Shin guard

A shin guard or shin pad is a piece of equipment worn on the front of a player's shin to protect it from injury. These are commonly used in sports including association football, baseball, ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, cricket, mountain bike trials, and other sports. This is due to either being required by the rules/laws of the sport or worn voluntarily by the participants for protective measures.

Schienbeinschützer adidas
Football shin pad.


Modern day shin guards are made of many differing synthetic materials, including, but not limited to:

  • Fiberglass - Stiff, sturdy, and light weight.
  • Foam rubber - Very light weight, but not as sturdy and solid as fiberglass.
  • Polyurethane - Heavy and sturdy, which offers almost complete protection from most impacts.
  • Plastic - Less protective than any of the other synthetic shin guards.
  • Metal - Highly protective, but very heavy and uncomfortable.


The shin guard was inspired by the concept of a greave. A greave is a piece of armor used to protect the shin. It is a Middle English term, derived from an Old French word, greve (pronounced gri’v), meaning shin or shin armor.[1] The etymology of this word not only describes the use and purpose of shin guards, but also contributes to dating the technology.

This technology dates back to ancient times as early as Greek and Roman Republics. Back then, shin guards were viewed as purely protective measures for warriors in battle and were made of bronze or other hard, sturdy materials. The earliest known physical proof of the technology appeared when archaeologist Sir William Temple discovered a pair of bronze greaves with a Gorgon’s head design in the relief on each knee capsule. After careful, proper examination it was estimated that the greaves were made in Apulia, a region in Southern Italy, around 550/500 B.C.[2] This area fell under the Roman Empire boundaries and is known as today as the Salento Peninsula; it is more commonly known as the heel of Italy.[3] This discovery is not considered the oldest known application of shin guards, but all other references lie in written or pictorial medians. The oldest known reference to shin guards was a written verse in the Bible. 1 Samuel 17:6 describes Goliath, a Philistine champion from Gath, who wore a bronze helmet, coat of mail, and bronze leggings.[4] The Book of Samuel is commonly accepted to be written by Prophets Samuel, Nathan, and Gad between 960 and 700 B.C.[5] Later, more concrete, examples of the shin guard concept resurfaced in the Middle Ages. All studies and evidence show greaves were improved to cover the entire lower leg, front and back, from the feet to the knees, and were mostly made of cloth, leather, or iron.[6]

As time progressed into the 19th century a major shift in the application of shin guards occurred. The overall purpose of protecting the shin was maintained, but instead of being used for fighting, it became applied to sports. This paradigm shift dominates today’s market use of shin guards as they are used mostly in sports. Other applications do exist though for protecting the lower leg in other physical activities such as hiking, mixed martial arts, and kickboxing, but all these activities can also be considered for sport instead of being necessary in battle.

Cricket was the first sport to adopt the use of shin guards. The introduction of this equipment was not motivated by the need for protection, but rather a strategic device to gain an advantage for the batsman. The batsman who wore the leg pads was able to cover the stumps with his protected legs and prevent the ball from hitting the stumps, instead the ball bowled into the batsman.[7] Thus, the protection provided by the leg pads provided the batsman confidence to play without suffering pain or injury. This resulted in an offensive advantage; instead of hitting the wickets to get the batsman out, the bowler hits the batsman giving him another chance to hit the ball. This was addressed in 1809 with a rule change called leg before wicket, where the umpire was allowed to deduce whether the ball would have hit the stumps if the batter was not hit first.[8] Leg pads became more popular as protective measures against the impact from the ball and are worn by the batsman, the wicket-keeper, and the fielders that are fielding in close to the batsman.

Association football was the next major sport to see the introduction of the shin guard. Sam Weller Widdowson is credited for bringing shin guards to the sport in 1874. He played cricket for Nottinghamshire and football for Nottingham Forest,[9] and he got the idea to protect himself based on his cricket experiences.[10] Widdowson cut down a pair of cricket shin pads and strapped them to the outside of his stockings using straps of leather.[11] Other players ridiculed him initially, but shin guards eventually caught on as players saw the practical use of protecting their shins.[12] Today, there are a two basic types of shin guards used in association football: slip-in shin guards and ankle shin guards. [13]

Different player positions in association football require their shin guards to provide different types of protection and fit. Defenders need the most protection. They need a heavier shin guard with extra ankle protection. Midfielders need protection, but also need to be able to move freely. Forwards need a light shin guard with protection and ankle support. Goalkeepers can wear a light shin guard with minimal protection. [14]

In baseball, one of the innovators of the modern shin guard, New York Giants catcher Roger Bresnahan, began wearing shin guards in 1907.[15] Made of leather, the guards were fastened with straps and hooks.[15]

After the application of shin guards in association football, they quickly spread to other sports and are now considered necessary for most contact sports.

See also


  1. ^ "Greave." Def. 1a. World Dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries: The World's Most Trusted Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>.
  2. ^ Jastrow. Bronze Greaves BM GR1856.12-26.615. 2006. Photograph. The Greeks in Southern Italy, The British Museum, Upper Floor, Room 73, London, United Kingdom.
  3. ^ "The Roman Empire." Map. Illustrated History of The Roman Empire. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>.
  4. ^ 1 Samuel. Student's Life Application Bible. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1997. Print. New Living Translation
  5. ^ Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in Its Context. New
    Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
  6. ^ "Medieval Knights Greaves." All Things Medieval. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>.
  7. ^ Bowen, Rowland. Cricket: a History of Its Growth and Development throughout the World;. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970. Print.
  8. ^ "Laws - Laws of Cricket - Laws & Spirit - Lord's." Top Stories - News - Lord's. Lord's: The Home of Cricket. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>.
  9. ^ "Hucknall Cricketers." Ashfield District Council. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>.
  10. ^ "1857-1887." Football Nostalgia: Seriously Soccer. Football Nostalgia. Web. <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>.
  11. ^ Cox, Richard William, Dave Russell, and Wray Vamplew. Encyclopedia of British Football. London: F. Cass, 2002. Print.
  12. ^ Lennox, Doug. Now You Know Big Book of Sports. Toronto: Dundurn, 2009. Print.
  13. ^ Soccer Shin Guards, Soccer, 2013-10-14. Retrieved: 2013-10-14.
  14. ^ Soccer Shin Guards, Soccer, 2013-10-14. Retrieved: 2013-10-14.
  15. ^ a b Appel, Marty. A Second Look at Hall of Famer Roger Bresnahan. Memories and Dreams (Vol. 33, No. 6; Winter 2011[-2012], p. 39). National Baseball Hall of Fame official magazine. "A pair of his shin guards is ... part of the Hall of Fame's collection ...."
Bake McBride

Arnold Ray McBride (born February 3, 1949), nicknamed "Shake 'n Bake" and "The Callaway Kid", is an American former professional baseball outfielder, who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the St. Louis Cardinals, Philadelphia Phillies, and Cleveland Indians between 1973 and 1983. He had the most success with the Phillies teams of the late 1970s and early 1980s.

After attending Fulton High School and Westminster College in Missouri, McBride debuted for the Cardinals in 1973. He was the 1974 National League Rookie of the Year, and subsequently represented the National League (NL) in the 1976 MLB All-Star Game. McBride was a member of the world champion 1980 Phillies team, hitting a three-run home run in the first game of that year's World Series.

Though McBride ran with impressive speed, more than half of his 11 MLB seasons were significantly shortened due to injury or illness. He had surgeries on both of his knees during his playing career, and he missed almost all of the 1982 season with an eye infection related to his use of contact lenses. After his playing career ended, McBride was a minor league coach for the New York Mets and the Cardinals.


"Beanball" is a colloquialism used in baseball, for a ball thrown at an opposing player with the intention of striking them such as to cause harm, often connoting a throw at the player's head (or "bean" in old-fashioned slang). A pitcher who throws beanballs often is known as a "headhunter". The term may be applied to any sport in which a player on one team regularly attempts to throw a ball toward the general vicinity of a player of the opposite team, but is typically expected not to hit that player with the ball. In cricket, the equivalent term is "beamer". Some people use the term, beaner, though that usage is discouraged because of the negative connotations associated with that usage.


Catcher is a position for a baseball or softball player. When a batter takes his/her turn to hit, the catcher crouches behind home plate, in front of the (home) umpire, and receives the ball from the pitcher. In addition to this primary duty, the catcher is also called upon to master many other skills in order to field the position well. The role of the catcher is similar to that of the wicket-keeper in cricket, but in cricket, wicketkeepers are increasingly known for their batting abilities.

Positioned behind home plate, the catcher can see the whole field, and is therefore in the best position to direct and lead the other players in a defensive play. The catcher typically calls for pitches using hand signals. The calls are based on the pitcher's mechanics and strengths, as well as the batter's tendencies and weaknesses. Foul tips, bouncing balls in the dirt, and contact with runners during plays at the plate are all events to be handled by the catcher, necessitating the use of protective equipment. This includes a mask, chest and throat protectors, shin guards, and a heavily padded catcher's mitt.

Because the position requires a comprehensive understanding of the game's strategies, the pool of former catchers yields a disproportionate number of managers in both Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball, including such prominent examples as Connie Mack, Steve O'Neill, Al López, Mike Scioscia, Joe Girardi, and Joe Torre. The physical and mental demands of being involved on every defensive play can wear catchers down over a long season, and can have a negative effect on their offensive output.Because of the strategic defensive importance of catching, if a catcher has exceptional defensive skills, teams are often willing to overlook their relative offensive weaknesses. A knowledgeable catcher's ability to work with the pitcher, via pitch selection and location, can diminish the effectiveness of the opposing team's offense. Many great defensive catchers toiled in relative anonymity, because they did not produce large offensive numbers. Notable examples of light-hitting, defensive specialists were Ray Schalk, Jim Hegan, Jim Sundberg and Brad Ausmus. Schalk's career batting average of .253 is the lowest of any position player in the Baseball Hall of Fame. That he was selected for enshrinement in 1955 was largely a tribute to his outstanding defensive skills.In the numbering system used to record baseball plays, the catcher is assigned the number '2'. (See Baseball scorekeeping.)


Gaiters are garments worn over the shoe and lower pants leg, and used primarily as personal protective equipment; similar garments used primarily for display are spats.

Originally, gaiters were made of leather. Today, gaiters for walking are commonly made of plasticized synthetic cloth such as polyester. Gaiters for use on horseback continue to be made of leather.

Goaltender (box lacrosse)

The goaltender or goalie is a playing position in indoor or box lacrosse. More heavily armoured than a field lacrosse goaltender, since the invent of indoor lacrosse in 1931, the box lacrosse goalie has evolved into a much different position than its field lacrosse cousin.


A greave (from the Old French greve "shin, shin armour" from the Arabic jaurab, meaning stocking) is a piece of armour that protects the leg.

Greg Valentine

Jonathan Anthony Wisniski (born September 20, 1951) is an American professional wrestler, better known as Greg "The Hammer" Valentine. He is the son of wrestler Johnny Valentine.

In the course of his career, which has spanned over four decades, Valentine has held more than 40 championships, including the NWA United States Heavyweight Championship, WWF Intercontinental Heavyweight Championship, NWA World tag team title, and WWF World Tag Team Championship. An alumnus of Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation and World Championship Wrestling, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame Class of 2004 and the Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame in 2016.

Hitting for the cycle

In baseball, hitting for the cycle is the accomplishment of one batter hitting a single, a double, a triple, and a home run in the same game. Collecting the hits in that order is known as a "natural cycle". Cycles are semi-rare in Major League Baseball (MLB), having occurred only 327 times, starting with Curry Foley in 1882. The most recent example was accomplished by Jake Bauers of the Cleveland Indians on June 14, 2019, against the Detroit Tigers. The Miami Marlins are the only current MLB franchise who have never had a player hit for the cycle.

Ice hockey equipment

In ice hockey, players use specialized equipment both to facilitate the play of the game and for protection as this is a sport where injuries are common, therefore, all players are encouraged to protect their bodies from bruises and severe fractures.

Jeff White (Australian footballer)

Jeffrey Newman "Jeff" White (born 19 February 1977) is an Australian rules footballer who had a distinguished career in the Australian Football League (AFL) spanning 14 years. He played most recently and notably for the Melbourne Football Club, following a move from the Fremantle Dockers at the end of 1997. He was Melbourne's first-choice ruckman for a decade, relying on his key attributes of athleticism and durability. He was an All-Australian in 2004, and was selected for Victoria several times. He was an important member of the Melbourne sides which made the 2000 AFL Grand Final and qualified for six finals series from 1998 to 2006.

White's career was punctuated by serious injuries to his shin and face, in 2003 and 2005 respectively. He cemented his reputation as one of the premier ruckmen in the AFL with consistent displays for Melbourne during his eleven years at the club. Former team-mate, fellow long-serving Melbourne ruckman, and Melbourne chairman Jim Stynes called White an "ornament to the game and particularly to the Melbourne Football Club." His contract with Melbourne was not renewed in 2008 and White signed to play in 2009 with the Redland Australian Football Club in the AFL Queensland State League.

Ken Huckaby

Kenneth Paul Huckaby (born January 27, 1971) is an American former professional baseball catcher, and currently a minor league coach. Huckaby attended Manteca High School, and played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Arizona Diamondbacks, Toronto Blue Jays, Texas Rangers, Baltimore Orioles, and Boston Red Sox over his 6-year career.

Michael Silvestro

Michael J. “Mike” Silvestro is the chief executive officer (CEO) of Directional Aviation’s private fractional aviation travel businesses, which include Flexjet and Flight Options two of the world’s three largest fractional jet companies.

Mikaela Shiffrin

Mikaela Pauline Shiffrin (born March 13, 1995) is an American two-time Olympic gold medalist and World Cup alpine skier. She is the current three-time reigning Overall World Cup champion, the four-time reigning world champion in slalom, and a six-time winner of the World Cup discipline title in that event. Shiffrin is the youngest slalom champion in Olympic alpine skiing history, at 18 years and 345 days.By winning her second Olympic gold medal in the 2018 giant slalom, Shiffrin tied Ted Ligety and Andrea Mead Lawrence for the most Olympic gold medals ever won by an American Olympian in alpine skiing. She is one of only 5 Americans to ever win the World Cup overall title. She is also the first and only athlete—male or female—with wins in all six FIS Alpine Ski World Cup disciplines. She has won World Cup races in ladies' slalom, parallel slalom, giant slalom, super-G, downhill, and alpine combined. She is the youngest skier—male or female—to win 50 World Cup races at the age of 23 years and 9 months.

She has won 60 World Cup races, the 3rd most all time by a female alpine skier, including 40 WC slalom races, the most all-time by a female alpine skier. She is the only female athlete to have won 15 races in the same calendar year, winning the last slalom of the 2018 season in Semmering and equalling the men's record holder Marcel Hirscher. In the 2019 season she became the first athlete, male or female, to win 17 World Cup races during a season, breaking the record of 14 wins that Vreni Schneider had held for 30 years. By winning the Gold in the Slalom at the 2019 World Championships, she became the first Alpine skier to win the world championship in the same discipline at four consecutive championships.


The murmillo (also sometimes spelled "mirmillo" or "myrmillo", pl. murmillones) was a type of gladiator during the Roman Imperial age. The murmillo-class gladiator was adopted in the early Imperial period to replace the earlier Gallus, named after the warriors of Gaul. As the Gauls inhabiting Italy had become well-integrated with the Romans by the time of the reign of Augustus, it became undesirable to portray them as enemy outsiders; the Gallus-class gladiator thus had to be retired.

Pat McMahon (baseball)

Pat McMahon (born May 28, 1953) is a former American college and professional baseball coach who currently works in the New York Yankees' organization.

Pat Venditte

Patrick Michael Venditte Jr. (; born June 30, 1985) is an American professional baseball pitcher for the San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball (MLB). He has also played in MLB for the Oakland Athletics, Toronto Blue Jays, Seattle Mariners and Los Angeles Dodgers. After attending Creighton University, Venditte was drafted by the New York Yankees in 2008. He signed with the Athletics as a free agent before the 2015 season, and made his MLB debut that year.

Venditte is a switch pitcher, capable of pitching proficiently with both arms. He is recognized as the only active professional pitcher who is able to do this. Venditte's rare ability to pitch with either arm required both Major and Minor League Baseball to create a rule for ambidextrous pitchers, known colloquially as the "Pat Venditte Rule". This rule essentially requires any ambidextrous pitcher to declare which hand he will use to pitch to a batter before the at-bat starts, and to throw with that hand through the entire at-bat (unless he is injured during the at-bat).

Professional wrestling attacks

Attacking maneuvers are offensive moves in professional wrestling, used to set up an opponent for a submission hold or for a throw. There are a wide variety of attacking moves in pro wrestling, and many are known by several different names. Professional wrestlers frequently give their finishers new names. Occasionally, these names become popular and are used regardless of the wrestler performing the technique.

Professional wrestling contains a variety of punches and kicks found in martial arts and other fighting sports; the moves listed below are more specific to wrestling itself. Many of the moves below can also be performed from a raised platform (the top rope, the ring apron, etc.); these are called aerial variations. Moves are listed under general categories whenever possible.

Switch hitter

In baseball, a switch hitter is a player who bats both right-handed and left-handed, usually right-handed against left-handed pitchers and left-handed against right-handed pitchers.

Võ Huy Toàn

Võ Huy Toàn (born 15 March 1993) is a Vietnamese footballer who plays as a Left winger for V-League (Vietnam) club SHB Đà Nẵng F.C. and the Vietnam national team.


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