Shin'etsu region

Shin'etsu (信越地方 Shin'etsu Chihō) is a geographical region of Japan.[1]

The area encompasses the old provinces of Shinano and Echigo. Though the name is a combination of those two provinces, the region also contains Sado Island from Sado Province. It is located in the modern-day prefectures of Nagano and Niigata.

Corporate usage

The name Shin-Etsu is used in the name of related multinational chemical companies.[2]

The Shin'etsu Main Line is part of Japan Railways service running from Shinonoi Station in Nagano Prefecture to Niigata Station in Niigata Prefecture,.[3]

In 1926, the Shinetsu Electric Company diversified as Shin'etsu Nitrogenous Fertilizer.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Hashimoto, Mitsuo. (1990). Geology of Japan, p. 94., p. 94, at Google Books
  2. ^ Shin-Etsu Chemical, company's history; excerpt, "Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. began with the coming together of Nagano Prefecture's (Shinano-area) water and Niigata Prefecture's (Echigo-area) limestone.... The company's 'Shin' comes from Shinano and 'Etsu' is taken from Echigo."
  3. ^ Japan Railways, Shinetsu line; retrieved 2011-07-18
  4. ^ Molony, Barbara. (1990). Technology and Investment: The Prewar Japanese Chemical Industry, p. 137., p. 137, at Google Books


  • Hashimoto, Mitsuo. (1990). Geology of Japan. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 9780792309093; OCLC 123220781

External links

Hokuriku region

The Hokuriku region (北陸地方, Hokuriku chihō, Lit. "Northlands region") was located in the northwestern part of Honshu, the main island of Japan. It lay along the Sea of Japan within the Chūbu region, which it is currently a part of. It is almost equivalent to Koshi Province and Hokurikudō area in pre-modern Japan. Due to its elongated shape, and the Noto Peninsula jutting out, the region is known as a 'rising dragon' 昇龍道 (しょうりゅうどう, Shōryudō). Since the Heian period until the Edo period the region was a core recipient of population, the population grew to be much larger proportionately than it is today, despite the rural character. With the growth of urban centers in the 20th century, particularly Tokyo and Chūkyō, the Hokuriku has steadily declined in importance to become relative backwaters. The region is also known for traditional culture that originated from elsewhere that has been long lost along the Taiheiyō Belt.

The Hokuriku region includes the four prefectures of Ishikawa, Fukui, Niigata and Toyama, although Niigata is sometimes included in one of the following regions:

Shin'etsu (信越): includes Niigata and Nagano prefectures

Kōshin'etsu (甲信越): includes Niigata, Nagano and Yamanashi prefectures

Hokushin'etsu (北信越): includes both the Hokuriku and Shin'etsu regions


Kamaitachi (鎌鼬) is a Japanese yōkai often told about in the Kōshin'etsu region, and can also refer to the strange events that this creature causes.

They appear riding on dust devils, and they cut people using the nails on both their hands that are like sickles. One would receive a sharp, painless wound.

They are seen to be the same as the Qiongqi (窮奇) of China, and kamaitachi are also sometimes written as 窮奇.

Kōshin'etsu region

Kōshin'etsu (甲信越) is a subregion of the Chūbu region in Japan consisting of Yamanashi, Nagano, and Niigata prefectures.The name Kōshin'etsu is a composite formed from the names of old provinces which are adjacent to each other — Kai (now Yamanashi), Shinano (now Nagano) and Echigo (now Niigata). The region is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to its north west, Hokuriku region to its west, Tōkai region to its south west, Kantō region to its south east, and Tōhoku region to its north east. The name for this geographic area is usually combined with Kantō region (as in "Kantō-Kōshin'etsu"); and it is sometimes combined with Hokuriku region (as in "Kantō-Kōshin'etsu-Hokuriku" or "Hokuriku-Kōshin'etsu").

List of districts of the House of Representatives of Japan

As of 2005, the House of Representatives of Japan is elected from a combination of multi-member districts and single-member districts. Currently, 180 members are elected from 11 multi-member districts by a party-list system of proportional representation, and 295 members are elected from single-member districts, for a total of 475. 238 seats are therefore required for a majority.

Each Block (multi-member) district spans one or more Prefectures, and each Prefecture spans one or more single-member district, so the districts are organized by Block district and then by Prefecture. In general, the Block districts correspond loosely to the major Regions of Japan, with some of the larger regions subdivided.

Up to the 1993 general election all members of the House of Representatives were elected in multi-member constituencies by single non-transferable vote. In 1994, parliament passed an electoral reform bill that introduced the current system of parallel voting in single-member constituencies and proportional voting blocks. The original draft bill in 1993 by the anti-LDP coalition of Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa included proportional party list voting on a national scale, an equal number of proportional and district seats (250 each) and the possibility of split voting. But the bill was stalled in the House of Councillors. After the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) had returned to power later that year, it was changed to include proportional voting in regional blocks only, the number of proportional seats was reduced, but the possibility to cast two separate votes was kept in the bill. The electoral reform law was finally passed in 1994. It was first applied in the 1996 general election.

Shin-Etsu Chemical

Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. (信越化学工業株式会社, Shin'etsu Kagaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha) is the largest chemical company in Japan, ranked No. 9 in Forbes Global 2000 for chemical sector. Shin-Etsu has the largest global market share for polyvinyl chloride, semiconductor silicon, and photomask substrates.The company was named one of Thomson Reuters Top 100 Global Innovators in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.“Shin-Etsu” in the company's name derives from Shin'etsu Region, where the company established the first chemical plant as Shin-Etsu Nitrogen Fertilizer in 1926, though the company today is headquartered in Tokyo and has its manufacturing locations in 14 countries worldwide.

Tōkai region

The Tōkai region (東海地方, Tōkai-chihō) is a subregion of the Chūbu region and Kansai region in Japan that runs along the Pacific Ocean. The name comes from the Tōkaidō, one of the Edo Five Routes. Because Tōkai is a sub-region and is not officially classified, there is some disagreement about where exactly the region begins and ends, however Japanese maps widely conclude that the region includes Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu and Mie prefectures.

The largest major city in the region is Nagoya and the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area (Nagoya Metropolitan Area) makes up a large portion of the region and has Japan's third strongest economy. The business influence of this urban area sometimes extends out into the outlying areas of the three prefectures centered on Nagoya which are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie; this area is sometimes referred to as the Chūkyō region.

Tōkai is a heavy manufacturing area and is one of the most industrial regions in Japan. Its coast is lined with densely populated cities with economies that thrive on factories.

The Tōkai region has experienced a number of large earthquakes in the past, including the two great earthquakes in 1944 (also known as the "Tonankai earthquake") and 1945 (also known as the "Mikawa earthquake"). Following the work of Kiyoo Mogi, it is predicted that there is a possibility that the area will be subject to a shallow magnitude 8.0 earthquake in the near future. Nagoya, Shizuoka, and other large cities would be greatly damaged, with potential casualties in the tens of thousands. The Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction designated the region as an Area of Specific Observation in 1970, and upgraded it to an Area of Intensified Observation in 1974.

West Japan Railway Company

West Japan Railway Company (西日本旅客鉄道株式会社, Nishi-Nihon Ryokaku Tetsudō Kabushiki-gaisha), also referred to as JR-West (JR西日本, Jeiāru Nishi-Nihon), is one of the Japan Railways Group (JR Group) companies and operates in western Honshu. It has its headquarters in Kita-ku, Osaka.

47 Prefectures


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