the primary shoe sizing system in USSR[12]/Russia,[13] GDR, China,[14] Japan/Taiwan/South Korea, and as an optional system in United Kingdom,[15] India,[16] Mexico, and European countries. Mondopoint system is also used by NATO and other military services.

The standard is maintained by ISO Technical Committee 137 "Footwear sizing designations and marking systems"; as of 2018, a new revision is under development.

Japan

In Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, the Mondopoint system is used as defined by national standard JIS S 5037:1998 and its counterparts CNS 4800-S1093:2000 and KS M 6681:2007.

Foot length and girth (foot circumference) are taken into account.[17] The foot length is indicated in centimetres; an increment of 5 mm is used.

The length is followed by designators for girth (A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE, F, G), which are specified in an indexed table as foot circumference in millimetres for each given foot length; foot width is also included as supplemental information. There are different tables for men's, women's, and children's (less than 12 years of age) shoes. Not all designators are used for all genders and in all countries. For example, the largest girth for women in Taiwan is EEEE, whereas in Japan, it is F.

The foot length and width can also be indicated in millimetres, separated by a slash or a hyphen.

USSR (Russia/CIS)

Historically the USSR used the European (Paris point) system, but the Mondopoint metric system was introduced in the 1980s by GOST 24382-80 "Sizes of Sport Shoes" and GOST 11373-88 "Shoe Sizes", and lately by GOST R 58149-2018. Foot lengths are aligned to 5 mm and 7.5 mm intervals.

Standard metric foot sizes can be converted to the nearest Paris point (​23 cm) sizes using approximate conversion tables; shoes can be marked with both foot length in mm, as for Pointe ballet shoe sizes, and/or last length in European Paris point sizes (although such converted 'Stichmass' sizes typically come ½ to 1 size smaller than comparable European-made adult footwear, and up to 1½ size smaller for children's footwear, according to ISO 19407 shoe size definitions). Optional foot width designations includes narrow, normal (medium or regular), and wide grades.

Infant sizes start at 16 (95 mm) and pre-school kids at 23 (140 mm); schoolchildren sizes span 32 (202.5 mm) to 40 (255 mm) for girls and 32 to 44 (285 mm) for boys. Adult sizes span 33 (210 mm) to 44 for women and 38 (245 mm) to 48 (310 mm) for men.

GOST 11373-88 Shoe Sizes (5 mm and 7.5 mm steps) Children's
Mondopoint/Foot Length (mm) 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200
172.5 180 187.5 195
Stich size 16 16½ 17 18 19 19½ 20 21 22 22½ 23 24 25 25½ 26 27 27½ 28 28½ 29 29½ 30 31 31½
Adults'
Mondopoint/Foot Length (mm) 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310
202.5 210 217.5 225 232.5 240 247.5 255 262.5 270 277.5 285 292.5 300 307.5
Stich size 32 33 34 34½ 35 36 36½ 37 37½ 38 38½ 39 40 40½ 41 42 43 43½ 44 45 45½ 46 46½ 47 47½ 48

ISO 19407

ISO/TS 19407:2015 Footwear - Sizing - Conversion of sizing systems is a technical specification from International Standards Organisation. It contains three conversion tables (for adults and children) which feature major shoe sizing systems (e.g., Mondopoint, United States, European, United Kingdom, China, and Japan).[18] Each table is based on actual foot length measurement (insole) in millimeters; typical last length ranges are also included.

The standard includes conversion tables for Mondopoint (USSR/Russian/Chinese/Japanese/Korean systems) using length steps of 5 mm and 7.5 mm, European Paris point system, and UK 1/3 inch system. The standard has also been adopted as Russian GOST R 57425-2017.

The standard is maintained by ISO/TC 137, which also developed ISO/TS 19408:2015 Footwear - Sizing - Vocabulary and terminology; currently in development are companion standards ISO/TS 19409 "Footwear - Sizing - Measurement of last dimensions" and ISO/TS 19410 "Footwear - Sizing - Inshoe measurement".

Shoe sizing

The adult shoe sizes are calculated from typical last length, which is converted from foot length in mm by adding an allowance of two shoe sizes:

where is foot length in mm.

Direct conversion between adult UK, European and Mondopoint shoe size systems is derived as follows:

Exact foot lengths may contain repeating decimals because the formulas include division by 3; in practice, approximate interval steps of 6.67 mm and 8.47 mm are used, then resulting lengths are rounded up to 0.1 mm, and shoe sizes are rounded to either 0.5 size points or closest matching Mondopoint size.

Adults' shoe sizes
Foot length Mondopoint EUR UK* Typical last length range
mm cm inch 5.0 mm 7.5 mm 6.6 mm 8.46 mm mm
210.0 21 210 210 33.5 217 229
211.6 813 2 219 231
213.3 2113 34 220 232
215.0 2112 215 222 234
215.9 812 2.5 223 235
216.6 2123 34.5 224 236
217.5 2134 217.5 225 237
220.0 22 220 35 227 239
220.13 823 3 227 239
223.3 2213 35.5 230 242
224.36 856 3.5 231 243
225.0 2212 225 225 232 244
226.6 2223 36 234 246
228.6 9 4 236 248
230.0 23 230 36.5 237 249
232.5 2314 232.5 240 252
232.83 916 4.5 240 252
233.3 2313 37 240 252
235.0 2312 235 242 254
236.6 2323 37.5 244 256
237.06 913 5 244 256
240.0 24 240 240 38 247 259
241.3 912 5.5 248 260
243.3 2413 38.5 250 262
245.0 2412 245 252 264
245.53 923 6 253 265
246.6 2423 39 254 266
247.5 2434 247.5 255 267
249.76 956 6.5 257 269
250.0 25 250 39.5 257 269
253.3 2513 40 260 272
254.0 10 7 261 273
255.0 2512 255 255 262 274
256.6 2523 40.5 264 276
258.23 1016 7.5 265 276
260.0 26 260 41 267 279
262.46 1013 8 269 281
262.5 2614 262.5 270 282
263.3 2613 41.5 270 282
265.0 2612 265 272 284
266.6 2623 42 274 286
266.7 1012 8.5 274 286
270.0 27 270 270 42.5 277 289
270.93 1023 9 278 290
273.3 2713 43 280 292
275.0 2712 275 282 294
275.16 1056 9.5 282 294
276.6 2723 43.5 284 296
277.5 2734 277.5 285 297
279.4 11 10 286 298
280.0 28 280 44 287 299
283.3 2813 44.5 290 302
283.63 1116 10.5 291 303
285.0 2812 285 285 292 304
286.6 2823 45 294 306
287.86 1113 11 295 307
290.0 29 290 45.5 297 309
292.1 1112 11.5 299 311
292.5 2914 292.5 300 312
293.3 2913 46 300 312
295.0 2912 295 302 314
296.3 1123 12 303 315
296.6 2923 46.5 304 316
300.0 30 300 300 47 307 319
300.56 1156 12.5 308 320
303.3 3013 47.5 310 322
304.8 12 13 312 324
305.0 3012 305 312 324
306.6 3023 48 314 326
307.5 3034 307.5 315 327
309.03 1216 13.5 316 328
310.0 31 310 48.5 317 329
313.26 1213 14 320 332
313.3 3113 49 320 332
315.0 3112 315 315 322 334
316.6 3123 49.5 324 336
317.5 1212 14.5 325 337
320.0 32 320 50 327 339
321.73 1223 15 329 341
mm cm inch 5.0 mm 7.5 mm 6.6 mm 8.46 mm mm
Foot length Mondopoint EUR UK* Typical last length range
*UK sizes listed are nominally unisex, but women's UK sizes may vary.

Children sizes are approximations converted from foot length by adding an 8% allowance at the toes and matching the result to the closest practically available last size.

Children's shoe sizes
Foot length, mm Mondopoint EUR UK US Typical last length range, mm
120 120 19.5 3.5 4 130 136
123 125 20 4 4.5 133 139
127 20.5 4.5 5 137 143
130 130 21 5 5.5 140 146
133 21.5 5.5 6 143 149
135 135 22 147 153
138 140 22.5 6 6.5 150 156
142 23 6.5 153 156
146 145 23.5 7 7.5 157 165
148 24 160 166
150 150 24.5 7.5 8 163 169
154 155 25 8 8.5 167 173
157 25.5 8.5 9 170 176
160 160 26 9 9.5 173 179
164 26.5 177 183
166 165 27 9.5 10 180 186
169 170 27.5 10 10.5 183 189
173 28 10.5 11 187 193
176 175 28.5 11 11.5 190 196
179 180 29 11.5 12 193 199
182 29.5 197 203
185 185 30 12 12.5 200 206
188 30.5 12.5 13 203 209
192 190 31 13 13.5 207 213
195 195 31.5 13.5 1 210 216
198 32 213 219
200 200 32.5 1 1.5 217 223
204 205 33 1.5 2 220 226
207 33.5 223 229
210 210 34 2 2.5 227 233
213 34.5 2.5 3 230 236
217 215 35 3 3.5 233 239
220 220 35.5 3.5 4 237 243
224 36 240 246
226 225 36.5 4 4.5 243 249
230 230 37 4.5 5 247 253
232 37.5 250 256
236 235 38 5 253 259
Foot length, mm Mondopoint EUR UK US Typical last length range, mm

Size conversion

The standard also includes quick conversion tables for adult shoe sizes; they provide matching sizes for shoes marked in Mondopoint, UK and US systems. Converted values are rounded to a larger shoe size to increase comfort.

Mondopoint conversion
Mondo EUR UK US men US women
215 34 2.5 3.5 4.5
220 35 3 4 5
225 35.5 3.5 4.5 5.5
230 36.5 4 5 6
235 37 4.5 5.5 6.5
240 38 5.5 6.5 7.5
245 38.5 6 7 8
250 39.5 6.5 7.5 8.5
255 40 7 8 9
260 41 7.5 8.5 9.5
265 41.5 8.5 9.5 10.5
270 42.5 9 10 11
275 43 9.5 10.5 11.5
280 44 10 11 12
285 44.5 10.5 11.5 12.5
290 45.5 11 12 13
295 46 12 13 14
300 47 12.5 13.5 14.5
305 47.5 13 14 15
310 48.5 13.5 14.5 15.5
315 49 14 15 16
320 50 15 16 17
European shoe size conversion
EUR Mondo UK US men US women
34 215 2 3 4
34.5 215 2.5 3.5 4.5
35 220 3 4 5
35.5 225 3.5 4.5 5.5
36 225 4 5 6
36.5 230 4 5 6
37 235 4.5 5.5 6.5
37.5 235 5 6 7
38 240 5.5 6.5 7.5
38.5 245 5.5 6.5 7.5
39 245 6 7 8
39.5 250 6.5 7.5 8.5
40 255 7 8 9
40.5 255 7.5 8.5 9.5
41 260 7.5 8.5 9.5
41.5 265 8 9 10
42 265 8.5 9.5 10.5
42.5 270 9 10 11
43 275 9.5 10.5 11.5
43.5 275 9.5 10.5 11.5
44 280 10 11 12
44.5 285 10.5 11.5 12.5
45 285 11 12 13
45.5 290 11.5 12.5 13.5
46 295 11.5 12.5 13.5
46.5 295 12 13 14
47 300 12.5 13.5 14.5
47.5 305 13 14 15
48 305 13 14 15
48.5 310 13.5 14.5 15.5
49 315 14 15 16
49.5 315 14.5 15.5 16.5
50 320 15 16 17
United Kingdom shoe size conversion
UK Mondo EUR US men US women
2 210 34 3 4
2.5 215 34.5 3.5 4.5
3 220 35 4 5
3.5 225 35.5 4.5 5.5
4 230 36.5 5 6
4.5 235 37 5.5 6.5
5 235 37.5 6 7
5.5 240 38 6.5 7.5
6 245 39 7 8
6.5 250 39.5 7.5 8.5
7 255 40 8 9
7.5 260 40.5 8.5 9.5
8 260 41.5 9 10
8.5 265 41.5 9.5 10.5
9 270 42.5 10 11
9.5 275 43.5 10.5 11.5
10 280 44 11 12
10.5 285 44.5 11.5 12.5
11 290 45.5 12 13
11.5 290 46 12.5 13.5
12 295 46.5 13 14
12.5 300 47 13.5 14.5
13 305 47.5 14 15
13.5 310 48.5 14.5 15.5
14 315 49 15 16
14.5 320 49.5 15.5 16.5
15 320 50 16 17

Labels

Shoe size in the primary sizing system used in production should be placed first on the label, preferably in a bold font, and approximate shoe size conversion to other systems should be included as well.

Difficulties in shoe size comparison

Differences between various shoe size tables, makers' tables or other tables found on the Web are usually due to the following factors:

  • The systems are not fully standardised. Differences between shoes from different makers, which are due to different methods of measuring the shoes, different manufacturing processes, or different allowances[1] are sometimes related to different countries. A "German" size may then differ from a "French" size, although both countries use the Continental European system.
  • Different widths may have the result that for wide feet, a shoe multiple sizes larger (and actually too long) may be required. This may also result in different size indications, especially if different typical widths are attributed to different sizing systems or countries.
  • Some tables for children take future growth into account. The shoe size is then larger than what would correspond to the actual length of the foot.[6]
  • An indication in centimetres or inches can mean the length of the foot or the length of the shoe's inner cavity. This relation is not constant but varies due to different amounts of wiggle room required for different sizes of shoes.
  • There are several U.S. systems, which differ substantially for sizes far above or below medium sizes.

Further, some tables available on the Web simply contain errors. For example, the wiggle room or different zero point is not taken into account, or tables based on different U.S. systems (traditional and athletic) are simply combined although they are incompatible.

Moreover, though the ISO had released a technical specification (ISO/TS 19407:2015) for converting shoe sizes across various local sizing systems, the organization noted that the problem of converting shoe sizes accurately has yet to be fully resolved. At best, its own published standards for shoe sizes conversions only serve as "a good compromise solution" for shoe-buyers.[18][19]

Please note that the following tables indicate theoretical sizes calculated from the standards and information given above.

Shoesize-adult-en

Unofficial adult shoe sizes comparison

Shoesize-children-en

Unofficial children's shoe sizes comparison

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Andersson, Bendt. "Recommendations to suppliers and manufacturers of orthopedic footwear concerning sizes of shoes and lasts" (PDF) (in Swedish). Retrieved 2009-01-06.
  2. ^ Cairns, Warwick. About the Size of It. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-01628-6.
  3. ^ ASICS Oceania Pty Lyd., Asics Shoe Sizes, stating "Shoe sizes on product details pages are in US shoe size"; accessed 16 January 2017
  4. ^ a b Brannock Device Co. "History". Retrieved 2009-01-06.
  5. ^ a b Brannock Device Co. "Size Conversion Chart". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  6. ^ a b c Brannock Device Co. "Instructions". Retrieved 2009-01-06.
  7. ^ Telfer S, Woodburn J (2010). "The use of 3D surface scanning for the measurement and assessment of the human foot". J Foot Ankle Res. 3: 19. doi:10.1186/1757-1146-3-19. PMC 2944246. PMID 20815914.
  8. ^ German Standard DIN 66074:1975, Shoe sizes
  9. ^ Spanish Standard UNE 59850:1998, Shoes: Size designation
  10. ^ R. Boughey. Size Labelling of Footwear. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics. Volume 1, Issue 2. June 1977. DOI:10.1111/j.1470-6431.1977.tb00197.x
  11. ^ International Standard ISO 9407:1991, Shoe sizes—Mondopoint system of sizing and marking
  12. ^ GOST 11373-88
  13. ^ GOST R 58149-2018
  14. ^ GB/T 3293:1998
  15. ^ BS 4981:1973
  16. ^ IS 8751:1978
  17. ^ (in Japanese) Rakuten.co.jp Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ a b "ISO/TS 19407:2015 - Footwear -- Sizing -- Conversion of sizing systems". www.iso.org. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  19. ^ "Shoe Size Conversion: Use this EASY Tool, Size Guide + How To". BlitzResults.com. 2017-11-11. Retrieved 2018-06-22.

External links

Big Isaac, West Virginia

Big Isaac is an unincorporated community in Doddridge County, West Virginia, United States. Big Isaac is 6 miles (9.7 km) south-southeast of Salem, along Laurel Run, a headwaters tributary of Meathouse Fork. The Big Isaac Post Office closed on December 31, 1962.According to tradition, the community has the name of Periue "Big" Isaac, an early settler noted for his especially large shoe size.

Billet reading

Billet reading, or the envelope trick, is a mentalist effect in which a performer pretends to use clairvoyance to read messages on folded papers or inside sealed envelopes. It is a widely performed "standard" of the mentalist craft since the middle of the 19th century. Billet is the French term for note or letter, referring to the rectangular shape of the paper.

Brannock

Brannock may refer to:

Brannoc of Braunton or Saint Brannock, a 6th-century Christian saint associated with North Devon

Charles F. Brannock (1903 – 1992), shoe salesman and inventor of the Brannock Device

Mike Brannock (1851 – 1881), American baseball player

Brannock High School, Motherwell, Scotland

Brannock Device, a shoe-size measuring instrument

Brannock, County Armagh, a townland in County Armagh, Northern Ireland

Brannock Device

The Brannock Device is a measuring instrument invented by Charles F. Brannock for measuring a person's shoe size. The son of a shoe industry entrepreneur, Brannock attended Syracuse University, New York, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. Brannock spent two years developing a simple means of measuring the length, width, and arch length of the human foot. He eventually improved on the wooden RITZ Stick, the industry standard of the day, patenting his first prototype in 1925 and an improved version in 1927. The device has both left and right heel cups and is rotated through 180 degrees to measure the second foot. Brannock later formed the Brannock Device Company to manufacture and sell the product, and headed the company until 1993 when he died at age 89. Today, the Brannock Device is an international standard of the footwear industry, and the Smithsonian Institution houses samples of some of the first Brannock Devices.The Brannock Device Company was headquartered in Syracuse, New York, until shortly after Charles Brannock's death. Salvatore Leonardi purchased the company from the Brannock Estate in 1993, and moved manufacturing to a small factory in Liverpool, New York. The company continues to manufacture several models of the device for determining the shoe sizes of men, women, and children; they also produce specialized models for fitting other types of footwear.

Braves Bleacher Creature

The Atlanta Braves Bleacher Creature was a mascot for the Atlanta Braves major league baseball team during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It featured a green shaggy fur with a Braves cap and logo on top. The word Braves was written across its chest in big red letters. It had a permanent toothless smile. The mascot usually roamed the stands from time to time during home games and was intended more for the entertainment of younger fans.

The mascot was originally costumed by Alan Stensland, then a student at Georgia Tech. Stensland was working as an usher at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium when he was approached to wear the costume. The outfit required someone who was 5"8" to 5'10" tall, and Alan met the height and shoe size requirements. Alan recalls having one of his costume's eyes removed by a youngster on his first night out. They also attempted to bust his kneecaps on bat night. During the 1977 season, the mascot made some 250 appearances at games, parties, and parades.Stensland was only 18 at the time he first donned the costume. The most intense problem he had was the heat. With the added humidity, a really "funky smell" permeated the inside of the costume. Once Stensland graduated, he left the Braves organization.

The mascot role was then taken over by Dennis Coffey, a friend of Alan and a student at M.D. Collins High School in College Park, Georgia. Coffey had worked as an usher during the 1977 Braves and Atlanta Falcons seasons at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium and served as an assistant to Stensland. Dennis performed as the Braves Bleacher Creature from 1978 to 1981, when the mascot was retired. During that time, the Bleacher Creature was present at all Atlanta home games, numerous homes games for the Savannah Braves and Greenwood Braves. Dennis appeared as the Bleacher Creature in various parades, schools, hospitals, little league events, mall openings, etc. Coffey graduated from M.D. Collins High and went on to also attend and graduate from Georgia Tech.Public appearances were scheduled through the Atlanta Braves Public Relations office and were most often for charitable events such as the Special Olympics, hospital visits, public events, such as parades, little league opening day ceremonies, and Spring Festivals all over Georgia and the southeast. Coffey appeared as the Bleacher Creature in places as far away as Decatur, Alabama. As the Bleacher Creature, Dennis Coffey typically made 8 to 10 scheduled appearances per week during the off-season and as many as 20 appearances weekly during baseball season, in addition to being present at all Atlanta Braves home games.

The original Bleacher Creature costume was designed and fabricated by Kathy Spetz. After several successful years, the Braves organization decided to 'slim down' the Bleacher Creature. Spetz redesigned the mascot with a slimmer physique and the Braves introduced his new profile mid-season 1980. An introduction party was set up at a Braves home game, pre-event media was used to announce the change and special hats were giving out to all fans attending. Coffey continued to fill the Bleacher Creature role until the mascot was retired at the close of the 1981 Braves season. Dennis Coffey's notable quote when asked about being the Bleacher Creature was most commonly, "It's fun if you like being green!" Coffey obviously enjoyed being green as he was mentioned in many newspaper articles and press releases during his career with the Braves as being humorous, fun-loving and great with fans and kids alike.

Bring Your Husband To Heel

Bring Your Husband To Heel was a "hidden camera" documentary series produced by Talkback Thames and shown on BBC Two in 2005. The show featured a professional dog trainer, Annie Clayton, teaching women to use dog training techniques to improve the behaviour of their husbands. The men participating in the programme were told that they were actually taking part in a show about relationship roles.The BBC received a large number of complaints about the show, with some claiming the show was "sexist, offensive and degrading", "grossly insulting", and "insulting to men and insulting the intelligence of women". The BBC claimed the series "plays on the long-standing stereotype of wives nagging husbands about their failings".Ofcom later ruled that the show was not sexist: "It was clear from the context that the programme was not seriously proposing a demeaning view of men."In the Evening Standard, the TV critic Victor Lewis-Smith described the programme as "brainless dross", criticized the BBC for commissioning the series and said that "you'd have to have an IQ commensurate with your shoe size to find this old boot [Clayton] entertaining". Garry Bushell listed it as the worst new show of 2005 in a column in The People.According to a report in October 2007 in Cape Times, the show also aired in South Africa on BBC Prime.

Foot (unit)

The foot (pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard.

Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French, and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade. Its length was usually between 250 mm and 335 mm and was generally, but not always, subdivided into 12 inches or 16 digits.

The United States is the only industrialized nation that uses the international foot and the survey foot (a customary unit of length) in preference to the meter in its commercial, engineering, and standards activities. The foot is legally recognized in the United Kingdom; road signs must use imperial units (however distances on road signs are always marked in miles or yards, not feet), while its usage is widespread among the British public as a measurement of height. The foot is recognized as an alternative expression of length in Canada officially defined as a unit derived from the meter although both the U.K. and Canada have partially metricated their units of measurement. The measurement of altitude in international aviation is one of the few areas where the foot is used outside the English-speaking world.

The length of the international foot corresponds to a human foot with shoe size of 13 (UK), 14 (US male), 15.5 (US female) or 46 (EU sizing).

Fully fashioned stockings

Fully fashioned stockings (FFS), are stockings that are knitted flat and then the two sides are sewn together forming the seam.

Human penis size

The most accurate measurement of the size of a human penis can be derived from several readings at different times since there is natural minor variability in size depending upon arousal level, time of day, room temperature, frequency of sexual activity, and reliability of measurement. When compared to other primates, including large examples such as the gorilla, the human penis is thickest, both in absolute terms and relative to the rest of the body.

Measurements vary, with studies that rely on self-measurement reporting a significantly higher average than those with a health professional measuring. As of 2015, a systematic review of 15,521 men, and the best research to date on the topic, as the subjects were measured by health professionals, rather than self-measured, has concluded that the average length of an erect human penis is 13.12 cm (5.17 inches) long, while the average circumference of an erect human penis is 11.66 cm (4.59 inches). Flaccid penis length can sometimes be a poor predictor of erect length.

Most human penis growth occurs between infancy and the age of five, and between about one year after the onset of puberty and, at latest, approximately 17 years of age.A statistically significant correlation between penis size and the size of other body parts has not been found in research. Some environmental factors in addition to genetics, such as the presence of endocrine disruptors, can affect penis growth. An adult penis with an erect length of less than 7 cm (2.8 in), but otherwise formed normally, is referred to in medicine as a micropenis.

Kevin Mench

Kevin Ford Mench (born January 7, 1978) is an American former professional baseball outfielder who played eight years in Major League Baseball (MLB) with the Texas Rangers (2002–2006), Milwaukee Brewers (2006–2007), Toronto Blue Jays (2008) and Washington Nationals (2010). He also spent a season in Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) with the Hanshin Tigers in 2009. He is most noted for having had the largest cap size (8) in the majors when he was an active player, a feature that earned him the nickname Shrek.

List of shoe styles

This is a list of shoe styles and designs. A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Shoemaking is the process of making footwear. Originally, shoes were made one at a time by hand. Traditional handicraft shoemaking has now been largely superseded in volume of shoes produced by industrial mass production of footwear, but not necessarily in quality, attention to detail, or craftsmanship.

Mounir Fourar

Mounir Fourar (born in Batna, Algeria, the November 28, 1972 – 3 January 2012) was one of the tallest men in the world. He claimed a height of 2.44 m (8 ft), however, this has not been independently verified.

His shoe size was 64, suit size was 160, his hand measured 28 centimeters and he weighed 396 pounds (180 kg).

He suffered an acromegaly gigantism within an adenoma of his pituitary gland at the age of 12, he grew of 7 cm per month (84 cm on one year). He underwent five operations in a hospital in Algiers before stopping his growing.

In Algeria, Mounir took part in hidden camera TV shows.

Nine (rapper)

Nine is the stage name of Derrick Keyes (born September 19, 1969), an American rapper from The Bronx, New York City, New York. He also been known as 9MM or Nine Double M. Known for his harsh, gravelly flow and distinctive voice, Keyes got his break in late 1993 as a featured guest on Funkmaster Flex and the Ghetto Celebs' "Six Million Ways to Die".

Keyes originally recorded under the moniker 9MM (or Nine Double M) before changing his name to simply Nine. He stated, "I didn't want to be just be named after the gun (9mm)." His stage name refers to his date of birth (9/19/1969), his shoe size, and his lucky number.

Sevda Dalgıç

Sevda Dalgıç (literal English translation: The Love Diver) is a Turkish film and stage actress, primarily known for her onscreen representation of Ozge in the hit FOX Network TV show Arka Sıradakiler. Sevda Dalgıç made her screen debut with the Turkish teenage high school drama called Arka Sıradakiler (literal translation “those who sit at the rear desks”.) Her reported weight is 53 kg (116.6 lbs.), shoe size 40, height 174 cm (5’ 9”), and eye color is hazel. She was born in Istanbul on February 23, 1984. Although she had dropped out of high school at an early age to support her family, she got enrolled in acting classes at Sadri Alisik Kultur Merkezi Oyunculuk Bolumu (Sadri Alisik Cultural Center Drama Department) later on her life. She studied drama and performing arts for two years at the same school. She is still pursuing an education in advanced acting. Her primary hobbies include, but not limited to, horseback riding, skating, dancing, and playing basketball. She played at her highschool basketball team before dropping out due to financial and family problems. In the 160th episode of Arka Sıradakiler, her character has died. After her departure from the TV show, she acted in the stage drama of a father-son relation and the complications they encountered due to the son being openly gay. The name of the drama is called “Eyvah ogluma bir haller oldu” (literal translation, “Oh something has happened to my son”.) The play generally received positive reviews from critics. Sevda Dalgıç is currently engaged to be married to his longtime boyfriend. Her early career includes jobs as a model, hairdresser, and cashier. She lives with her mother and 9 year old German Sheppard dog called Hera in Istanbul.

Shoe

A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair. Some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed specifically for mountaineering or skiing.

Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but in the 2010s, they are increasingly made from rubber, plastics, and other petrochemical-derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and temperature extremes, which shoes protect against. Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites.

Shoe hanger

A shoe hanger, also called a shoe display hanger, is commonly used to hang and display footwear in retail stores for the purpose of space efficient storage and to present footwear to customers. Shoe hangers have secondary functions of providing support for footwear and for displaying key information, such as style and shoe size. Shoe hangers come in a variety of styles for different display purposes and footwear types. The most common styles are wing, hook and clip designs, which are made from plastic.

Wald test

The Wald test is a parametric statistical test named after the statistician Abraham Wald. Whenever a relationship within or between data items can be expressed as a statistical model with parameters to be estimated from a sample, the Wald test can be used to test the true value of the parameter based on the sample estimate.

Suppose a social scientist, who has data on social class and shoe size, wonders whether social class is associated with shoe size. Say is the average increase in shoe size for upper-class people compared to middle-class people: then the Wald test can be used to test whether is 0 (in which case social class has no association with shoe size) or non-zero (shoe size varies between social classes). Here, , the hypothetical difference in shoe sizes between upper and middle-class people in the whole population, is a parameter. An estimate of might be the difference in shoe size between upper and middle-class people in the sample. In the Wald test, the social scientist uses the estimate and an estimate of variability (see below) to draw conclusions about the unobserved true . Or, for a medical example, suppose smoking multiplies the risk of lung cancer by some number R: then the Wald test can be used to test whether R = 1 (i.e. there is no effect of smoking) or is greater (or less) than 1 (i.e. smoking alters risk).

A Wald test can be used in a great variety of different models including models for dichotomous variables and models for continuous variables.

ISO standards by standard number
1–9999
10000–19999
20000+

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