Shiromani Akali Dal

The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India. There are a large number of parties with the name "Shiromani Akali Dal". The party recognised as "Shiromani Akali Dal" by the Election Commission of India is the one led by Sukhbir Singh Badal. It controls Sikh religious bodies Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee and is the largest and most influential Sikh political party worldwide. The basic philosophy of Akali Dal is to give a political voice to Sikh issues and it believes that religion and politics go hand in hand. Shiromani Akali Dal is part of the BJP led NDA.

Shiromani Akali Dal
PresidentSukhbir Singh Badal
Lok Sabha leaderPrem Singh Chandumajra
Rajya Sabha leaderNaresh Gujral
Founded14 October 1920
HeadquartersBlock #6, Madhya Marg
Sector 28, Chandigarh
Student wingStudent Organisation of India [1] (SOI)[2]
Youth wingYouth Akali Dal
IdeologyPunjabiyat[3]
Punjabi regionalism[4]
Conservatism[5]
Political positionRight-wing
ColoursOrange
ECI StatusState Party[6]
AllianceNational Democratic Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
4 / 545
[7](currently 518 members + 1 Speaker)
Seats in Rajya Sabha
3 / 245
Election symbol
Weighing Balance
Website
www.shiromaniakalidal.net

History

British India

Akali Dal was formed on 14 December 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body. The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. Sardar Sarmukh Singh Chubbal was the first president of a unified proper Akali Dal, but it became popular under Master Tara Singh.

In the provincial election of 1937, the Akali Dal won 10 seats. The Khalsa Nationalists won 11 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist leader Sikander Hyat Khan. The Akalis sat in opposition and made occasional forays into reaching an understanding with the Muslim League, which never reached fruition.[8]

In the provincial election of 1946, the Akali Dal won 22 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana, along with the Indian National Congress. The Muslim League was unable to capture power, despite having won the largest number of seats, which perhaps suited it fine as it strengthened its Pakistan demand. The Muslim League launched a civil disobedience campaign, bringing down the Tiwana government by March 1947. The rest of the period till Indian independence was filled by Governor's Rule.[9]

Independent India

In the 1950s, the party launched the Punjabi Suba movement, demanding a state with majority of Punjabi speaking people, out of undivided East Punjab under the leadership of Sant Fateh Singh. In 1966, the present Punjab was formed. Akali Dal came to power in the new Punjab, but early governments didn't live long due to internal conflicts and power struggles within the party. Later, party strengthened and party governments completed full term.

Party presidents

Following is the list of presidents of the party as given on party website.

Current Members in Houses

House Current Members
Union Parliament
Rajya Sabha 3
Lok Sabha 4
State Legislature
Punjab Legislative Assembly 14/117

Punjab Chief Minister belonging to Akali Dal

In general elections

Year General election Seats won Change in # of seats Percentage of vote Vote swing
Indian general election, 1945 6th Central Legislative Assembly 2 Increase 2
Indian general election, 1951 1st Lok Sabha 4 0.99%
Indian general election, 1957 2nd Lok Sabha 0 ? Decrease4
Indian general election, 1962 3rd Lok Sabha 3 Increase3 0.72%
Indian general election, 1967 4th Lok Sabha 0[10] Decrease3
Indian general election, 1971 5th Lok Sabha 1 Increase1 0.87%
Indian general election, 1977 6th Lok Sabha 9 Increase8 1.26%
Indian general election, 1980 7th Lok Sabha 1 Decrease 8 0.71%
Indian general election, 1984 8th Lok Sabha 7 Increase 7 17.9%
Indian general election, 1989 9th Lok Sabha 0 Decrease7
Indian general election, 1991 10th Lok Sabha 0 Steady
Indian general election, 1996 11th Lok Sabha 8 Increase 8 0.76%
Indian general election, 1998 12th Lok Sabha 8 Steady 0.81%
Indian general election, 1999 13th Lok Sabha 10 Increase 2 25.58%
Indian general election, 2004 14th Lok Sabha 8 Decrease 2 34.28%
Indian general election, 2009 15th Lok Sabha 4 Decrease 4 0.96%
Indian general election, 2014 16th Lok Sabha 4 Steady 20.30% Decrease 13.55%

In state elections

Punjab

Haryana

Delhi

See also

References

  1. ^ "SOI".
  2. ^ "SOI Clash". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  3. ^ "SAD aims to widen reach, to contest UP poll". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  4. ^ Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "In post-Independence India, the SAD launched the Punjabi Suba morcha in the 1960s, seeking the re-organisation of Punjab on linguistic basis". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  5. ^ Grover, Verinder (1996). Encyclopaedia of India and Her States: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab, Volume 4. Deep & Deep. p. 578.
  6. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  7. ^ "Members: Lok Sabha". loksabha.nic.in. Lok Sabha Secretariat. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  8. ^ Jalal, The Sole Spokesman 1994, p. 23, 97.
  9. ^ Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History 1998, p. 74.
  10. ^ Akali Dal – Sant Fateh Singh, a splinter group won 3 seats

Bibliography

External links

Akali Dal (1920)

The Shiromani Akali Dal (1920) is a political party in India led by former Speaker of Punjab Vidhan Sabha, Ravi Inder Singh.

Anandpur Sahib Resolution

The Anandpur Sahib Resolution, was a statement with a list of demands made by Punjab political party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, in 1973.

Firozpur (Lok Sabha constituency)

Firozpur Lok Sabha constituency (formerly known as Ferozepur Lok Sabha constituency) is one of the 13 Lok Sabha constituencies in Punjab state in northern India.

Harsimrat Kaur Badal

Harsimrat Kaur Badal (born 25 July 1966) is the Union Cabinet Minister of Food Processing in the Government of India and member of parliament from Bathinda. She is a member of Shiromani Akali Dal. Her husband Sukhbir Singh Badal was the deputy chief minister of Punjab and the president of Shiromani Akali Dal.

Lachhman Singh Gill

Lachhman Singh Gill was the 12th Chief Minister of Punjab. He remained in this post from 25 November 1967 to 22 August 1968. He was a member of Shiromani Akali Dal(SAD), a Sikh-centered regional political party in Punjab.

Manpreet Singh Badal

Manpreet Singh Badal (born 26 July 1962) is an Indian politician and leader of the Indian National Congress. He has been member of Punjab Legislative Assembly from 1995 to 2012 and served as a finance minister in the government of Parkash Singh Badal from 2007-2010.

Parkash Singh Badal

Parkash Singh Badal (born 8 December 1927) is an Indian politician who was Chief Minister of Punjab state from 1970 to 1971, from 1977 to 1980, from 1997 to 2002, and from 2007 to 2017. He is also the patron of Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), a Sikh-centered regional political party. He was the president of the party from 1995 to 2008, when he was replaced by his son Sukhbir Singh Badal. As the patron of SAD he exercises a strong influence on the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee. The Government of India awarded him the second-highest civilian award, Padma Vibhushan, in 2015.

Punjab Legislative Assembly

The Punjab Legislative Assembly or the Punjab Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in India. At present, it consists of 117 members, directly elected from 117 single-seat constituencies. The tenure of the Legislative Assembly is five years unless dissolved sooner. The current Speaker of the Assembly is Rana KP Singh. The meeting place of the Legislative Assembly since 6 March 1961 is the Vidhan Bhavan in Chandigarh.

Ranjit Singh Brahmpura

Ranjit Singh Brahmpura an Indian politician who is a member of parliament from Khadoor Sahib (Lok Sabha constituency). He won the Indian general election, 2014 being a Shiromani Akali Dal candidate.

Sarb Hind Shiromani Akali Dal

The Sarb Hind Shiromani Akali Dal (SHSAD) was a Sikh political party in India, formed after a split in the Shiromani Akali Dal. The party was led by Gurcharan Singh Tohra.SHSAD was founded by Tohra after he was expelled by the SAD Political Affairs Committee on May 14, 1999. SHSAD was officially constituted on May 30, 1999. The party contested the 1999 Lok Sabha election and won 4.15% of the vote in Punjab. All in all the party had fielded 7 candidates in Punjab.SHSAD contested the 2002 Punjab Vidhan Sabha election as a constituent of the Panthic Morcha, an alliance of Sikh parties.Tohra reconciled with SAD in 2003. A unity declaration between Tohra and the SAD leader Parkash Singh Badal was signed in Patiala on June 13, 2003. Whilst SHSAD had been unsuccessful in winning seats in elections, the SAD-SHSAD split influenced elections by dividing the Akali vote and enabling the Indian National Congress of win elections in Punjab. After the merger of SHSAD and SAD, SAD emerged victorious in the 2004 Lok Sabha election in Punjab.

Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar)

Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar), registered with the Election Commission of India as Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann), is a splinter group, led by Simranjit Singh Mann, of the Shiromani Akali Dal. Akali Dal Amritsar was formed on 1 May 1994 at Shri Akal Takht (highest temporal seat of Sikhs), a six-member committee of Simranjit Singh Mann, Capt. Amarinder Singh, Retd col. Jasmer Singh Bala, Bhai Manjit singh, Surjit Singh Barnala and Jagdev Singh Talwandi was constituted to build up the structure of new party. Later on Simranjit singh Mann was elected the president of Akali Dal Amritsar unanimously.which had made first by master tara singh

Shiromani Akali Dal (Democratic)

Shiromani Akali Dal (Democratic), a splinter group of the Badal-led Shiromani Akali Dal. SAD(D) was formed in 1996. Party president was Kuldip Singh Wadala.

SAD(D) joined the Punjab Loktantrik Morcha together with Marxist Communist Party of India, Samajwadi Party, Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), Janata Dal (Secular), Republican Party of India and Punjab Milkman Union.

Ahead of the 2004 Lok Sabha elections SAD(D) merged with the Badal-led Shiromani Akali Dal.

Shiromani Akali Dal (Longowal)

Shiromani Akali Dal (Longowal) was a splinter group of the Parkash Singh Badal-led Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD). The party was launched in 2004 with Surjit Kaur Barnala (wife of SAD leader Surjit Singh Barnala) as its president. Prem Singh Chandumajra also joined it after being denied a ticked by the Badal-led SAD, but later left to join SAD (Badal) again in 2007.

The party contested the Patiala seat, but failed. In 2007, the party merged back into the Badal-led Shiromani Akali Dal.Later, however, the party split out of SAD again. In 2014, the party merged into the Indian National Congress this time.

Shiromani Akali Dal (Panthic)

The political party Shiromani Akali Dal (Panthic) was one of several hard-line splinter group, formed as a result of the split in Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann)) in 1991. SAD(P) was formed in 1990. It is led by Jasbir Singh Rode. The party was a Sikh-centered political party in the Indian state of Punjab.

In January 1992 SAD (Panthik) merged with the Shiromani Akali Dal (Longowal). Amarinder however felt marginalized, and in February 1997 the SAD (Panthik) was re-launched. On 12 September 1997 SAD (Panthik) merged with the Indian National Congress and Amarinder Singh became the president of Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC) replacing Rajinder Kaur Bhattal.

Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali)

Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali) is an Indian political party which was formed by Ranjit Singh Brahmpura, Rattan Singh Ajnala and Sewa Singh Sekhwan on 16 December 2018.

On 4 November 2018, Shiromani Akali Dal expelled Sewa Singh Sekhwan the former Punjab Minister and then on 12 November 2018 expelled Ranjit Singh Brahmpura MP from Khadoor Sahib (Lok Sabha constituency), Rattan Singh Ajnala former MP, Ravinder Singh Brahmpura and Amarpal Singh Ajnala from the party.All were expelled from the party because they accused the party president Sukhbir Singh Badal and the former minister Bikram Singh Majithia of destroying the reputation of the party, Akal Takht and of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee.On same day, the party also declared it would contest all seats in 2019 in the Lok Sabha Polls and in 2022 in the Punjab Legislative Assembly Polls.SAD(T) became the member of Punjab Democratic Alliance in 2018 but due to differences on seats sharing it left the alliance and joined hands with Aam Aadmi Party for Lok sabha election in Punjab. However it failed to make consensus with AAP on seats sharing and decided to contest election alone.

Shiromani Akali Dal Delhi

Shiromani Akali Dal Delhi is a splinter group of the Shiromani Akali Dal. SADD emerged as a separate party on 22 February 1999 when a section of the Delhi unit of the Badal-led SAD revolted against the suspension of Ranjit Singh as the Akal Takht jathedar. SADD sided with Gurcharan Singh Tohra on this issue. The convenor of the new party was Avtar Singh Autopins.

SADD president is Paramjit Singh Sarna and general secretary is S.Balbir singh (vivek vihar).

In the 2002 Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee elections SADD contested with the support of Tohra and his Sarb Hind Shiromani Akali Dal. When reapproachment took place between Tohra and Badal, SADD distanced itself from Tohra and aligned more closely with the Congress Party.

In the 2003 DSGMC elections SADD contested supported by Congress. SADD won the elections that year.

Sukhbir Singh Badal

Sukhbir Singh Badal (born 9 July 1962) is an Indian politician and President of Shiromani Akali Dal, a Sikh political party. He was the Deputy Chief Minister of Punjab from 2009 to 2017. He is the son of Parkash Singh Badal , who served several times as Punjab Chief Minister.

Surjit Singh Barnala

Surjit Singh Barnala (21 October 1925 – 14 January 2017) was an Indian politician who served as the chief minister of Punjab state from 1985 to 1987. Following that he served as the governor of Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands and a Union Minister on handling various portfolios.

Varinder Singh Bajwa

Shri Varinder Singh Bajwa, a politician from Shiromani Akali Dal party, is a Member of the Parliament of India representing Punjab in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

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