The roots of Shinpa can be traced to a form of agitation propaganda theater in the 1880s promoted by Liberal Party members Sadanori Sudo and Otojirō Kawakami. Theatre historians have characterized Shinpa as a transitional movement, closely associated with the Meiji restoration, whose primary rationale was the rejection of "old" values in favor of material that would appeal to a partially westernized urban middle class which still maintained some traditional habits of thought. Some of the innovations associated with Shinpa included: shortened performance times, the occasional re-introduction of female performers to the stage, the abolition of teahouses that had previously controlled ticket sales, the use of contemporary patriotic events as subject matter, and the frequent adaptation of western classics, such as the plays of Shakespeare and The Count of Monte Cristo.
It eventually earned the name "shinpa" (literally meaning "new school") to contrast it from "kyūha" ("old school" or kabuki) due its more contemporary and realistic stories. With the success of the Seibidan troupe, however, shinpa theater ended up with a form that was closer to kabuki than to the later shingeki because of its continued use of onnagata and off-stage music. As a theatrical form, it was most successful in the early 1900s as the works of novelists such as Kyōka Izumi, Kōyō Ozaki, and Roka Tokutomi were adapted for the stage. With the introduction of cinema in Japan, shinpa became one of the first film genres in opposition again to kyūha films, as many films were based on shinpa plays.
Some shinpa stage actors like Masao Inoue were heavily involved in film, and a form called rensageki or literally "chain drama" appeared which mixed cinema and theater on stage. With the rise of the reformist Pure Film Movement in the 1910s, which strongly criticized shinpa films for their melodramatic tales of women suffering from the strictures of class and social prejudice, films about contemporary subjects eventually were called gendaigeki in opposition to jidaigeki by the 1920s, even though shinpa stories continued to be made into film for decades to come. On the stage, shinpa was no longer as successful after the Taishō era, but good playwrights such as Matsutarō Kawaguchi, actresses like Yaeko Mizutani and such Living National Treasures as Rokurō Kitamura and Shōtarō Hanayagi helped keep the form alive. Shinpa also had an influence on modern Korean theater through the shinp’a (신파) genre.
Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".Eijirō Yanagi
Eijirō Yanagi (柳永二郎, Yanagi Eijirō, 16 September 1895 – 24 April 1984) was a Japanese actor. He appeared in more than 160 films from 1940 to 1975.Fubuki Koshiji
Fubuki Koshiji (越路吹雪, 18 February 1924 – 7 November 1980), real name Mihoko Kouno (内藤 美保子) was a Japanese singer and actress.
She joined the Takarazuka Revue in 1939. Though she was recognized as a star at Takarazuka, she left in 1951. When she chose to leave the troupe, Koshiji's friend, Tokiko Iwatani, also quit to manage Koshiji's budding career in film, made possible by the liberalization that took place during and after the occupation of Japan. Throughout the 1950s, Koshiji appeared in productions that merged the art of shinpa, shingeki, and kabuki.Koshiji was influenced by French singer Édith Piaf and released a Japanese-language cover of Piaf's "Hymne à l'amour" in 1951. In addition, she recorded "Tombe la neige" by Salvatore Adamo and "C'est si bon," also in Japanese.Koshiji was married to composer Tsunemi Naitō. She died in Tokyo of stomach cancer at the age of 56. Koshiji's final words, addressed to her husband, were "Tsunemi-san, black coffee and milk."She is the subject of "Koshiji Fubuki Monogatari", a television production of TV Asahi in Japan with Takimoto Miori playing the role of Fubuki Koshiji.Gong Hyung-jin
Gong Hyung-jin (born April 10, 1969) is a South Korean actor. While best known as a supporting actor notably in Taegukgi, Liar, Marrying the Mafia II and Alone in Love, Gong has also played leading roles in North Korean Guys and Life Is Beautiful.Hiroshi Inagaki
Hiroshi Inagaki (稲垣 浩, Inagaki Hiroshi, 30 December 1905 – 21 May 1980) was a Japanese filmmaker best remembered for the Academy Award-winning Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto, which was released in 1954.Kinnosuke Takamatsu
Kinnosuke Takamatsu (Japanese: 高松 錦之助, Hepburn: Takamatsu Kinnosuke, 13 January 1898 – 14 May 1979) was a Japanese actor.Kokuten Kōdō
Kokuten Kōdō (高堂 国典, Kōdō Kokuten, 29 January 1887 – 22 January 1960) was a Japanese film actor. He appeared in more than eighty films from 1923 to 1959.List of apocalyptic films
This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.Masao Inoue (actor)
Masao Inoue (井上正夫, Inoue Masao, 15 June 1881 – 7 February 1950) was a Japanese film and stage actor and film director who contributed to the development of film and stage art in Japan.Meat pie Western
Meat pie Western, also known as Australian Western or kangaroo Western, is a broad genre of Western-style films or TV series set in the Australian outback or "the bush". Films about bushrangers (sometimes called bushranger films) are included in this genre. Some films categorised as meat-pie or Australian Westerns also fulfil the criteria for other genres, such as drama, revisionist Western, crime or thriller.
The term "meat pie Western" is a play on the term Spaghetti Western, used for Italian-made Westerns, relating in both cases to foods which are regarded as national dishes.Minoru Takase
Minoru Takase (Japanese: 高勢 実乗, Hepburn: Takase Minoru, 13 December 1890 – 19 November 1947) was a Japanese comedian and actor.Moon Young-nam
Moon Young-nam (born 1960) is a South Korean television screenwriter. Moon began writing dramas in the early 1990s, but it was Terms of Endearment (2004) and My Rosy Life (2005) that brought her praise for taking cliched and predictable tearjerker plots (Korean: 신파; RR: shinpa) and making them into powerful melodramas with a fresh spin, filled with ironically named characters. In her dramas, Moon often delves into the harsh realities of married life with candidness and wit, and her style has been consistently popular with local audiences, resulting in high viewership ratings for Famous Princesses (2006), First Wives' Club (2007), Three Brothers (2009) and Wang's Family (2013).Na Woon-gyu
Na Woon-gyu (October 27, 1902 – August 9, 1937) was a Korean actor, screenwriter and director. He is widely considered the most important filmmaker in early Korean cinema, and possibly Korea's first true movie star. Since he often wrote, directed and acted in his films, he has even been said to have started the auteur film-making tradition in Korea.Opera film
An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.Pure Film Movement
The Pure Film Movement (純映画劇運動, Jun'eigageki undō) was a trend in film criticism and filmmaking in 1910s and early 1920s Japan that advocated what were considered more modern and cinematic modes of filmmaking. Critics in such magazines as Kinema Record and Kinema Junpo complained that existing Japanese cinema was overly theatrical. They said it presented scenes from kabuki and shinpa theater as is, with little cinematic manipulation and without a screenplay written with cinema in mind. Women were even played by onnagata. Filmmakers were charged with shooting films with long takes and leaving the storytelling to the benshi in the theater instead of using devices such as close-ups and analytical editing to visually narrate a scene. The novelist Jun'ichiro Tanizaki was an important supporter of the movement. Critics such as Norimasa Kaeriyama eventually became filmmakers to put their ideas of what cinema is into practice, with Kaeriyama directing The Glow of Life at the Tenkatsu Studio in 1918. This is often considered the first "pure film," but filmmakers such as Eizō Tanaka, influenced by shingeki theater, also made their own innovations in the late 1910s at studios like Nikkatsu. The move towards "pure film" was aided by the appearance of new reformist studios such as Shochiku and Taikatsu around 1920. By the mid-1920s, Japanese cinema exhibited more of the cinematic techniques pure film advocates called for, and onnagata were replaced by actresses. The movement profoundly influenced the way films would be made and thought about for decades to come, but it was not a complete success: benshi would remain an integral part of the Japanese film experience into the 1930s.Shinbashi Enbujō
The Shinbashi Enbujō (新橋演舞場, "Shinbashi Playhouse" or "Shinbashi Theatre") is a theatre in the Ginza neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan. It is a major kabuki venue, though other types of performances take place there as well.Shingeki
Shingeki (新劇, literally "New drama") was a leading form of theatre in Japan that was based on modern realism. Born in the 20th Century, it sought to be similar to modern Western theatre, putting on the works of the ancient Greek classics, William Shakespeare, Molière, Henrik Ibsen, Anton Chekov, Tennessee Williams, and so forth. As it appropriated Western realism, it also introduced women back onto the Japanese stage.Theatre of Japan
Traditional Japanese theatre includes Kabuki, Noh (and its comic accompaniment, Kyōgen) and the puppet theatre, Bunraku.World Wild 2010
World Wild 2010 (stylized as WORLD WILD 2010 and pronounced as World Wild two-o-one-zero) is the second full-length album by Japanese electronica singer and lyricist Saori@destiny. The album was released in Japan on April 14, 2010 by D-topia Entertainment. The album charted and peaked at its debut position of No. 35 in Oricon daily charts and No. 129 in Oricon weekly charts, selling 812 copies, though the album only charted for a week, making it her highest-charting release yet. This is Saori@destiny's current highest selling album.
On June 30, 2010, the album was made available through iTunes internationally, making World Wild 2010 the first ever D-topia album to be released and distributed worldwide.
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