Shishapangma, also called Gosainthān, is the 14th highest mountain in the world at 8,027 metres (26,335 ft) above sea level. It was the last 8,000 metre peak to be climbed, due to its location entirely within Tibet and the restrictions on visits by foreign travelers to the region imposed by authorities of the Government of China and of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Shishapangma (left) from mountain flight, Nepal
|Elevation||8,027 m (26,335 ft) |
|Prominence||2,897 m (9,505 ft) |
|Isolation||91 kilometres (57 mi)|
|Location||Nyalam County, Tibet, China|
|Parent range||Jugal/Langtang Himal, Himalayas|
|First ascent||2 May 1964 by Xu Jing et al. (Chinese)|
(First winter ascent 14 January 2005 Piotr Morawski and Simone Moro)
|Easiest route||snow/ice climb|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Nepalese||शिशापाङ्मा Shishāpāngmā or गोसाईथान Gōsāīthān|
Geologist Toni Hagen explained the name as meaning a "grassy plain" or "meadow" (pangma) above a "comb" or a "range" (shisha or chisa) in the local Tibetan dialect, thereby signifying the "crest above the grassy plains".
On the other hand, Tibetologist Guntram Hazod records a local story that explains the mountain's name in terms of its literal meaning in the Standard Tibetan language: shisha, which means "meat of an animal that died of natural causes" and sbangma which means "malt dregs left over from brewing beer". According to the story, one year a heavy snowfall killed most of the animals at pasture. All that the people living near the mountain had to eat was the meat of the dead animals and the malt dregs left over from brewing beer, and so the mountain was named Shisha Pangma (shisha sbangma), signifiying "meat of dead animals and malty dregs".
Shishapangma is located in south-central Tibet, five kilometres from the border with Nepal. It is the only eight-thousander entirely within Chinese territory. It is also the highest peak in the Jugal Himal which is contiguous with and often considered part of Langtang Himal. The Jugal/Langtang Himal straddles the Tibet/Nepal border. Since Shishapangma is on the dry north side of the Himalayan crest and further from the lower terrain of Nepal, it has less dramatic vertical relief than most major Himalayan peaks.
Shishapangma has a subsidiary peak higher than 8,000 m: Central-Peak at 8,008 m (26,273 ft).
Some of Shishapangma's ascents are not well verified, or still in dispute. Some climbers claim to have reached the summit when in fact they reached the slightly lower central (west) summit at 8,013 m (26,289 ft), which is still almost two hours climbing from the 14-metre-higher (46 ft), true summit of 8,027 m (26,335 ft). Respected Himalayan chronicler and record keeper, Elizabeth Hawley, famously got Ed Viesturs (amongst others), to re-climb the true main summit of Shishapangma in his quest to climb all 14 eight-thousanders. Her "Himalayan Database" would not accept central (west) summit ascents as full ascents of Shishapangma.
Thirty-one people have died climbing Shishapangma, including Americans Alex Lowe and Dave Bridges in 1999, veteran Portuguese climber Bruno Carvalho and also noted Bulgarian climber Boyan Petrov, who disappeared on 3rd May 2018. Nevertheless, Shishapangma is regarded as one of the easiest eight-thousanders to climb. The most common ascent via the Northern Route ascends via the northwest face and northeast ridge and face, and has relatively easy access, with vehicle travel possible to base camp at 5,000 m (16,400 ft). Routes on the steeper southwest face are more technically demanding and involve 2,200 metres (7,220 ft) of ascent on a 50-degree slope.
Shishapangma was first climbed via the Northern Route on 2 May 1964 by a Chinese expedition led by Xǔ Jìng. In addition to Xǔ Jìng, the summit team consisted of Zhāng Jùnyán, Wang Fuzhou, Wū Zōngyuè, Chén Sān, Soinam Dorjê, Chéng Tiānliàng, Migmar Zhaxi, Dorjê, and Yún Dēng.
Stewart Alexander "Alex" Lowe (24 December 1958 – 5 October 1999) was an American mountaineer. He has been described as inspiring "...a whole generation of climbers and explorers with his uncontainable enthusiasm, legendary training routines, and significant ascents of rock climbs, ice climbs, and mountains all over the world...". He died in an avalanche in Tibet. The Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation honors his legacy.Alex MacIntyre
Alex MacIntyre (1954 - 1982) was a British mountaineer in the 1970s. He is known for developing new climbing techniques that enabled ascents not previously accomplished.Alexandru Găvan
Alex Găvan (born 19 May 1982) is a leading Romanian mountaineer specializing in Himalayan climbing of 8000 meter peaks without using supplemental oxygen or sherpa support in his ascents. By now Alex had successfully climbed six 8000 meter peaks. Since 2006, Alex runs a special project to climb all fourteen 8000 meter mountains in the world. At the present moment, he is the first Romanian climber to reach the summit of Gasherbrum I, Makalu and Shishapangma. His other three successful climbs of Cho Oyu, Manaslu and Broad Peak are second Romanian ascents. In 2006, with the successful ascent of Cho Oyu, Alex became at 24 years old the youngest Romanian ever to have climbed an eight thousand meter peak and was among the few who freely spoke about the Nangpa La shootings. He was awarded with "The 2007 Romanian Sportsman of the Year in High Altitude Mountaineering" by the Romanian Federation of Alpinism and Sport Climbing for the first Romanian ascent of Gasherbrum I.Benoît Chamoux
Benoît Chamoux (19 February 1961 – 6 October 1995) was a French Alpinist, who claimed to have summited 13 of the Eight-thousanders in the Himalayas.
Three of these climbs are disputed and are not formally recorded (Makalu in 1995, Cho Oyu in 1990 and Shishapangma in 1990). His official recorded number of ascents is 10.Doychin Vasilev
Doychin Vasilev (Bulgarian: Дойчин Василев, born 12 June 1944 in Sofia) is a Bulgarian alpinist and cinematographer who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri (in 1995), Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999). President of Alpine Club Vihren, Sofia. Participant in the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition Tangra 2004/05, noted by Discovery Channel as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.Documentaries by Doychin Vasilev: Chomolungma (1997), Makalu (1998), Manaslu (1999), and White Dreams (2001)Eight-thousander
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.Fritz Luchsinger
Fritz Luchsinger (March 8, 1921 – 28 April 1983) was a Swiss mountaineer. Together with Ernst Reiss he made the first ascent of Lhotse (8,516 m), the fourth highest mountain in the world, on 18 May 1956. During the approach march Luchsinger came down with severe appendicitis, and had to recuperate in a room given to the Swiss expedition by the lama of Tengboche monastery.Luchsinger disappeared during an attempt on Shishapangma in 1983.Labuche Kang
Labuche Kang (or Lapche Kang, Lobuche Kang I, Choksiam) is a northern outlier of the Himalayas inside Tibet. It rises northwest of Rolwaling Himal and east of Shishapangma. The peak belongs to a little-known section of the Himalaya variously called Labuche Himal, Pamari Himal and Lapchi Kang. that extends from the valley of the Tamakosi River west to the valley of the Sun Kosi and Nyalam Tong La
pass where Arniko-Friendship Highway cross the Himalaya. This section extends south into Nepal east of Arniko Highway. It is wholly within the catchment of the Kosi, a Ganges tributary.
Labuche Kang was first climbed in 1987 by a Sino-Japanese expedition, via the West Ridge. No other attempts are recorded until September 2010 when American climber Joe Puryear fell to his death during an unsuccessful attempt.Langtang Lirung
Langtang Lirung is the highest peak of the Langtang Himal,
which is a subrange of the Nepalese Himalayas, southwest of the Eight-thousander Shishapangma.List of deaths on eight-thousanders
The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.
This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.List of highest mountains on Earth
There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level. The vast majority of these mountains are located on the edge of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. Only those summits are included that, by an objective measure, may be considered individual mountains as opposed to subsidiary peaks.Molamenqing
Molamenqing (Chinese: Phola Gangchen) is an eastern outlier of Shishapangma, the 14th highest peak in the world. Both are in the Jugal Himal, a subrange of the Himalaya in Tibet. (This range is contiguous with, and often considered as part of, the Langtang Himal.) Its elevation is also given as 7,661 m (25,134 ft); the elevation given here is from a Chinese survey. Molamenqing is little-known, partly since it does not have much independent stature. Its topographic prominence, i.e. its rise above the saddle connecting it with Shishapangma, is only 430 metres, which is relatively small for a Himalayan peak, although large enough for it to qualify in some reckonings as an independent peak.
Molamenqing did enjoy a temporary fame in the early 1980s. At the time it was one of the highest unclimbed peaks in the world (using a prominence cutoff low enough to qualify it as a separate summit). A team from New Zealand applied to the Chinese authorities to climb the peak, and became one of the first Western teams to be allowed to climb in Tibet since before World War II. The team succeeded in making the first, and so far the only, ascent of the mountain. They started from the east side of the peak, but their long route went via the north side of Shishapangma and approached the summit from the west.
The Himalayan Index lists no other attempts on this peak.Phurba Tashi
Phurba Tashi Sherpa Mendewa (Nepali: फूर्वा तासी शेर्पा, 1971) is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer known for his numerous ascents of major Himalayan peaks. He holds the record for the most total ascents of eight-thousanders, with 30. These include twenty-one ascents of Mount Everest, five on Cho Oyu, two on Manaslu, and one each on Shishapangma and Lhotse.Piotr Morawski
Piotr Morawski (December 27, 1976 – April 8, 2009) was a Polish mountaineer. He was best known for making the first successful winter ascent together with Simone Moro of Shishapangma on January 14, 2005. Morawski died aged 32 during an international Dhaulagiri/Manaslu expedition in Nepal. He fell into a crevasse at an elevation of 5500 m while acclimatizing.Sebastian Haag
Sebastian Haag (23 May 1978 – 24 September 2014) was a German extreme ski mountaineer and extreme skier. Together with Benedikt Böhm he holds the records in speed ski mountaineering at the Muztagata and the Gasherbrum II.
Haag was born in Munich, where he worked as a veterinarian, and was a member of the Dynafit Gore-Tex team.
Haag died on 24 September 2014 together with the Italian mountaineer Andrea Zambaldi at the Shishapangma in an avalanche accident. He was 36.Simone Moro
Simone Moro (born 27 October 1967 in Bergamo) is an Italian alpinist.
He is the only mountaineer to have made the first winter ascent of four of the eight-thousanders: Shishapangma in 2005, Makalu in 2009, Gasherbrum II in 2011, and Nanga Parbat in 2016., He also ascended Everest four times in 2000, 2002, 2006, 2010.
Moro is also an experienced helicopter pilot. In 2013, Moro and two other rescue experts carried out the world's highest long-line rescue operation on a helicopter, on Lhotse, at 7800m. On 12 November 2015, he set a new flight altitude world record, (Category E-1a Max Takeoff weight less than 500 kg), in an ES 101 Raven, turboshaft powered helicopter, (6705m).Solar eclipse of November 23, 1965
An annular solar eclipse occurred on November 23, 1965. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. Annularity was visible from the Soviet Union (today's eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and southwestern Tajikistan), Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Nepal (including the capital city Kathmandu), southwestern Sikkim (now merged with India), Burma, southwestern tip of Sainyabuli Province in Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam (now belonging to Vietnam), Spratly Islands, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Territory of Papua New Guinea (today's Papua New Guinea), and Gilbert and Ellice Islands (the part now belonging to Kiribati). 8 of the 14 eight-thousanders—Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Shishapangma, Cho Oyu, Everest, Lhotse and Makalu, as well as the highest peak of Oceania, Puncak Jaya, lie in the path of annularity.Vladislav Terzyul
Vladyslav Terzyul (Ukrainian: Владислав Олександрович Терзиул; 18 June 1953 in Artyom, Primorsky Krai, Soviet Union – 17 May 2004), was a Ukrainian alpinist, one of the world's premier high-altitude climbers.
He is said to be one of the few people to have climbed all eight-thousander peaks and the first Ukrainian ever. However this claim is disputed because he did not reach the highest point on Shishapangma (8027m), but instead stopped at Shishapangma Central (8013m).
Vladislav Terzyul died descending from the summit of Makalu on May 17, 2004, at an altitude of about 8300 metres.Xu Jing (mountaineer)
Xu Jing (Chinese: 许竞; pinyin: Xǔ Jìng, 1927 – 15 October 2011) was a Chinese mountaineer and leader of the first team to reach the summit of Shishapangma.
Xu Jing was born in Fushun, Liaoning, China. He learned mountaineering in the Soviet Union in 1955. In 1956, Xu Jing took charge of China's first mountaineering training program organized by All-China Federation of Trade Unions. The same year, he climbed Muztagh Ata in a joint Sino-Soviet expedition. In 1960, he was the deputy leader of the Chinese Mount Everest expedition team, but had to retreat at 8500 m due to exhaustion. In 1964, Xu Jing led a team of members to reach the summit of Shishapangma, the last unclimbed eight-thousander. In 1975, he was the deputy leader of the Chinese expedition team that successfully climbed and surveyed Mount Everest. In 1988, he was the deputy leader of the China-Japan-Nepal joint Mount Everest "crossover" team. Xu Jing was vice-president of China Mountaineering Association. Xu died in 15 October 2011, aged 84.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Gāosēngzàn Fēng|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Xīxiàbāngmǎ Fēng|
|Wylie||shi sha sbang ma|