Shirley Ann Jackson, FREng (born August 5, 1946) is an American physicist, and the eighteenth president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She is the first African-American woman to have earned a doctorate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). She is also the second African-American woman in the United States to earn a doctorate in physics, and the first to be awarded the National Medal of Science.
|Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board|
August 29, 2014 – January 20, 2017
Serving with Jami Miscik
|Preceded by||David Boren|
|Succeeded by||Steve Feinberg|
|President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute|
|Assumed office |
July 1, 1999
|Preceded by||Cornelius Barton|
|Born||August 5, 1946|
Washington, DC, US
|Education||Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, MS, PhD)|
Jackson was born in Washington, DC. Her parents, Beatrice and George Jackson, strongly valued education and encouraged her in school. Her father helped her on her interest in science by helping her with projects for her science classes. At Roosevelt Senior High School, Jackson attended accelerated programs in both math and science, and graduated in 1964 as valedictorian.
Jackson began classes at MIT in 1964, one of fewer than twenty African-American students and the only one studying theoretical physics. While a student, she did volunteer work at Boston City Hospital and tutored students at the Roxbury YMCA. She earned her B.S. degree in 1968, writing her thesis on solid-state physics.
Jackson elected to stay at MIT for her doctoral work, in part to encourage more African American students to attend the institution. She worked on elementary particle theory, and received her Ph.D. degree in nuclear physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973, the first African-American woman to earn a doctorate degree from MIT. Her research was directed by James Young. Jackson is also the second African-American woman in the United States to earn a doctorate in physics. In 2002, Discover magazine recognized her as one of the 50 most important women in science.
As a postdoctoral researcher of subatomic particles during the 1970s, Jackson studied and conducted research at a number of physics laboratories in both the United States and Europe. Her first position was as a research associate at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois (known as Fermilab) where she studied hadrons. In 1974 she became a visiting scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. There she explored theories of strongly interacting elementary particles. In 1976 and 1977, she both lectured in physics at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and became a visiting scientist at the Aspen Center for Physics.
Jackson has described her interests thus:
I am interested in the electronic, optical, magnetic, and transport properties of novel semiconductor systems. Of special interest are the behavior of magnetic polarons in semimagnetic and dilute magnetic semiconductors, and the optical response properties of semiconductor quantum-wells and superlattices. My interests also include quantum dots, mesoscopic systems, and the role of antiferromagnetic fluctuations in correlated 2D electron systems.
In 1995 President Bill Clinton appointed Jackson to serve as Chairman of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), becoming the first woman and first African American to hold that position. At the NRC, she had "ultimate authority for all NRC functions pertaining to an emergency involving an NRC licensee". In addition, while Jackson served on the commission she assisted in the establishment of the International Nuclear Regulators Association.
Jackson joined the Theoretical Physics Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1976, examining the fundamental properties of various materials. She began her time at Bell Labs by studying materials to be used in the semiconductor industry.
In 1978, Jackson became part of the Scattering and Low Energy Physics Research Department, and in 1988 she moved to the Solid State and Quantum Physics Research Department. At Bell Labs, Jackson researched the optical and electronic properties of two-dimensional and quasi-two dimensional systems. In her research, Jackson has made contributions to the knowledge of charged density waves in layered compounds, polaronic aspects of electrons in the surface of liquid helium films, and optical and electronic properties of semiconductor strained-layer superlattices. On these topics and others she has prepared or collaborated on over 100 scientific articles.
Jackson served on the faculty at Rutgers University in Piscataway and New Brunswick, New Jersey from 1991 to 1995, in addition to continuing to consult with Bell Labs on semiconductor theory. Her research during this time focused on the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional systems.
Although numerous sources mistakenly claim that "while working at Bell Laboratories, Dr. Jackson conducted breakthrough basic scientific research that enabled others to invent the portable fax, touch-tone telephone, solar cells, fiber optic cables, and the technology behind caller ID and call waiting", Jackson herself makes no such claim. Moreover, the aforementioned inventions significantly predated her arrival at Bell Labs in 1976, with those inventions actually occurring in the time frame between 1954 and 1970. Consequently she could not have had any such role in enabling these advancements.
On July 1, 1999, Jackson became the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She was the first woman and first African American to hold this position. Since her appointment to president of RPI, Jackson has helped raise over $1 billion in donations for philanthropic causes. Jackson is leading a strategic initiative called The Rensselaer Plan and much progress has been made towards achieving the Plan's goals. She has overseen a large capital improvement campaign, including the construction of an Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center costing $200 million, and the East Campus Athletic Village. She enjoys the ongoing support of the RPI Board of Trustees. On April 26, 2006, the faculty of RPI (including a number of retirees) voted 155 to 149 against a vote of no-confidence in Jackson. In the Fall of 2007, the Rensselaer Board of Trustees suspended the faculty senate, thus prompting a strong reaction from the Rensselaer community that resulted in various protests including a "teach in".
Since arriving at RPI, Jackson has been one of the highest-paid university presidents in the nation. Her combined salary and benefits have expanded from $423,150 in 1999–2000 to over $1.3 million in 2006–2007 and to $2.34 million in 2010. In 2011 Jackson's salary was $1.75 million. In 2006–2007, it is estimated she received another $1.3 million from board seats at several major corporations. The announcement of layoffs at RPI in December 2008 led some in the RPI community to question whether the institute should continue to compensate Jackson at this level, maintain a $450,000 Adirondack residence for her, and continue to support a personal staff of housekeepers, bodyguards and other aides. In July 2009, the news reported on the construction of a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) mountain-top home in Bolton, New York, overlooking Lake George. A water-quality activist raised concerns about possible environmental hazards from the construction of a driveway, but according to Department of Environmental Conservation officials, the work was in compliance.
In its 2009 review of the decade 1999–2009, McClatchy Newspapers reported Jackson as the highest-paid currently sitting college president in the US, with a 2008 salary of approximately $1.6 million. On December 4–5, 2009 Jackson celebrated her 10th year at RPI with an extravagant "Celebration Weekend", which featured tribute concerts by Aretha Franklin and Joshua Bell among other events. Following the weekend, the Board of Trustees announced they would support construction of a new guest house on Jackson's property, for the purpose of "[enabling] the president to receive and entertain, appropriately, Rensselaer constituents, donors, and other high-level visitors". It was later reported that Jackson's current house on Tibbits Avenue has 4,884 square feet (453.7 m2) of space, seven bedrooms and five bathrooms, and an estimated value of $1,122,500. The trustees said that "the funds for this new project would not have been available for any other purpose". William Walker, the school's vice president of strategic communications and external relations noted "The board sees this very much as a long-term investment … for President Jackson and her successors".
On February 2, 2010, the Troy Zoning Board of Appeals denied RPI's request for a zoning variance allowing them to construct the new house at a height of 44 feet (13 m), which would exceed the 25-foot (7.6 m) height restriction on buildings in residential areas. The Zoning Board stated that it is "too big", and two firefighters believed the property would be difficult to access with emergency vehicles. A new plan was announced on February 25, describing how the president's house will be replaced with a new two-story house. The new house will have "9,600 square feet of livable space, divided approximately equally between living space for the president's family and rooms for the president to conduct meetings and events". In June 2010, it was discovered that the newest plans for the house showed a new size of 19,500 square feet (1,810 m2), causing the city of Troy to issue a stop-work order until additional building fees were paid.
In June 2010, it was announced that the Rensselaer Board of Trustees unanimously voted to extend Jackson a ten-year contract renewal, which she accepted. Shirley Ann Jackson's compensation ranked 1st among US private university presidents in 2014. A 2015 Time Magazine article cited Jackson as the highest paid college president, who "took home a base salary of $945,000 plus another $276,474 in bonuses, $31,874 in nontaxable benefits, and $5.8 million in deferred compensation, for a stunning $7.1 million in total. That works out to more than $1,000 per student at her school". In fall of 2018, another contract extension was approved by the board of trustees through the end of June 2022.
Jackson has received many fellowships, including the Martin Marietta Aircraft Company Scholarship and Fellowship, the Prince Hall Masons Scholarship, the National Science Foundation Traineeship, and a Ford Foundation Advanced Study Fellowship. She has been elected to numerous special societies, including the American Physical Society and American Philosophical Society. In 2014, she was named recipient of the National Medal of Science
Her achievements in science and education have been recognized with multiple awards, including the CIBA-GEIGY Exceptional Black Scientist Award. In the early 1990s, Governor James Florio awarded her the Thomas Alva Edison Science Award for her contributions to physics and for the promotion of science. In 2001 she received the Richtmyer Memorial Award given annually by the American Association of Physics Teachers. She has also received many honorary doctorate degrees.
Jackson received awards for the years 1976 and 1981 as one of the Outstanding Young Women of America.
Jackson has also been active in professional associations and in serving society through public scientific commissions. In 1985, Governor Thomas Kean appointed her to the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology. She is an active voice in numerous committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the National Science Foundation. Her continuing aim has been to preserve and strengthen the US national capacity for innovation by increasing support for basic research in science and engineering. This is done in part by attracting talent from abroad and by expanding the domestic talent pool by attracting women and members of under-represented groups into careers in science. In 2004, she became president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and chaired the AAAS board in 2005.
Jackson continues to be involved in politics and public policy. In 2008 she became the University Vice Chairman of the US Council on Competitiveness, a non-for profit group based in Washington, DC. In 2009, President Barack Obama appointed Jackson to serve on the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, a 20-member advisory group dedicated to public policy.
Jackson serves on the boards of directors of many organizations:
Shirley Jackson is married to Morris A. Washington, a physics professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and has one son, Alan, a Dartmouth College alumnus. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.
| President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Title last held byDavid Boren
| Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board
Served alongside: Jami Miscik
The AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Prize is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science for public servants, recognized for sustained exceptional contributions to advancing science or scientists, whose career has been distinguished both for scientific achievement and for other notable services to the scientific community. The award consists of an engraved medallion and an honorarium of $5,000.Cornelius J. Barton
Cornelius J. Barton (born 1936) is an American metallurgical engineer, businessman and the acting president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute from April 1998 until July 1999.He received bachelor's, master's and Ph.D. degrees in metallurgical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a member of the engineering honor society Sigma Xi and is a brother of the Delta Phi social fraternity.
After his undergraduate work, from 1958–1961, he was employed as a Metallurgical Process Engineer at Olin's Nuclear Fuel Division, which manufactured nuclear reactor cores for the U. S. Navy. In 1961, Barton returned to R.P.I. for graduate work in Engineering. Upon earning an M.S. and Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering, he joined US Steel's Research Laboratory in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, as a research manager in the Advanced Applied Research Division. While at U.S.S., he authored several research papers in refereed journals, submitted patent applications for novel steel compositions, and completed a project sponsored by the U. S. Air Force for improvements and problem solving in a complex high-strength, high-performance family of steels.
Barton then joined the Chase Brass & Copper Co. in 1969, a subsidiary of Kennecott Copper, as Director of Research and Development. From 1975-1980, he was General Manager of Chase Nuclear Inc. In 1981, he returned to Chase Headquarters in Shaker Heights, Ohio, to serve as Vice President, Technology, of Kennecott Engineered Systems Co., (KESCO). When Standard Oil of Ohio acquired Kennecott, the technologies of several Standard Oil manufacturing subsidiaries joined KESCO Technologies, and Barton's unit was renamed the Standard oil Chemicals and Industrial Products Co. Technology Group. During the M&A activities engaged by Kennecott, Dorr Oliver Incorporated was acquired. Dorr Oliver's business was twofold: the separation of liquids from solids, for instance by centrifugation, and the application of Fluid-Bed technology to a variety of process engineering, and incineration activities, including coal-fired boilers with sulphur capture. Dorr Oliver was an International Corporation with 16 subsidiaries in Europe, Asia, North and South America and Licensees in Japan and South Africa.
In 1986, Barton was appointed President of Dorr Oliver. Shortly thereafter, British Petroleum fully acquired Standard Oil and re-shaped and re-organized the energy activities. Dorr Oliver was sold, and an LBO group bought the company; Barton remained as President and CEO of Dorr Oliver. The Management of Dorr Oliver subsequently performed an MBO to take the Company and manage it for growth. A significant period of world-wide growth occurred, leading ultimately to an offer of purchase for the Company
In 1992, Harriman bought a 20 percent stake in Dorr Oliver. Dorr Oliver was then sold to a German company in 1995, and Barton retired as President after more than twelve years in that position.He has been a member of the Rensselaer Board of Trustees beginning in 1991 until the present (as an active trustee from May 1991 through December 2012, and subsequently a trustee emeritus), and was the interim president of RPI from April 1998 until July 1999, until the current President, Shirley Ann Jackson was recruited. Barton Hall, a residence hall on the RPI campus that opened in 2000, was named in his honor.Elaine Roulet
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Presidents of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
|Board of directors|
Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame